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How to assign a static ip address in windows 10 or windows 11.

When organizing your home network it's easier to assign each computer it's own IP address than using DHCP. Here we will take a look at doing it in XP,

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What is a static ip address, assign static ip addresses via your router, how to set a static ip address in windows 11, how to set a static ip address in windows 10, how to set a static ip address in windows 7 or 8 using "network connections", set a static ip address in windows vista, set a static ip address in windows xp, key takeaways.

  • To set a static IP address in Windows 10 or 11, open Settings -> Network & Internet and click Properties for your active network.
  • Choose the "Edit" button next to IP assignment and change the type to Manual.
  • Flip the IPv4 switch to "On", fill out your static IP details, and click Save.

Sometimes, it's better to assign a PC its own IP address rather than letting your router assign one automatically. Join us as we take a look at assigning a static IP address in Windows.

A static IP address is manually set to a permanent, fixed address rather than being assigned automatically by your router using a procotol known as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP is a handy way for devices to connect to your network more easily, because you don't have to configure IP addressing for each new device yourself. The downside to automatic addressing is that it's possible for a device's IP address to change from time to time, which is why people choose static IPs for certain types of devices. For example:

  • You have a device like a home media server that you want to be able to find using the same IP address or host name each time.
  • You have certain apps that can only connect to network devices using their IP address. In particular, many older networking apps suffer this limitation.
  • You forward ports through your router to devices on your network. Some routers play nice with port forwarding and dynamic IP addresses; others do not.

Whatever your reason, assigning static IP addresses to devices is not difficult, but you do have a choice to make---whether to do it from the router or on the device itself.

Related: How to Set a Static IP Address in Ubuntu

While this article covers assigning static IP addresses to PCs within Windows itself, there is another way to go about it. Many routers allow you to assign a pool of IP addresses that are handed out to specific devices (based on the device's physical, or MAC address). This method offers a couple of significant advantages:

  • IP addresses are still managed by the router, meaning that you won't have to make (and keep up with) changes on each individual device.
  • It's easier to assign addresses within the same IP address pool your router uses.

This article is about assigning static IP addresses directly to PCs running Windows. We've already got a great guide on How to Set Static IP Addresses On Your Router , so if that's the way you want to go, be sure to give it a read.

With all that in mind, though, let's take a look at how to assign static IP addresses within any version of Windows.

Related: How to Find Your Router's IP Address on Any Computer, Smartphone, or Tablet

To set a static IP address in Windows 11, you'll want to open Settings, go to Network & Internet, and then find the Properties for your network. Inside there you'll be able to click the Edit button for IP Assignment and then fill out the manual network details.

First, open up the Settings app and then find Network & Internet on the left-hand side. You'll be presented with a panel that shows your current network connection. You can click where it says "Properties" right underneath the network, or if you have multiple network connections you can drill down into the specific network to see the IP address details for each one . In this case it's called "Ethernet", but you will most likely see "Wi-Fi" as the option to choose.

Once you've drilled down into the network connection that you want to set a manual IP for, scroll down until you see "IP Assignment" and then click the Edit button to the right.

Once there, you'll flip the drop-down to "Manual" and switch the IPv4 switch to "On". At this point you can fill out your network details and click Save to finish.

You can also use the old-school Network Connections panel in Windows 11, so if you prefer to use that method, keep reading.

If you're interested in more advanced networking, you might need to set up a static TCP/IP route , reset the entire TCP/IP stack on Windows , check open TCP/IP ports , find your MAC address on Windows , or find your IP address from the Command Prompt . We've got you covered there too.

To set a static IP address in Windows 10, you'll need to open the Settings app and drill down to Network & Internet. From there you'll select Properties for your network, and then the Edit button next to IP Assignment where you can input a manual IP address.

First, open the Settings app and locate the Network & Internet button.

On the next screen you'll see your network status, which should show you your active network. Here you'll want to click the Properties button. If you have multiple different networks, you could select them from the left-hand menu---in our case you'll notice we have both Wi-Fi and Ethernet networks, so you'll want to pick the one that you are trying to set a manual IP address for. You'll notice this is the same method we use when we're trying to find an IP address on Windows 10 .

On the network properties screen, scroll down until you see "IP settings" and click the Edit button under "IP assignment".

In the resulting popup window, change the Edit IP settings dropdown to Manual and then flip the IPv4 switch to "On". Fill out the details, click Save, and you should be good to go.

You might need to reboot to get all of your applications to work properly, just because it's Windows.

It's worth noting that you can use the old Network Connections method to set an IP address in any version of Windows, so if you prefer that method, keep reading.

To change the computer's IP address in Windows 7, you'll need to open the "Network Connections" window. Hit Windows+R, type "ncpa.cpl" into the Run box, and then hit Enter.

In the "Network Connections" window, right-click the adapter for which you want to set a static IP address, and then select the "Properties" command.

In the properties window for the adapter, select "Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)" and then click the "Properties" button.

Select the "Use the following IP address" option, and then type in the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway that corresponds with your network setup. Next, type in your preferred and alternate DNS server addresses. Finally, select the "Validate settings upon exit" option so that Windows immediately checks your new IP address and corresponding information to ensure that it works. When you're ready, click the "OK" button.

And then close out of the network adapter's properties window.

Windows automatically runs network diagnostics to verify that the connection is good. If there are problems, Windows will give you the option of running the Network troubleshooting wizard. However, if you do run into trouble, the wizard likely won't do you too much good. It's better to check that your settings are valid and try again.

Changing your IP from DHCP to a Static address in Vista is similar to other versions of Windows, but getting to the correct location is a bit different. Open the Start Menu, right-click on Network, and select Properties.

The Network and Sharing Center on Manage network connections.

Right-click on the network adapter you want to assign an IP address and click Properties.

Highlight Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) then click the Properties button.

Now change the IP, Subnet mask, Default Gateway, and DNS Server Addresses. When you're finished click OK.

You'll need to close out of Local Area Connection Properties for the settings to go into effect.

Open the Command Prompt and use the

command to verify that the changes were successful.

To set a Static IP in Windows XP, right-click the "My Network Places" icon, and then select "Properties."

Right-click the adapter for which you want to set the IP, and then select "Properties" from the context menu.

Select the "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)" entry, and then click the "Properties" button.

Select the "Use the following IP address" option. Type in the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS server addresses you want to use. When you're finished, click the "OK" button.

You will need to close out of the adapter's properties window before the changes go into effect.

And you can verify your new settings by using the

 command at the command prompt.

By and large, it's better to let most of your devices have their IP addresses assigned automatically by your router. Occasionally, though, you might want to set a static IP address for a particular device. While you can set static IP addresses directly on your devices (and this article has shown you how to do just that on Windows PCs), we still recommending setting up static IP addressing on your router if possible. It will just make life easier.

Related: How to Find Any Device's IP Address, MAC Address, and Other Network Connection Details

Understanding IP Address Assignment: A Complete Guide



In today's interconnected world, where almost every aspect of our lives relies on the internet, understanding IP address assignment is crucial for ensuring online security and efficient network management. An IP address serves as a unique identifier for devices connected to a network, allowing them to communicate with each other and access the vast resources available on the internet. Whether you're a technical professional, a network administrator, or simply an internet user, having a solid grasp of how IP addresses are assigned within the same network can greatly enhance your ability to troubleshoot connectivity issues and protect your data.

The Basics of IP Addresses

Before delving into the intricacies of IP address assignment in the same network, it's important to have a basic understanding of what an IP address is. In simple terms, an IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., and can be either IPv4 or IPv6 format.

IP Address Allocation Methods

There are several methods used for allocating IP addresses within a network. One commonly used method is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP allows devices to obtain an IP address automatically from a central server, simplifying the process of managing large networks. Another method is static IP address assignment, where an administrator manually assigns specific addresses to devices within the network. This method provides more control but requires careful planning and documentation.

Considerations for Efficient IP Address Allocation

Efficient allocation of IP addresses is essential for optimizing network performance and avoiding conflicts. When assigning IP addresses, administrators need to consider factors such as subnetting, addressing schemes, and future scalability requirements. By carefully planning the allocation process and implementing best practices such as using private IP ranges and avoiding overlapping subnets, administrators can ensure smooth operation of their networks without running out of available addresses.

IP Address Assignment in the Same Network

When two routers are connected within the same network, they need to obtain unique IP addresses to communicate effectively. This can be achieved through various methods, such as using different subnets or configuring one router as a DHCP server and the other as a client. Understanding how IP address assignment works in this scenario is crucial for maintaining proper network functionality and avoiding conflicts.

Basics of IP Addresses

IP addresses are a fundamental aspect of computer networking that allows devices to communicate with each other over the internet. An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a network. It serves as an identifier for both the source and destination of data packets transmitted across the network.

The structure of an IP address consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., Each set can range from 0 to 255, resulting in a total of approximately 4.3 billion possible unique combinations for IPv4 addresses. However, with the increasing number of devices connected to the internet, IPv6 addresses were introduced to provide a significantly larger pool of available addresses.

