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The best 70 racism topics for research paper for you.

September 25, 2020

Racism is one of the most important themes in modern society. While it is true that days of slavery are well behind us, the problem of racism is still rampant in many countries, from the US to China. This is why it has become a common subject in academia.

Racism Topics for Research Paper

So, when you have an assignment on racism, the best way to make it sparkle and get you the best grades is by selecting the best topics. Keep reading to identify 70 excellent racism topics for research paper.

History of Racism Topics for Research Paper

Although racism is painful, it started a long time ago and you can explore its history through the following topics on racism.

  • How colonialism shaped aboriginal racism in Australia.
  • Women’s movement of the 1960s: Did it manage to unite black and white women?
  • Mexican American racism in the US: Why did it intensify in the 20 th century?
  • Analyzing racial prejudice in the 1950s.
  • Was Malcolm X racist? Justify your answer.
  • Can we refer to the ancient Greeks racists?
  • Were the antislavery ideas part of the causes of the Civil War?
  • Exploring racist ideas in Charles Darwin’s work.
  • National identity: Is it connected to racism?
  • Do anthropological researchers fight or help racism?
  • Black poverty and racism in the 20 th century: How are they connected?
  • Analyzing the reactions following the assassination of Martin Luther King. Jr.
  • How is racism depicted in colonialism literature?

Racism Argumentative Topics for Research Paper

Racism often turns into a heated subject of controversy and serious disputes. So, if you want to be part of the discussion, here are some great racism argumentative topics for research paper to consider.

  • Why is racism immoral?
  • Racism and hate crimes in the US: Are they connected?
  • Should we consider Islamophobia racism?
  • Racism: Can we refer to it as a mental disorder?
  • Race: Does it serve any purpose in modern society?
  • Irishness: Should it be considered a show of racism?
  • Prejudice towards ladies in hijab: Is it baseless?
  • Racism: Is it rooted in fear?
  • What countries are the most racist in the EU?
  • Do you agree with the statement, “there will always be color racism?”
  • Prejudice and racism: Are they the same thing.
  • Comic books: Can we consider it racist against black people?

Analytical Research Topics about Racism

Questions about “Why,” “How” and “What next” about racism always lingers in the mind of thoughtful. To get answers to these questions, here are some interesting topics about racism to consider:

  • Explain how racism influenced the formation of the English language.
  • Why do most people prefer marriage partners from the same race?
  • How does racism impact prisoners in the US?
  • Types of racism that exist in the EU?
  • The impact of racism on the mental health of racial minorities.
  • Racial discrimination and police brutality: How are they connected?
  • What are the main effects of racism on the sports industry?
  • A closer look at the use of anti-racist ideas in television commercials.
  • Ageism and racism: Are they different?
  • Analyzing racism in American pop culture.
  • Assessing the racial prejudices in Oscar boycotts.
  • Analyze segregation in the Novel “Sula” by Tula Morrison.
  • Can the “Othello” by Shakespeare be considered racist?
  • Affirmative action: Should it be class-based or group-based?

Interesting Racism Research Topics

Do you want to gain deeper insights into the topic of racism? Here are some great racism research paper topics that you should consider.

  • Capitalism and racism in Japan.
  • A closer look at the theory of protest by Socrates.
  • Homophobic hip-hop music: How does it impact the social attitudes towards the LGBT community?
  • Ten proofs that racism still exist in the United States.
  • What are the different types of racism in the US?
  • The implications of aboriginal discrimination in Australia.
  • How are Muslims discriminated in the UK?
  • Analyzing internalized racism.
  • Authoritarian theory of prejudice.
  • Scapegoat theory: Does it always explain racism? Explain.
  • Is racism responsible for poor social progress?
  • A closer look at the historical figures who fought against racism in history.
  • Analyzing the anti-discrimination laws in Cuba by Fidel Castro.
  • European colonialism: Was it responsible for the spread of racism?

Good Research Topics Dealing with Racism

We all agree that racism is bad, right? Here are some awesome research topics about race and racism and how to deal with it.