IPv4 addresses are still predominantly used today and are divided into different classes based on their range and purpose. Class A addresses have the first octet reserved for network identification, allowing for a large number of hosts within each network. Class B addresses reserve the first two octets for network identification and provide a balance between network size and number of hosts per network. Class C addresses allocate the first three octets for network identification and are commonly used in small networks.

With the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, IPv6 was developed to overcome this limitation by utilizing 128-bit addressing scheme, providing an enormous pool of potential IP addresses - approximately 3.4 x 10^38 unique combinations.

IPv6 addresses are represented in hexadecimal format separated by colons (e.g., 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334). The longer length allows for more efficient routing and eliminates the need for Network Address Translation (NAT) due to its vast address space.

Understanding these basics is essential when it comes to assigning IP addresses in a network. Network administrators must consider various factors such as the number of devices, network topology, and security requirements when deciding on the IP address allocation method.

In the next section, we will explore different methods of IP address assignment, including Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment. These methods play a crucial role in efficiently managing IP addresses within a network and ensuring seamless communication between devices.

Methods of IP Address Assignment

IP address assignment is a crucial aspect of network management and plays a vital role in ensuring seamless connectivity and efficient data transfer. There are primarily two methods of assigning IP addresses in a network: dynamic IP address assignment using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment.

Dynamic IP Address Assignment using DHCP

Dynamic IP address assignment is the most commonly used method in modern networks. It involves the use of DHCP servers, which dynamically allocate IP addresses to devices on the network. When a device connects to the network, it sends a DHCP request to the DHCP server, which responds by assigning an available IP address from its pool.

One of the key benefits of dynamic IP address assignment is its simplicity and scalability. With dynamic allocation, network administrators don't have to manually configure each device's IP address. Instead, they can rely on the DHCP server to handle this task automatically. This significantly reduces administrative overhead and makes it easier to manage large networks with numerous devices.

Another advantage of dynamic allocation is that it allows for efficient utilization of available IP addresses. Since addresses are assigned on-demand, there is no wastage of unused addresses. This is particularly beneficial in scenarios where devices frequently connect and disconnect from the network, such as in public Wi-Fi hotspots or corporate environments with a high turnover rate.

However, dynamic allocation does have some drawbacks as well. One potential issue is that devices may receive different IP addresses each time they connect to the network. While this might not be an issue for most users, it can cause problems for certain applications or services that rely on consistent addressing.

Additionally, dynamic allocation introduces a dependency on the DHCP server. If the server goes down or becomes unreachable, devices will not be able to obtain an IP address and will be unable to connect to the network. To mitigate this risk, redundant DHCP servers can be deployed for high availability.

Static IP Address Assignment

Static IP address assignment involves manually configuring each device's IP address within the network. Unlike dynamic allocation, where addresses are assigned on-demand, static assignment requires administrators to assign a specific IP address to each device.

One of the main advantages of static IP address assignment is stability. Since devices have fixed addresses, there is no risk of them receiving different addresses each time they connect to the network. This can be beneficial for applications or services that require consistent addressing, such as servers hosting websites or databases.

Static assignment also provides greater control over network resources. Administrators can allocate specific IP addresses to devices based on their requirements or security considerations. For example, critical servers or network infrastructure devices can be assigned static addresses to ensure their availability and ease of management.

However, static IP address assignment has its limitations as well. It can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially in large networks with numerous devices. Any changes to the network topology or addition/removal of devices may require manual reconfiguration of IP addresses, which can be a tedious task.

Furthermore, static allocation can lead to inefficient utilization of available IP addresses. Each device is assigned a fixed address regardless of whether it is actively using the network or not. This can result in wastage of unused addresses and may pose challenges in scenarios where addressing space is limited.

In order to efficiently allocate IP addresses within a network, there are several important considerations that need to be taken into account. By carefully planning and managing the allocation process, network administrators can optimize their IP address usage and ensure smooth operation of their network.

One of the key factors to consider when assigning IP addresses is the size of the network. The number of devices that will be connected to the network determines the range of IP addresses that will be required. It is essential to accurately estimate the number of devices that will need an IP address in order to avoid running out of available addresses or wasting them unnecessarily.

Another consideration is the type of devices that will be connected to the network. Different devices have different requirements in terms of IP address assignment. For example, servers and other critical infrastructure typically require static IP addresses for stability and ease of access. On the other hand, client devices such as laptops and smartphones can often use dynamic IP addresses assigned by a DHCP server.

The physical layout of the network is also an important factor to consider. In larger networks with multiple subnets or VLANs, it may be necessary to segment IP address ranges accordingly. This allows for better organization and management of IP addresses, making it easier to troubleshoot issues and implement security measures.

Security is another crucial consideration when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should implement measures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems to protect against unauthorized access or malicious activities. Additionally, assigning unique IP addresses to each device enables better tracking and monitoring, facilitating quick identification and response in case of any security incidents.

Efficient utilization of IP address ranges can also be achieved through proper documentation and record-keeping. Maintaining an up-to-date inventory of all assigned IP addresses helps prevent conflicts or duplicate assignments. It also aids in identifying unused or underutilized portions of the address space, allowing for more efficient allocation in the future.

Furthermore, considering future growth and scalability is essential when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should plan for potential expansion and allocate IP address ranges accordingly. This foresight ensures that there will be sufficient addresses available to accommodate new devices or additional network segments without disrupting the existing infrastructure.

In any network, the assignment of IP addresses is a crucial aspect that allows devices to communicate with each other effectively. When it comes to IP address assignment in the same network, there are specific considerations and methods to ensure efficient allocation. In this section, we will delve into how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses and discuss subnetting and IP address range distribution.

To understand how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses, it's essential to grasp the concept of subnetting. Subnetting involves dividing a larger network into smaller subnetworks or subnets. Each subnet has its own unique range of IP addresses that can be assigned to devices within that particular subnet. This division helps manage and organize large networks efficiently.

When it comes to assigning IP addresses within a subnet, there are various methods available. One common method is manual or static IP address assignment. In this approach, network administrators manually assign a specific IP address to each device within the network. Static IP addresses are typically used for devices that require consistent connectivity and need to be easily identifiable on the network.

Another widely used method for IP address assignment is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP is a networking protocol that enables automatic allocation of IP addresses within a network. With DHCP, a server is responsible for assigning IP addresses dynamically as devices connect to the network. This dynamic allocation ensures efficient utilization of available IP addresses by temporarily assigning them to connected devices when needed.

When considering efficient allocation of IP addresses in the same network, several factors come into play. One important consideration is proper planning and design of subnets based on anticipated device count and future growth projections. By carefully analyzing these factors, administrators can allocate appropriate ranges of IP addresses for each subnet, minimizing wastage and ensuring scalability.

Additionally, implementing proper security measures is crucial when assigning IP addresses in the same network. Network administrators should consider implementing firewalls, access control lists (ACLs), and other security mechanisms to protect against unauthorized access and potential IP address conflicts.

Furthermore, monitoring and managing IP address usage is essential for efficient allocation. Regular audits can help identify any unused or underutilized IP addresses that can be reclaimed and allocated to devices as needed. This proactive approach ensures that IP addresses are utilized optimally within the network.

The proper assignment of IP addresses is crucial for maintaining network security and efficiency. Throughout this guide, we have covered the basics of IP addresses, explored different methods of IP address assignment, and discussed considerations for efficient allocation.

In conclusion, understanding IP address assignment in the same network is essential for network administrators and technical professionals. By following proper allocation methods such as DHCP or static IP assignment, organizations can ensure that each device on their network has a unique identifier. This not only enables effective communication and data transfer but also enhances network security by preventing unauthorized access.

Moreover, considering factors like subnetting, scalability, and future growth can help optimize IP address allocation within a network. Network administrators should carefully plan and allocate IP addresses to avoid conflicts or wastage of resources.

Overall, a well-managed IP address assignment process is vital for the smooth functioning of any network. It allows devices to connect seamlessly while ensuring security measures are in place. By adhering to best practices and staying updated with advancements in networking technology, organizations can effectively manage their IP address assignments.

In conclusion, this guide has provided a comprehensive overview of IP address assignment in the same network. We hope it has equipped you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions regarding your network's IP address allocation. Remember that proper IP address assignment is not only important for connectivity but also plays a significant role in maintaining online security and optimizing network performance.

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How to configure a static IP on Windows 10 or 11

Do you need to switch from a dynamic to a static IP address configuration on Windows 11 or 10? Here's how.

Windows 11 static IP

  • Windows 11 static IP
  • Windows 10 static IP

On Windows, the router's Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server is (usually) responsible for assigning a dynamic Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration to every device in the network, including to your computer running Windows 11 or Windows 10.

Although a dynamic IP address is the recommended configuration for most situations, you may need to change to a static IP address if you're thinking about setting up a printer or file sharing, or you have to configure port forwarding on the router to your computer.

The reason is that a dynamic network configuration can change at any time after the lease from the DHCP expires and if the address changes, network resources you may have configured will stop working. Setting a static IP address will always stay the same on the computer, allowing a more reliable experience sharing resources in the network or forwarding ports.

Whatever the reason, on Windows 10 and 11, you have many ways to configure a static TCP/IP address, including using the Settings app and Command Prompt.

This guide will walk you through the different ways to configure a static network configuration on Windows 11 and 10.

How to set a static TCP/IP network configuration on Windows 11

On Windows 11, you can change your computer's dynamic IP configuration to static in at least two ways through the Settings app or commands.

Configure IP from Settings app

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To assign a permanent TCP/IP configuration on Windows 11, use these steps:

  • Open  Settings .
  • Click on  Network & internet .
  • (Optional) Click on Advanced network settings .
  • Under the "More settings" section, click on Hardware and connection properties.
  • Note the current IPv4 ,  Subnet mask ,  Default Gateway , and  DNS server addresses to determine the new configuration, as it has to be in the same network scope.
  • Click the  Ethernet  or  Wi-Fi  page on the right side from the "Network & internet." page.

Ethernet settings

  • Quick note:  If you select the Wi-Fi page, you need to click on the connection properties to access the network settings.
  • Click on the  Edit  button for the "IP assignment" setting.

IP assignment

  • Select the  Manual  option from the drop-down menu.
  • Turn on the  IPv4  toggle switch.
  • Confirm the IP address for the computer – for example,
  • Confirm the subnet mask for the configuration – for example,
  • Confirm the default gateway address (usually your router's IP) – for example,
  • Confirm the preferred DNS address – for example,

Static IP configuration

  •   Quick note:  In a home network, you may also be able to use the router's IP address for the DNS configuration. You can also use third-party DNS services like Google Public DNS, Cloudflare, Cisco's OpenDNS, and others. 
  • (Optional) Select the  "On (automatic template)"  option for the "DNS over HTTPS" setting and leave the  "Fallback to plaintext"  option disabled unless you want to encrypted as well as unencrypted traffic or you're troubleshooting connectivity.
  • Quick note:  DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is a feature that encrypts the DNS queries over the HTTPS protocol to improve security and privacy on the internet. You only want to enable this feature if the DNS server supports this feature.
  • Confirm the alternate DNS address (if applicable).
  • (Optional) Select the  "On (automatic template)"  option for the "DNS over HTTPS" setting and leave the  "Fallback to plaintext"  option disabled.
  • Click the  Save  button.

Once you complete the steps, the computer will start using the static network configuration. If everything has been configured correctly, you should be able to open the web browser to access the internet.

If you entered an address (such as the DNS address) and then changed it, you probably won't be able to save the settings. If this is the case, cancel the configuration, start over, enter the correct configuration, and then try to save the settings.

Configure IP from Command Prompt

To set a static TCP/IP configuration on Windows 11, use these steps:

  • Open  Start .
  • Search for  Command Prompt , right-click the top result, and select the  Run as administrator  option.
  • Type the following command to see your current networking configuration and press  Enter : ipconfig /all
  • Confirm the name of the adapter and the networking configuration, including the IPv4 , Subnet mask , Default Gateway , and DNS Servers .

ipconfig command

  • Type the following command to configure a static TCP/IP address and press  Enter :  netsh interface ip set address name= "ADAPTER-NAME" static IP-ADDRESS SUBNET-ADDRESS DEFAULT-GATEWAY-ADDRESS

In the above command, replace  ADAPTER-NAME  with the name of your network adapter. Change  IP-ADDRESS SUBNET-ADDRESS    DEFAULT-GATEWAY-ADDRESS  with the device IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway addresses you want. For example, this command sets the,, configuration:  netsh interface ip set address name="Ethernet 10Gb" static

Command Prompt configure IP address

  • Type the following command to set a DNS server address and press  Enter :  netsh interface ip set dns name="ADAPTER-NAME" static DNS-ADDRESS  

In the command, change  ADAPTER-NAME  with your adapter's name and  DNS-ADDRESS  with the DNS server address of the network. For example, this command sets the local router as the DNS server:  netsh interface ip set dns name="Ethernet 10Gb" static

  • Type the following command to set an alternate DNS server address and press  Enter :  netsh interface ip add dns name="ADAPTER-NAME" DNS-ADDRESS index=2

In the command, change  ADAPTER-NAME  with the adapter's name and  DNS-ADDRESS  with an alternate DNS server address. For example, netsh interface ip add dns name="Ethernet 10Gb" index=2

After you complete the steps, the commands will set a static network configuration on Windows 11.

How to set a static TCP/IP network configuration on Windows 10

On Windows 10, you can also use the Settings app and Command Prompt to set up a static IP network configuration.

To assign a permanent TCP/IP configuration on Windows 10, use these steps:

  • Click on  Ethernet  or  Wi-Fi .
  • Click on the active connection on the right side.

Network properties

  • Click the  Edit  button for the "IP assignment" setting.

Windows 10 IP assignment

  • Select the  Manual  option.
  • Confirm the subnet prefix length (subnet mask) for the configuration – for example, 24 to specify the subnet mask.

Windows 10 static IP address

  • Quick tip:  It's important to use the number that represents the network instead of the subnet mask. Otherwise, the configuration won't save. If you don't know the subnet prefix length for your subnet mask, you can use any  online subnet calculator  to find out.

Once you complete the steps, Windows 10 will start using the static IP configuration. If you lose network connectivity, restart the computer to regain access to the local network and internet.

To change from dynamic to static IP address with commands on Windows 10, use these steps:

In the command, change  ADAPTER-NAME  with your adapter's name and  DNS-ADDRESS  with the DNS server address of the network. For example, this command sets the local router as the DNS server:  netsh interface ip set dns name=" Ethernet 10Gb" static

In the command, change  ADAPTER-NAME  with the adapter's name and  DNS-ADDRESS  with an alternate DNS server address. For example, netsh interface ip add dns name="Ethernet0" index=2

After you complete the steps, the network configuration will switch from dynamic to static on Windows 10.

Mauro Huculak is technical writer for His primary focus is to write comprehensive how-tos to help users get the most out of Windows 10 and its many related technologies. He has an IT background with professional certifications from Microsoft, Cisco, and CompTIA, and he's a recognized member of the Microsoft MVP community.

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lan ip address assignment

How to Assign Static IP Address to Your Devices

By default, your router assigns dynamic IP Address to every device that connects to it. This is called DHCP (short for Dynamic Host Control Protocol). But sometimes, we need our devices to have the same IP address (i.e. Static IP) every time it connects to the network. Reason being,

  • Access your computer from the Internet.
  • Share data between two devices on the same network.
  • Quickly access your Network Printer or NAS.
  • Use your computer as a media server.
  • Or your work WiFi requires you to use Static IP address.

IP address

What IP address should you choose?

If two devices on the network have the same IP address, then there will be conflicts. The Internet won’t work on one of them or both, depending on your router. So, it’s important to assign a unique IP address to your computer. There are a couple of ways to pick an unused IP address.

For instance– first  find your device’s IP address , say it’s ; then keep the first three values (i.e. 192.168.1) as it’s and replace the last digit with some far number like . Though make sure the last digit should be between a  0-255  range.

Assigning Static IP address to most devices is easy, just go to its network settings, look for DHCP option and turn it OFF. Once you do that, you’ll see a text area to enter Static IP address. Enter the new IP address there, save changes and that’s it.

So let’s see how to Assign Static IP address to various Operating Systems

1. Assign IP Address on Windows 10/8/7

You can do this quickly through the command line. You will need to first find your subnet mask, default gateway, and network adapter name. In my case, I’m on a Wi-Fi network, so the adapter name is Wi-Fi. To find yours just type the following command.

Once you get the output, find for the Network Adapter which has IP listed under it. The adapter name is a one-word name suffixed to the end of the Network Title. You will also need the Subnet mask and the Default Gateway Address.


Once you have the adapter name, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway, run the following command.

Wherein, Wi-Fi should be replaced by your adapter name and the IP, subnet mask and gateway address according to your configuration.


This will change your IP address from DHCP to manual with the static IP address you have specified.

In case you find it too confusing, you are not alone. You can do the same via GUI which is much more intuitive. You’ll need the  Subnet Mask and Default Gateway Address . You can refer to the above step on how to find these details. Once you have noted down the address, click on  Start  Menu and type in  Network and Sharing Center.  Click once you see the Network and Sharing Center Icon.


Alternatively, if you are in Windows 10 then you can right-click on the Start menu and click on “ Network Connections “.


A new window will open, click on  Change Adapter Options.


Right Click on your Current Network Adapter ( like WiFi)  and choose  Properties.


When the new window pops up, select  Internet Protocol Version 4(TCP/IPv4)   and click on  Properties.


Once you get the pop-up window, select “ Enter the IP address you want ” and fil the IP Address, For Subnet Mask , and Default Gateway Address enter the values that you have noted down previously. Next, click on OK to save changes.


To switch to dynamic IP, click on Obtain the IP address automatically. Once this is enabled, your system will start picking an IP address dynamically from the router.

2. How to setup static IP on Ubuntu

On Ubuntu, you can set a static IP Address via the terminal or GUI. Firstly, let’s start with the command line. Right-click anywhere on the desktop to open the terminal.