  • Dealing with racial prejudices: What are the best strategies?
  • How effective are the US laws in preventing racism.
  • How can leaders deal with racism in their workplace?
  • How can we reduce racial discrimination in education?
  • Is it possible to have a world without racism?
  • Confucianism: Can it help to address the problem of racism?
  • Apartheid and progress in South Africa.
  • Institutional racism: Why is it so difficult to address?
  • Environmental racism: What is it and how can we fight it?
  • Demystify the four types of group interactions: Assimilation, segregation, pluralism, and genocide.
  • Can we justify racism at times?
  • Suggest the main strategies that can be used to end racial discrimination in schools.
  • Can art be used to fight racism?
  • A deeper look at the history of affirmative action.
  • Analyzing the Australia policies and their effectiveness in addressing xenophobia.
  • Analyzing the US efforts to end discrimination against homeless people.
  • Racism and U.S criminal justice system.

Once students have selected their preferred sociology racism topics, the writing journey commences. So, whether you selected a racism topic related to American History or methods of addressing the problem, you will need to have the right resources and top-notch writing skills. If you feel stuck with the paper because of one reason or another, the best option is seeking college research paper help from our experts.


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50+ Essay Topics on Racism for Students


Table of contents

  • 1 Why Choose Racism Essay Topics for Writing Purposes?
  • 2 How to Choose Racism Essay Topics?
  • 3 Best Essay Topics on Racism
  • 4 Good Racism Research Topics
  • 5 Easy Racism Essay Topics
  • 6 Research Questions about Racism
  • 7 Argumentative Essay Topics about Racism
  • 8 Topics about Racism for Essay

Why Choose Racism Essay Topics for Writing Purposes?

There are many reasons why someone might choose to write an essay on racism. For some, it may be a way to explore their own personal experiences with racism. Others may want to raise awareness about the issue, or explore the history of racism in America. Whatever the reason, there are a number of potential essay topics to choose from. One potential topic is to explore the origins of racism in America. This could include a discussion of the slave trade, and how racism has been perpetuated throughout history. Another possibility is to discuss the current state of racism in America. This could include a discussion of the recent events in Charlottesville, Virginia, and how racism is still a very real problem in our country. No matter what topic you choose, it is important to remember that your essay should be well-researched and well-written. Be sure to support your claims with evidence, and be sure to cite your sources. With a little effort, you can write a compelling and thought-provoking essay on racism.

How to Choose Racism Essay Topics?

There are a lot of racism essay topics to choose from. However, it can be difficult to decide which one to write about. Here are some tips to help you choose the right topic for your essay:

  • Pick a topic that you are passionate about.
  • Choose a topic that you know something about.
  • Make sure the topic is something that you can research.
  • Be sure to choose a topic that is controversial.
  • Be sure to choose a topic that is interesting to you.

Best Essay Topics on Racism

  • Racism is a social construct that has been used to justify discrimination and violence against certain groups of people
  • Racism is a form of discrimination that is based on the belief that one race is superior to another.
  • Racism can be manifested in the form of individual prejudice, institutional discrimination, or hate crimes.
  • Racism is often used as a justification for xenophobic and anti-immigrant sentiment.
  • Racism has a long history in the United States, dating back to the colonial era.
  • Racism is a global problem that affects people of all races and ethnicities.
  • The rise of Donald Trump and the alt-right has emboldened racists and white supremacists in the United States.
  • The Black Lives Matter movement has brought renewed attention to the problem of racism in America.
  • Racism is a complex issue that cannot be solved overnight.
  • Education is key to combating racism and promoting social justice.

Good Racism Research Topics

Racism in America: A History from Slavery to Today

  • The Impact of Racism on African Americans
  • Racism and Discrimination in the Workplace
  • The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Racism Contributes to the Mass Incarceration of African Americans
  • The Role of Media in Promoting Racism
  • The Impact of Racism on Mental Health
  • Racism and the Criminal Justice System
  • How has racism changed over time?
  • What are the different forms of racism?
  • How does racism affect people?
  • What are the causes of racism?
  • How can racism be prevented?
  • What are the consequences of racism?
  • What are the solutions to racism?
  • Is racism a global problem?
  • How does racism affect society?
  • What is the history of racism?