Once the terminal window opens, we need to run a command. We need the subnet mask and network adapter name in order to set a static IP and to get that, run the following command on the terminal.

lan ip address assignment

Once you have the subnet mask noted down, in my case, it’s, we can proceed further.

It is pretty simple and straight forward. We need to open the Network Adapter settings. To do that, click on the Network Icon at the top right corner of the desktop.


Now, navigate on the active network and click on the expand button for more options. Click on Wired Settings to open the Network menu.


Once you get the Wired Settings dialogue, make sure you are on the Network page. Click on the Settings icon beside the active network to open the adapter properties.

lan ip address assignment

When you get the pop-up, navigate to the IPv4 tab to change the IP settings.


On the IPv4 tab, select the radio button which says “ Manual “. Some text fields will appear, you need to enter the IP address, Netmask and Gateway accordingly. Once it is validated, you can click on the Apply button to register the changes.


Again you need to restart the network for the changes to take effect. You can do it manually via command line or just switch off and switch on the Network adapter. Once done, run ifconfig on the terminal to check the IP address. It should be the same IP address which you have specified earlier.


3. How to setup static IP on Mac

If you are on macOS, setting static IP is quite similar to that of Ubuntu. But, here you don’t need the subnet mask or Default Gateway Address. Right click on the apple icon at the top left corner of the desktop. Click on  System Preferences  from the dropdown list.


Once the System Preferences dialogue box displays, navigate to Network and click on it to open the Network Settings


Alternatively, you can also hit Cmd+Space to trigger the Spotlight search. Type “ Network ” in the search bar and click on the icon once it appears. This will directly navigate you to the Network Settings.


From the pop-up window, select an active network interface. For example, I am connected to a WiFi network so my active network is  Wi-Fi. Make sure you are on the active network tab and then click on  Advanced .


A new window will open the configuration settings for that adapter. Move over to the IP settings by clicking on the TCP/IP tab .


From the Configure IPv4 menu, choose Using DHCP with manual address.  Enter a static IP address in the IPv4 Address and leave the Subnet Mask and Router field as default. Click Ok to save the changes.


Now when you do an ifconfig, the system should be using the static IP you have defined in the previous times. If the IP’s have not changed, try restarting the Wi-Fi and it should fix it.

To switch back to dynamic IP, move back to “ Using DHCP ” from the Configure IPv4 menu.

4. How to setup static IP on Android


The network which you are connected to should be on top of the list. Tap on the settings icon beside the Wi-Fi network name.


Once the pop-up opens, you will see IP settings at the bottom of the menu. The default option is “DHCP”. Tap on it to change the IP configuration.


Select “ Static ” from the presented drop-down menu. Enter the desired IP address and leave the other options as default. Make sure that other devices are not using the same IP. You can see the IP address of the other devices in your network by using a small utility called Fing . For a detailed process, check our article on how to find the IP Address of any Device on your network . Once you have entered the IP, click on Save to register the change. Now, your Android phone should start using the desired IP Address.


In almost all the Android version, you get the option to set static IP Address. For some rare older Android versions, you can use a third-party app like  WiFi Static . It’s free and it doesn’t require ROOT.

To switch back to dynamic IP, repeat the same procedure and select “DHCP” from the IP settings instead.

5. How to setup static IP on iPhone and iPad

If you are using an iPhone or iPad, then you can set static IP Address natively. You would need the Subnet Mask of your network. This can be obtained from the Wi-Fi settings and we would see to it in the further steps. To get started, click on the Settings icon in the dock to get to the Settings menu.


Now on the Settings menu page, tap on Wi-Fi to get to the Wi-Fi settings.


On the Wi-Fi page, you should see your connected Wi-Fi network at the top. Click on the “i” button beside it. This will open the Wi-Fi configuration window.


Once the Wi-Fi settings page appears, you will see an option called “ Configure IP “. By Default, this would be set to automatic. Just below this option, you will see “ Subnet Mask “, note it down as we will need it in the further steps. In order to set static IP, we need to change Configure IP it to Manual. Tap on it and it will open the IPv4 settings page.


There should be 3 options available on the “Configure IPv4” page. Select “ Manual ” from it. As soon as Manual IP is enabled, you will get extra text fields at the bottom to enter the IP Address, Subnet Mask, Router. We need to fill in the IP Address of our choice and Subnet Mask which we noted down in the previous step. Now, after you fill both the fields, the save button at the top right corner will be enabled. Click on it to save the static IP configuration.


Now, when you return to the Wi-Fi settings page, you will see your device is using the Static IP address. This should be the same IP address we have set in the IP configuration menu.


This static IP address will be applicable only to that particular Wi-Fi network. In case, you connect to some other Wi-Fi network the IP will change accordingly.

6. How to setup static IP to any Device from Router

Other network devices like your  Wireless Printer, PS4, NAS, IP Camera, Raspberry Pi , etc. do not have an Interface. Hence, in order to configure the network, either you have to connect remotely or use the router. If you have access to the router, setting Static IP for network devices is the easiest and convenient way. I would recommend this method over any other.

So, to assign a Static IP Address to any network device, you need to login to the web portal of the router. The web portal address, username, and password are mostly printed behind the router. In case you don’t have physical access to the router, the web portal URL is mostly the PC’s gateway address. To find that, open command prompt and type the following command.

Once you have the web portal loaded, log in with the credentials. Now every router has a different web UI, but the overall structure is the same. Basically,  you will have to link the IP Address to the Mac Address and Hostname of the device. So, we need to find the MAC address & Hostname of the network device. To do that, look for DHCP client list which should look something like the following screenshot.


You can get your MAC Address & Hostname under DHCP Client list. Once, you have the MAC address & Hostname noted down, we can proceed further. On most of the routers, you will have the option to set a Static IP under the section  IP Mac binding or DHCP Static IP  option. In case you are on a custom ROM like dd-wrt, head over to Services tab and you will have DHCP Server . Under DHCP Server, add an entry for Static Leases by clicking on the Add button.


Clicking on the Add button will create a new row. You have to enter the MAC Address, Hostname, desired Static IP and Lease time . Lease time is a unit in minutes after which your IP will be renewed. Since we are adding only 1 entry for the particular host the IP will be the same even after the renewal. Once, done click on Save changes .


Once you have configured successfully on the router, just restart the Wi-Fi on the device. When it connects it should start using the static IP. In case of issues, make sure that you have the correct MAC Address and Hostname. To check, just run the command ipconfig or look back again in the router’s DHCP client list.


These changes are written to the ROM so restarting the router won’t make changes to the static IP configuration. In order to get back to Dynamic IP, just remove the entry from the IP leases.

What’s next

Once you have started configuring the IPs on Router and network devices, you are good to go configure telnet and SSH. Have a look at our brief article on  How to Enable Telnet Server in Windows 10 ,  Best SSH clients for iOS To Manages Remote Servers and  6 Best FTP Clients For Android . A word of caution would be to note down the static IPs assigned to devices as assigning the same IP to two network devices would render them useless.

Also Read:  How To Change DNS on Windows|Mac|Android|iOS

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Mrinal Saha

Mrinal is a tech geek who spends half of his day reading and writing about tech. While the nights are spent on shooting or editing YouTube videos. Feel free to geek out with him on-

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How are ip addresses assigned.

How do IP Addresses get Aasigned?

When you're connected to a network, your computer or smart device will obtain an IP address either from your ISP or your router. There are 2 ways how you can assign an IP address to your device: (1) dynamically via DHCP or (2) statically by manually assigning an IP address yourself. In either case, you must use the IP address that is provided to you by your ISP, or the IP range you allocated yourself within your private space (i.e. private IP address).

How are IP addresses allocated?

Before we can discuss IP assignment, we need to understand how IP addresses are allocated. There are two versions of IP addresses: IPv4 (version 4) and IPv6 (version 6). There are numerical differences , but they essentially serves the same purpose by uniquely identifying a device on the Internet. There are a few organizations that allocate and manage IP addresses globally, and they are:

  • ICAAN (The Internet Corporation for Names & Numbers): ICANN manages supply of all IPv4 and IPv6 addresses as well as domain name system ( DNS ) and Root Servers.
  • IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority): IANA is a part of ICANN that maintains technical aspect of the DNS. DNS is the system that translates human-readable domain names to machine friendly IP addresses.
  • ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers): ARIN is a region specific organization that manages IP addresses for the USA, Canada, Caribbean and North Atlantic islands.
  • ISP (Internet Service Providers): ISPs reach out to ARIN and register blocks of IP addresses (i.e. class A, B and C). In addition to ISPs, large corporations may reach out to ARIN to register blocks of IP address for their corporate use.
  • RIR (Regional Internet Registry): Much like the ARIN for managing IP address for North American region, RIR manages IP addresses for rest of the world.

As ARIN and RIR manages IP addresses for the region, they allocate and deallocate IP addresses for countries, ISPs and corporations. A larger blocks of IP addresses are assigned to countries, the accuracy of IP location for country level is approximately 95% - 98% depending on the provider.

Once one or more blocks of IP addresses are assigned to an ISP or Corporation, the organization assigns the IP address to its customers. When you purchase the Internet Service from an ISP, you have an option to obtain static (non-changing) or dynamic (changing) IP Address(es). Most home users obtain a dynamic IP address, and small businesses may obtain static IP addresses. The IP addresses obtained from an ISP are "public" IP addresses which are a globally unique number within the Internet.

Once the IP address is obtained by your router from your ISP, you have an option to create a private network by assigning private IP addresses to your devices that are not globally unique, but unique within your private network.

IP addresses are governed by ICANN, and ARIN and RIR are responsible for allocating IP addresses to ISPs and Corporations within its regions. IANA manages DNS for translating domain names to IP addresses. The IP addresses are then assigned to individuals or small businesses either statically or dynamically via DHCP, and every computing devices on the Internet must have an IP address to communicate with each other.

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Number Resources

We are responsible for global coordination of the Internet Protocol addressing systems, as well as the Autonomous System Numbers used for routing Internet traffic.

Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active use: IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6). IPv4 was initially deployed on 1 January 1983 and is still the most commonly used version. IPv4 addresses are 32-bit numbers often expressed as 4 octets in “dotted decimal” notation (for example, ). Deployment of the IPv6 protocol began in 1999. IPv6 addresses are 128-bit numbers and are conventionally expressed using hexadecimal strings (for example, 2001:0db8:582:ae33::29 ).

Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are generally assigned in a hierarchical manner. Users are assigned IP addresses by Internet service providers (ISPs). ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a local Internet registry (LIR) or National Internet Registry (NIR), or from their appropriate Regional Internet Registry (RIR):

Our primary role for IP addresses is to allocate pools of unallocated addresses to the RIRs according to their needs as described by global policy and to document protocol assignments made by the IETF . When an RIR requires more IP addresses for allocation or assignment within its region, we make an additional allocation to the RIR. We do not make allocations directly to ISPs or end users except in specific circumstances, such as allocations of multicast addresses or other protocol specific needs.

IP Address Allocations

Internet protocol version 4 (ipv4).

  • IPv4 Address Space
  • IPv4 Multicast Address Assignments
  • IPv4 Special Purpose Address Registry
  • IPv4 Recovered Address Space Registry
  • Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

  • IPv6 Address Space
  • IPv6 Global Unicast Allocations
  • IPv6 Parameters (Parameters described for IPv6, including header types, action codes, etc.)
  • IPv6 Anycast Address Allocations
  • IPv6 Multicast Address Allocations
  • IPv6 Sub-TLA Assignments (DEPRECATED)
  • IANA IPv6 Special Registry
  • Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
  • Announcement of Worldwide Deployment of IPv6 (14 July 1999)
  • RIR Comparative Policy Overview

Autonomous System Number Allocations

  • Autonomous System Numbers
  • Special-Purpose AS Number Assignments
  • Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
  • Internet Number Resource Request Procedure

Regional Internet Registry Creation

  • Criteria for Establishment of New Regional Internet Registries (ICP-2) (4 June 2001)
  • IANA Report on Recognition of LACNIC as a Regional Internet Registry (7 November 2002)
  • IANA Report on Recognition of AfriNIC as a Regional Internet Registry (8 April 2005)

Technical Documentation

  • RFC 4632 — Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation Plan
  • RFC 1918 — Address Allocation for Private Internets
  • RFC 5737 — IPv4 Address Blocks Reserved for Documentation
  • RFC 4291 — Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture
  • RFC 3587 — IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format
  • RFC 6177 — IPv6 Address Assignment to End Sites
  • RFC 6890 — Special-Purpose IP Address Registries
  • RFC 7020 — The Internet Numbers Registry System
  • RFC 7249 — Internet Numbers Registries
  • Locally Served DNS Zones

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What is LAN IPv6 address for a router?

My ISP offers IPv4 address. My router DIR 615 has IPv6 options. Under IPv6 settings there’s a text box to enter LAN IPv6 address.

What exactly is meant by the term LAN IPv6 address for a router? The routers inline help page is not much useful.

Is it something similar to internal private IP that we assign to router in IPv4 like ? Who provides it, does the user assign one or is it provided by the ISP?

Settings Snapshot

  • 2 Typically you don't need tp set that unless your ISP does ipv6 or tunneling, In both cases, they would tell you what setting to use I think. Most users probably don't need an internal IPv6 network as well. –  Journeyman Geek ♦ May 2, 2017 at 13:03

This setting controls the IPv6 address used on the LAN side of the router. You need an assigned IPv6 address space, which use can then use to use on your local LAN. For consumer connections this would have to be provided by your ISP (since you cannot request IPv6 address space from your RIR).

This is usually called "Routed /64, /52 or /48".

You are not supposed to use RFC1918 (192.168.x.x-like) addresses with IPv6. This is exactly what IPv6 solves, that every device on the internet can have a directly addressable IP. (technically you could, but the point is that you don't have to use NAT anymore)

Technically, the auto-assigned link-local FE80 address will work just as well. If you really want to use IPv6, but your ISP does not give you IPv6 space, use the link-local address.

mtak's user avatar

  • Thanks for the answer mtak. Does it mean that each device that will connect to router will have its own IPv6 address assigned by the router from the IPv6 address space given by ISP? In that case will each device on LAN side be connected to externally from over IPv6 Internet without port forwarding? –  rajeev May 2, 2017 at 15:37
  • Yes, indeed, welcome to IPv6 :) . You will need to make sure that your firewall is configured correctly, otherwise all hosts will be accessible from the internet on all ports. –  mtak May 3, 2017 at 6:16

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lan ip address assignment

Static vs. dynamic IP addresses: What's the difference and why you need to know


An IP address is a way for every device on a network to be seen. Without IP addresses, it would be impossible for those devices to be located.

Think of your computer's IP address like your house's street address. Without a street address, it would be challenging (if not impossible) for others to find you. Unlike a computer's IP address, however, the only time your home address changes is when you move. On the other hand, can easily  change your devices' IP addresses  (depending on the device type).

Also: How to change your IP address, why you'd want to - and when you shouldn't

There are two main types of IP addresses -- static and dynamic. I'll explain them both -- and why you would choose one over the other.

Static IP addresses

Simply put, a static IP address does not change automatically. Once you set a static IP address, it remains until you manually change it. (A static IP address is the one most analogous to your home address.)

Static IP addresses are generally assigned for machines where the IP address needs to stay the same. For example, I have a network share on my desktop computer (running Pop!_OS Linux ). If I used a dynamic IP address on that machine, the IP address could -- and eventually would -- change on me.

If I was on a different machine within my home network, and I went to save a file to that share, I'd be prevented from doing so because the IP address would no longer be the same. I'd have to go to my desktop, locate the IP address (such as with the command ip -a ), and then reconnect the other machine to the share.

Had that desktop machine been configured with a static IP address, there would be no need to worry about that IP address changing.

There's an inherent problem with this. Let's say you assign the IP address to your desktop, and it works great. What if, at some point, your router assigns that same address to another machine (because the router doesn't know you've already used that address)? Should that happen, you'd wind up with IP address conflicts -- and problems could occur.

Say you're on your laptop and need to mount the network share. If your router has assigned that same IP address to another machine, your laptop might not know which machine to use and would fail to mount the share.

Here's how to avoid that problem: If you need to assign static IP addresses to machines on your home network, configure your router to assign dynamic IP addresses only within a specific range. For instance, you might set the dynamic range between and That way, you can use IP addresses and up for static usage.

Also: What is 5G home internet? Here's what to know before you sign up

How you assign a static IP address will vary, depending on your operating system. Generally speaking, you go to your network settings tool, locate the connection to be configured (such as wired or Wi-Fi), open the options for that device, and configure the following details:

  • Gateway (usually the address of your router or modem)
  • DNS (third-party services, such as Cloudflare's and

Dynamic IP addresses

Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices on your network by your router and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). They are called dynamic because they can change. The change is defined by what's called a lease. The period of the lease varies, depending on your router. Lease periods can be anywhere from one week to several months.

Here's how this works:

  • A machine requests a new lease for an IP address.
  • The address is assigned by the router.
  • Halfway through the DHCP lease period, the machine attempts to renew the lease (so it can keep the same IP address).
  • If the renewal fails, the machine gets a new IP address.

Many routers allow you to configure the lease periods, but most users should stick to the default settings. 

Also: This is the fastest and most expensive Wi-Fi router I've ever tested

For the most part, dynamic IP addresses are easier to use because they ensure you won't have to worry about IP address conflicts. Most devices default to dynamic IP address assignment, so you don't have to configure anything (beyond the possible selection of the network you want to use).

As noted earlier, the only time you'd want to opt for a static IP address is if you have a machine on your network that serves a specific purpose and a change in IP address could disrupt that purpose. Even then, the machine most often will successfully renew its DHCP lease, so there shouldn't be any problems. However, if you do encounter a problem, consider going the static route. Just make sure you can configure your router's dynamic IP address range to avoid IP conflicts.

That's the gist of static and dynamic IP addresses. Chances are high that you'll never have to deal with any of this, but on the occasion that you do, you now understand the difference.

What is a VPN and why do you need one? All your virtual private network questions answered

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IPv6 Address Assignment Example

Lesson Contents

In this lesson we’ll take a look how you can create IPv6 prefixes and subnets so that you can configure your entire network with IPv6. We’ll start at the top where IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is responsible for the global coordination of the IPv4 and IPv6 address space and move our way all the way to the bottom where we assign subnets and IPv6 addresses to our routers, switches and VLANs.

IPv6 Global Unicast Prefix Assignments

IANA “owns” the entire IPv6 address space and they assign certain prefixes to the RIRs (Regional Internet Registry). There are 5 RIRs at the moment:

rir map

  • AFRINIC : Africa
  • APNIC : Asia/Pacific
  • ARIN : North America
  • LACNIC : Latin America and some Caribbean Islands
  • RIPE NCC : Europe, Middle east and Central Asia

If you are interested, click here for an overview of all IPv6 prefix assignments by IANA.

When a large ISP (or large company) in North America wants IPv6 addresses then they will contact ARIN who will assign them an IPv6 prefix if they meet all requirements. The ISP can then assign prefixes to their customers.

Let’s take a look at some actual prefixes:

IPv6 prefix assignment

  • IANA is using the 2000::/3 prefix for global unicast address space.
  • According to this list, RIPE NCC received prefix 2001:4000::/23 from IANA.
  • A large ISP called Ziggo in The Netherlands receives prefix 2001:41f0::/32 from RIPE NCC.
  • The ISP assigns prefix 2001:41f0:4060::/48 to one of their customers.

Now it’s up to the customer what they want to do with their IPv6 prefix…

IPv6 Global Unicast Subnet Assignments

Our customer received prefix 2001:41f0:4060::/48 and they want to use it to configure IPv6 on their entire network. Where do we start? Take a look at the image below:

IPv6 Global Routing Prefix Subnet Interface ID

The 48-bit prefix that we received is typically called the global routing prefix or site prefix . The interface ID is normally 64 bit which means we have 16 bits left to create subnets .

If I want I can steal some more bits from the Interface ID to create even more subnets but there’s no need for this. Using 16 bits we can create 65.536 subnets …more than enough for most of us. Let’s see what we can do for our customer:

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Forum Replies

Rene, just to be clear, they aren’t the same right? 2001:41f0:4060:10::/64 and 2001:41f0:4060:A::/64 ?

That’s right.

shouldn’t this be /64 ?

Yes that’s right, just fixed it. Thanks!

Why are these not the same

2001:41f0:4060:10::/64 and 2001:41f0:4060:A::/64 ?

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What Is An IP Address? How Does It Work?

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lan ip address assignment

IP Address Definition and Explanation

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is the unique identifying number assigned to every device connected to the internet. An IP address definition is a numeric label assigned to devices that use the internet to communicate. Computers that communicate over the internet or via local networks share information to a specific location using IP addresses.

IP addresses have two distinct versions or standards. The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address is the older of the two, which has space for up to 4 billion IP addresses and is assigned to all computers. The more recent Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) has space for trillions of IP addresses, which accounts for the new breed of devices in addition to computers. There are also several types of IP addresses, including public, private,  static, and dynamic IP addresses .

Every device with an internet connection has an IP address, whether it's a computer, laptop, IoT device, or even toys.  The IP addresses allow for the efficient transfer of data between two connected devices, allowing machines on different networks to talk to each other.

How does an IP address work?

An IP address works in helping your device, whatever you are accessing the internet on, to find whatever data or content is located to allow for retrieval. 

Common tasks for an IP address include both the identification of a host or a network, or identifying the location of a device. An IP address is not random. The creation of an IP address has the basis of math.  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) allocates the IP address and its creation. The full range of IP addresses can go from to  

With the mathematical assignment of an IP address, the unique identification to make a connection to a destination can be made.

Public IP address

A public IP address, or external-facing IP address, applies to the main device people use to connect their business or home internet network to their internet service provider (ISP). In most cases, this will be the router. All devices that connect to a router communicate with other IP addresses using the router’s IP address.

Knowing an external-facing IP address is crucial for people to open ports used for online gaming, email and web servers, media streaming, and creating remote connections.

Private IP address

A private IP address, or internal-facing IP address, is assigned by an office or home intranet (or local area network) to devices, or by the internet service provider (ISP). The home/office router manages the private IP addresses to the devices that connect to it from within that local network. Network devices are thus mapped from their private IP addresses to public IP addresses by the router.

Private IP addresses are reused across multiple networks, thus preserving valuable IPv4 address space and extending addressability beyond the simple limit of IPv4 addressing (4,294,967,296 or 2^32).

In the IPv6 addressing scheme, every possible device has its own unique identifier assigned by the ISP or primary network organization, which has a unique prefix. Private addressing is possible in IPv6, and when it's used it's called Unique Local Addressing (ULA).

Static IP address

All public and private addresses are defined as static or dynamic. An IP address that a person manually configures and fixes to their device’s network is referred to as a static IP address. A static IP address cannot be changed automatically. An internet service provider may assign a static IP address to a user account. The same IP address will be assigned to that user for every session.

Dynamic IP address

A dynamic IP address is automatically assigned to a network when a router is set up. The  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)  assigns the distribution of this dynamic set of IP addresses. The DHCP can be the router that provides IP addresses to networks across a home or an organization.

Each time a user logs into the network, a fresh IP address is assigned from the pool of available (currently unassigned) IP addresses. A user may randomly cycle through several IP addresses across multiple sessions.

4 types of IP addresses

FortiGuard Labs Global Threat Landscape Report 2H 2023 shows Cybercriminals Exploiting New Industry Vulnerabilities 43% Faster than 1H 2023.

What Is IPv4?

IPv4 is the fourth version of the IP. It is one of the core protocols of the standards-based methods used to interconnect the internet and other networks. The protocol was first deployed on the Atlantic Packet Satellite Network (SATNET), which was a satellite network that formed a segment of the initial stages of the internet, in 1982. It is still used to route most internet traffic despite the existence of IPv6.

IPv4 is currently assigned to all computers. An IPv4 address uses 32-bit binary numbers to form a unique IP address. It takes the format of four sets of numbers, each of which ranges from 0 to 255 and represents an eight-digit binary number, separated by a period point.

IP Address Classes

Some IP addresses are reserved by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). These are typically reserved for networks that carry a specific purpose on the  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) , which is used to interconnect devices. Four of these IP address classes include:

  • : This IP address in IPv4 is also known as the default network. It is the non-routeable meta address that designates an invalid, non-applicable, or unknown network target.
  • : This IP address is known as the loopback address, which a computer uses to identify itself regardless of whether it has been assigned an IP address.
  • to : A range of addresses that are automatically assigned if a computer is unsuccessful in an attempt to receive an address from the DHCP.
  • : An address dedicated to messages that need to be sent to every computer on a network or broadcasted across a network.

Further reserved IP addresses are for what is known as subnet classes. Subnetworks are small computer networks that connect to a bigger network via a router. The subnet can be assigned its own IP address system, so that all devices connecting to it can communicate with each other without having to send data via the wider network. 

The router on a TCP/IP network can be configured to ensure it recognizes subnets, then route the traffic onto the appropriate network. IP addresses are reserved for the following subnets:

  • Class A : IP addresses between and
  • Class B : IP addresses between and
  • Class C : IP addresses between and
  • Class D or multicast : IP addresses between and
  • Class E, which are reserved for experimental usage : IP addresses between and

IP addresses listed under Class A, Class B, and Class C are most commonly used in the creation of subnets. Addresses within the multicast or Class D have specific usage rules outlined in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) guidelines, while the release of Class E addresses for public use was the cause of plenty of debate before the IPv6 standard was introduced.

Internet Addresses and Subnets

The IANA reserves specific IP address blocks for commercial organizations, government departments, and ISPs. When a user connects to the internet, their ISP assigns them an address from within one of the blocks assigned to it. If they only go online from one computer, then they can use the address assigned to it by their ISP. 

However, most homes now use routers that share a network connection with multiple devices. So if a router is used to share the connection, then the ISP assigns the IP address to the router, and then a subnet is created for all computers that connect to it. 

IP addresses that fall within a subnet have a network and a node. The subnet is identified by the network. The node, also known as the host, connects to the network and needs its own address. Computers separate the network and node via a subnet mask, which filters the appropriate IP address designation. When a large network is set up, the subnet mask that best fits the number of nodes or subnets required is determined. 

When it comes to IP addresses within a subnet, the first address is reserved for the subnet, and the final one indicates the broadcast address for the subnet’s systems.

IPv4 vs. IPv6

IPv4 has not been able to cope with the massive explosion in the quantity and range of devices beyond simply mobile phones, desktop computers, and laptops. The original IP address format was not able to handle the number of IP addresses being created.

To address this problem, IPv6 was introduced. This new standard operates a hexadecimal format that means billions of unique IP addresses can now be created. As a result, the IPv4 system that could support up to around 4.3 billion unique numbers has been replaced by an alternative that, theoretically, offers unlimited IP addresses.

That is because an IPv6 IP address consists of eight groups that contain four hexadecimal digits, which use 16 distinct symbols of 0 to 9 followed by A to F to represent values of 10 to 15.

How Do I Locate My IP Address?

Windows computer users can look up their IP address by typing "cmd" into the search tab and hitting Enter, then typing "ipconfig" into the pop-up box. Mac computer users can find their IP address by heading into System Preferences and selecting Network. 

To look up an IP address on a mobile phone, users need to head into Settings, then open the Wi-Fi menu and their network menu. The IP address should be listed under the Advanced section, depending on the phone they use.

IP address vs. MAC address

When you analyze an IP address vs. a MAC address, you can start with the similarities. For both of these IP address types, you are dealing with a unique identifier with an attachment to that device. The manufacturer of a network card or router is the provider of the MAC address, while the internet service provider (ISP) is the provider of the IP address.

The main difference between the two is that the MAC address is the physical address of a device. If you have five laptops on your home Wi-Fi network, you can identify each of those five laptops on your network via their MAC address.  

The IP address works differently as it is the identifier of the connection of the network with that device. Other differences include:

  • A MAC address is a 6-byte hexadecimal address while an IP address is a 4 or 16-byte address.
  • A MAC address is in a data link layer, while an IP address is in a network layer.
  • A third party will have a difficult time finding a MAC address, while it can easily find an IP address.
  • MAC addresses are static, while IP addresses can change dynamically 
  • MAC addresses and IP addresses are necessary to get a network packet to a destination.  However, no one can see your MAC address unless they are on your LAN

What are security threats related to IP addresses?

A variety of security threats are related to IP addresses. Cybercriminals can deceive devices to either reveal your IP address and pretend they are you or stalk it to track activity and take advantage. Online stalking and social engineering are the two leading security threats existing for IP addresses.  

Some of the other security threats to an IP address include:

  • Allowing a cybercriminal to use your IP address to track your location
  •  Using your IP address to target your network and launch a DDoS attack
  • Using your IP address to download illegal content

5 ways to protect your IP address

There are multiple ways to protect your IP address from cybercriminals. Some of these options include:

  • Make use of a proxy server
  • Have your ISP make use of dynamic IP addresses
  • Employ a  NAT firewall  to hide your private IP address
  • Resetting your modem may change your IP address

Frequently Asked Questions about IP Address

1. what is the use of an ip address.

An IP address identifies every device connected to the internet. This enables computers and other internet-connected devices, such as mobile phones and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, to communicate over the internet and on local-area networks (LANs). 

2. What happens if someone has your IP address?

The chances of being hacked through someone having your IP address is quite low. With an IP address, a user's location can be narrowed down to a specific area. A skilled cyber criminal could potentially work out who their ISP is and then use phishing attacks to find their personal details. A bigger concern might be IP addresses being sold on the dark web alongside other personal information. 

An IP address is more likely to be used by content providers to target the user with content restrictions based on their geographical region. For example, services like Hulu and Netflix read IP addresses to prevent their U.S. content from being accessed by people outside the country. 

3. What are the two types of IP addresses?

The two types of IP addresses are public IP addresses and private IP addresses. A public IP address is the main device people use to connect to the internet, which is typically their router. Private IP addresses are assigned to the devices that connect to the public IP address, such as desktop computers, mobile devices, laptops, printers, smart TVs, and tablets.

4. What is the 192.168 IP address?

The 192.168 IP address is where the private IP address range begins. This goes all the way through to This IP address is not usually used on a network, and devices like computers and mobile phones will not be assigned it.

5. What is a loopback IP address?

The loopback IP address is The loopback IP address is used by a computer to identify itself, regardless of whether or not it has been assigned an IP address.

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All the computers of the world on the Internet network communicate with each other with underground or underwater cables or wirelessly. If I want to download a file from the internet or load a web page or literally do anything related to the internet, my computer must have an address so that other computers can find and locate mine in order to deliver that particular file or webpage that I am requesting. In technical terms, that address is called IP Address or Internet Protocol Address .

Let us understand it with another example, like if someone wants to send you a mail then he/she must have your home address. Similarly, your computer too needs an address so that other computers on the internet can communicate with each other without the confusion of delivering information to someone else’s computer. And that is why each computer in this world has a unique IP Address. Or in other words, an IP address is a unique address that is used to identify computers or nodes on the internet. This address is just a string of numbers written in a certain format. It is generally expressed in a set of numbers for example Here each number in the set is from 0 to 255 range. Or we can say that a full IP address ranges from to And these IP addresses are assigned by IANA(known as Internet Corporation For Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). 

But what is Internet protocol? This is just a set of rules that makes the internet work. You are able to read this article because your computer or phone has a unique address where the page that you requested (to read this article from GeeksforGeeks) has been delivered successfully.

Working of IP addresses

The working of IP addresses is similar to other languages. It can also use some set of rules to send information. Using these protocols we can easily send, and receive data or files to the connected devices. There are several steps behind the scenes. Let us look at them 

  • Your device directly requests your Internet Service Provider which then grants your device access to the web.
  • And an IP Address is assigned to your device from the given range available.
  • Your internet activity goes through your service provider, and they route it back to you, using your IP address.
  • Your IP address can change. For example, turning your router on or off can change your IP Address.
  • When you are out from your home location your home IP address doesn’t accompany you. It changes as you change the network of your device.

Types of IP Address

IP Address is of two types: 

1. IPv4: Internet Protocol version 4. It consists of 4 numbers separated by the dots. Each number can be from 0-255 in decimal numbers. But computers do not understand decimal numbers, they instead change them to binary numbers which are only 0 and 1. Therefore, in binary, this (0-255) range can be written as (00000000 – 11111111). Since each number N can be represented by a group of 8-digit binary digits. So, a whole IPv4 binary address can be represented by 32-bits of binary digits. In IPv4, a unique sequence of bits is assigned to a computer, so a total of (2^32) devices approximately = 4,294,967,296 can be assigned with IPv4. 

IPv4 can be written as:

Classes of IPv4 Address: There are around 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses and managing all those addresses without any scheme is next to impossible. Let’s understand it with a simple example. If you have to find a word from a language dictionary, how long will it take? Usually, you will take less than 5 minutes to find that word. You are able to do this because words in the dictionary are organized in alphabetical order. If you have to find out the same word from a dictionary that doesn’t use any sequence or order to organize the words, it will take an eternity to find the word. If a dictionary with one billion words without order can be so disastrous, then you can imagine the pain behind finding an address from 4.3 billion addresses. For easier management and assignment IP addresses are organized in numeric order and divided into the following 5 classes :

The is a Non-routable address is  that indicates an invalid, or inapplicable end-user address.

A loopback address is a distinct reserved IP address range that starts from ends at though is the broadcast address for The loopback addresses are built into the IP domain system, enabling devices to transmit and receive the data packets. The loopback address is generally known as localhost.

2. IPv6: But, there is a problem with the IPv4 address. With IPv4, we can connect only the above number of 4 billion devices uniquely, and apparently, there are much more devices in the world to be connected to the internet. So, gradually we are making our way to IPv6 Address which is a 128-bit IP address. In human-friendly form, IPv6 is written as a group of 8 hexadecimal numbers separated with colons(:). But in the computer-friendly form, it can be written as 128 bits of 0s and 1s. Since, a unique sequence of binary digits is given to computers, smartphones, and other devices to be connected to the internet. So, via IPv6 a total of (2^128) devices can be assigned with unique addresses which are actually more than enough for upcoming future generations.

IPv6 can be written as:


Classification of IP Address

An IP address is classified into the following types:

1. Public IP Address: This address is available publicly and it is assigned by your network provider to your router, which further divides it to your devices. Public IP Addresses are of two types,

  • Dynamic IP Address: When you connect a smartphone or computer to the internet, your Internet Service Provider provides you an IP Address from the range of available IP Addresses. Now, your device has an IP Address and you can simply connect your device to the Internet and send and receive data to and from your device. The very next time when you try to connect to the internet with the same device, your provider provides you with different IP Addresses to the same device and also from the same available range. Since IP Address keeps on changing every time when you connect to the internet, it is called a Dynamic IP Address.
  • Static IP Address: Static address never changes. They serve as a permanent internet address. These are used by DNS servers. What are DNS servers? Actually, these are computers that help you to open a website on your computer. Static IP Address provides information such as device is located on which continent, which country, which city, and which Internet Service Provider provides internet connection to that particular device. Once, we know who is the ISP, we can trace the location of the device connected to the internet. Static IP Addresses provide less security than Dynamic IP Addresses because they are easier to track.

2. Private IP Address: This is an internal address of your device which are not routed to the internet and no exchange of data can take place between a private address and the internet.

3. Shared IP addresses: Many websites use shared IP addresses where the traffic is not huge and very much controllable, they decide to rent it to other similar websites so to make it cost-friendly. Several companies and email sending servers use the same IP address (within a single mail server) to cut down the cost so that they could save for the time the server is idle.

4. Dedicated IP addresses: A dedicated IP Address is an address used by a single company or an individual which gives them certain benefits using a private Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate which is not in the case of a shared IP address. It allows to access the website or log in via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) by IP address instead of its domain name. It increases the performance of the website when the traffic is high. It also protects from a shared IP address that is black-listed due to spam.

Lookup IP addresses

To know your public IP, you can simply search “What is my IP?” on google. Other websites will show you equivalent information: they will see your public IP address because, by visiting the location, your router has made an invitation/request and thus revealed the information. the location IP location goes further by showing the name of your Internet Service Provider and your current city.

Finding your device’s private IP Address depends on the OS or platform you are using. 

  • On Windows: Click Start and type “cmd” in the search box and run the command prompt. In the black command prompt dialog box type “ipconfig” and press enter. You will be able to see your IP Address there.
  • On Mac: Go to system preferences and select Network, you will be able to see the information regarding your network which includes your IP Address.

IP address security threats

Each IP address is associated with virtual ports in a computer that acts as a doorway that allows web applications or websites to send and receive data or information on your device. If after the connection is terminated the ports remain open somehow, might allow hackers to get into your device. Once, a hacker gets access to your device remotely through various tools and viruses, they would be able to access all your stored files and data and your computer hardware as well, which includes your webcam, mic, speaker, and all your browsing history, your emails and saved passwords. These are some serious threats from which we need to be extra careful. 

Various online activities can reveal your IP address from playing games or accepting bad cookies from a trap website or commenting on a website or forum. Once, they have your IP, there are websites that help them get a decent idea of your location. They can further use social media websites to track your online presence and cross verify everything that they got from these sites and use your information for their benefits or can sell these data collected on the dark web which can further exploit you.

The worst which I have seen in my friend’s pc got infected while he was installing an application that he downloaded from a pirated website. The moment he hit install, a number of command prompt boxes started appearing, tens of commands started running and after a while, it was back to normal. Some malware was installed in the process. After a few days, someone was trying to log in to his social media account and other accounts using his computer as a host pc (his own IP address) but his computer was idle. The hacker was using his pc and his network, i.e., his IP address to do some serious stuff. He formatted his computer then and there, secured all his emails and other accounts, and changed all the passwords and all the security measures that had to be taken. 

Cybercriminals use different techniques to get hands-on with your IP address and know your location, get into your network and hack into your computers. For instance, they will find you through Skype which uses IP addresses to speak. If you are using these apps, it’s important to notice that your IP address might be vulnerable. Attackers can use the various tools, where they will find your IP address. Some of the threats are: Online stalking, downloading illegal content using your IP address, tracking your location, directly attacking your network, and hacking into your device.

Protect and hide IP address

To secure and hide your IP address from unwanted people always remember the following points:

  • Use a proxy server.
  • Use a virtual private network (VPN) when using public Wi-Fi, you are traveling, working remotely, or just want some privacy.
  • Change privacy settings on instant messaging applications.
  • Create unique passwords.
  • Beware of phishing emails and malicious content.
  • Use a good and paid antivirus application and keep it up to date.
  • When you are using public wifi in a cafe or station or anywhere, you must hide your IP address by using VPN. Getting your IP from public wifi is just a cakewalk for these hackers and they are very good at stealing all your information while using your computer’s address. There are different phishing techniques in which they email you, call you, and SMS you about giving vital information about you. They give links to vicious websites which are pre-rigged. The moment you open these websites, they steal all your device’s information revealing all the information about you and your device which are to be kept private. These leaks help the hackers to exploit your device and install or download some spyware and malware on your device. But using a good anti-virus gives you web security as well, which will prevent those websites to launch and warn you about the information being passed to these websites.
  • It is also not recommended to use torrent or pirated websites which are a threat to your online identity and can compromise your device or emails or any other information about you.


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  5. How to Assign Static IP Address to Your Devices

    From the Configure IPv4 menu, choose Using DHCP with manual address. Enter a static IP address in the IPv4 Address and leave the Subnet Mask and Router field as default. Click Ok to save the changes. Now when you do an ifconfig, the system should be using the static IP you have defined in the previous times.

  6. internet

    1. IP addresses are assigned by ICANN, so that won't happen. But there's also a more fundamental reason. IP addresses are used for routing. When a packet comes into a router, it compares the IP address against entries in its routing table, and sends the packet on through the appropriate outgoing line.

  7. How are IP addresses assigned?

    When you're connected to a network, your computer or smart device will obtain an IP address either from your ISP or your router. There are 2 ways how you can assign an IP address to your device: (1) dynamically via DHCP or (2) statically by manually assigning an IP address yourself. In either case, you must use the IP address that is provided to you by your ISP, or the IP range you allocated ...

  8. Understanding IP Address: An Introductory Guide

    An Internet Protocol Address (IP address) refers to a unique address or numerical label designated for each device connected in a computer network using the Internet Protocol (IP) for communication. Example of an IP address: Simply put, IP addresses identify a device on a local network or the internet and allow data to be ...

  9. Number Resources

    Number Resources. We are responsible for global coordination of the Internet Protocol addressing systems, as well as the Autonomous System Numbers used for routing Internet traffic. Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active use: IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6).

  10. What other IP addresses can/should I use for my home network?

    So you can use all the IP addresses from 192.168..1 to (the first one is reserved and the last one is a broadcast address) really in any way you want and your router allows. The simplest route usually taken in this situation is to use the "sub-subnet" 192.168../24 or 192.168.1./24.

  11. Configure IP in Windows 10

    Prerequisite : IP address, Subnet mask , DNS server. Introduction : An IP address is basically an identifier for a device on a network, it helps in sending information to and from a specific device on the network. An IP address is a string of numbers separated by periods. IP addresses are expressed as a set of four numbers ex- 192.168..10.

  12. Static IP vs. dynamic IP addresses: What's the difference?

    Dynamic IP address assignment. Most network devices temporarily lease an IP address configuration from a central server called a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server. Administrators configure the DHCP server with a pool of available IP addresses and any additional options. Client machines then connect to the DHCP server to lease a ...

  13. What is LAN IPv6 address for a router?

    1. This setting controls the IPv6 address used on the LAN side of the router. You need an assigned IPv6 address space, which use can then use to use on your local LAN. For consumer connections this would have to be provided by your ISP (since you cannot request IPv6 address space from your RIR). This is usually called "Routed /64, /52 or /48".

  14. Static vs. dynamic IP addresses: What's the difference and why ...

    Static IP addresses are generally assigned for machines where the IP address needs to stay the same. For example, I have a network share on my desktop computer (running Pop!_OS Linux ).

  15. IP addresses (article)

    IP addresses won't be able to pinpoint your exact location, however, you may be able to use them to trace your location to the correct town or a short radius. This is because ISPs operate within certain locations and are assigned a range of IP addresses. The ISP usually further subdivides the assigned IP address range for different locations.

  16. Setting up a Local Area Network

    Assigning IP addresses in a LAN. There are two ways to assign IP addresses in a LAN. You can manually assign a static IP address to each computer in the LAN, or you can use a special type of server that automatically assigns a dynamic IP address to each computer as it logs into the network.. Static IP addressing. Static IP addressing means manually assigning a unique IP address to each ...

  17. IPv6 Address Assignment Example

    IPv6 Address Assignment Example. In this lesson we'll take a look how you can create IPv6 prefixes and subnets so that you can configure your entire network with IPv6. We'll start at the top where IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is responsible for the global coordination of the IPv4 and IPv6 address space and move our way all the ...

  18. IP address

    An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label such as that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. IP addresses serve two main functions: network interface identification, and location addressing.. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number.

  19. What is an IP Address? How it works? How to Locate it?

    An IP address that a person manually configures and fixes to their device's network is referred to as a static IP address. A static IP address cannot be changed automatically. An internet service provider may assign a static IP address to a user account. The same IP address will be assigned to that user for every session.

  20. Step 1. Fully automatic IP address assignment

    Thus, the configuration in omnetpp.ini for this step is basically empty: [Config Step1] sim-time-limit = 500s network = ConfiguratorA description = "Fully automatic IP address assignment". The configurator has several parameters that affect its operation, but for now, all of them are left at their default settings.

  21. What is an IP Address?

    Or in other words, an IP address is a unique address that is used to identify computers or nodes on the internet. This address is just a string of numbers written in a certain format. It is generally expressed in a set of numbers for example Here each number in the set is from 0 to 255 range. Or we can say that a full IP address ...

  22. How to Find Your IP Address

    Optionally, go full geek and open the Terminal and type " ipconfig " just like on Windows. On an iOS/ iPadOS, go into Settings > Wi-Fi, and click the " i " in a circle next to the network you're ...

  23. Lab Packet Tracer 10.3.4-Connect a Router to a LAN Assignment

    Computer-science document from Liberty University, 6 pages, CSIS 330 LAB: PACKET TRACER 10.3.4 - CONNECT ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS A ROUTER TO A LAN Page 1 of 6 CSIS 330 OVERVIEW Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 G0/0 255.255.255. N/A R1 G0/1 255.

  24. How to change the IP address of a Plesk for Linux server

    Note: Network interfaces are modified in runtime and config (e.g. if the IP address is to be changed to, while the interface has, or the main interface itself is to be changed) during the execution of the plesk bin ipmanage --remap utility. If the old IP address(es) are not needed anymore, remove them from Tools & Settings > IP Addresses and after that from the ...