Easy Racism Essay Topics

  • The history of racism and its impact on society.
  • The different forms of racism and their effects on individuals and society.
  • The role of race in shaping individual and group identity.
  • The ways in which racism is perpetuated through institutional policies and practices.
  • The impact of racism on economic, social, and political life.
  • The challenges of living in a racially diverse society.
  • The role of the media in perpetuating or challenging racism.
  • The impact of racism on personal relationships.
  • The role of education in combating racism.
  • The challenges of addressing racism in the workplace.

Research Questions about Racism

  • How has racism impacted the lives of people of color in the United States?
  • What are the origins of racism in the United States?
  • How has racism changed over time in the United States?
  • What are the current manifestations of racism in the United States?
  • How do people of color experience racism in the United States?
  • What are the psychological effects of racism on people of color in the United States?
  • What are the economic effects of racism on people of color in the United States?
  • What are the educational effects of racism on people of color in the United States?
  • What are the health effects of racism on people of color in the United States?
  • What are the social effects of racism on people of color in the United States?

Argumentative Essay Topics about Racism

  • Racism is a major problem in our society today and it needs to be addressed.
  • Racism is a major barrier to social cohesion and harmony.
  • Racism is a major cause of discrimination and prejudice.
  • Racism is a major source of tension and conflict in our society.

Topics about Racism for Essay

  • Racism as a social problem.
  • The history of racism and its impact on society..
  • Racism in the criminal justice system.
  • The different forms of racism.
  • Racism in the media.
  • The causes of racism.
  • Racism in the workplace.
  • The effects of racism on individuals and society.
  • Racism in education.
  • Racism and its impact on mental health.

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racism research paper topics

229 Racism Essay Topics

Racism is a vast theme to explore and comprises many thought-provoking issues. Here, we collected the most interesting racism essay topics, with which you can investigate the issue of racism. We recommend you explore the historical roots of racism and the systemic structures that sustain it. Use our research topics about racism to write a paper on racial identity, cultural diversity, or the role of education in combatting racism.

✊ TOP 7 Essay Topics about Racism

🏆 best racism essay topics, 👍 racism topics for essay & research, 📌 easy research topics about racism, 🎓 interesting racism essay titles, ✍️ racism essay topics for college, ❓ more essay topics about racism.

  • Portrayal of Racism in Forster’s ‘a Passage to India’
  • Examples of Racism in The Great Gatsby
  • Racism and Injustice in “Monster” Novel by Myers
  • Racism: “Born a Crime” by Trevor Noah
  • Racism and Its Effects on Our Society
  • Sociological Perspectives on Racism
  • Racism in Ken Liu’s “The Paper Menagerie”
  • Impact of Kendrick Lamar Music on Racism The essay hypothesizes that Lamar’s music has conducted to a progress in abolishing racism by cultivating tolerant attitude in the society towards Afro-American population.
  • Racism in Nivea’s “White Is Purity” Ad Campaign In its recent international marketing campaign, Nivea used an advertisement to promote an antiperspirant. The slogan “White is purity” was regarded by the public as rather racist.
  • Racism: “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling The main consequence of Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” is that it promotes and spreads the paradigm of White racism and prejudices through a literary approach.
  • Colorblind Racism in “The Help” Film The Help, a film based on a novel of the same name, can be employed to exemplify multiple patterns, including colorblindness, although not all of them are criticized in the work.
  • Racism and Pessimism in Wilson’s Play “Fences” August Wilson’s play “Fences” exemplifies the detrimental impacts of racial discrimination on the well-being of ethnic and racial minorities.
  • Racism in “Native Son” by Richard Wright Racism does not vanish when Whites are able to convince themselves that they are no longer villains, consciously promoting negative attitude about minorities.
  • Racism in “Being Brought From Africa to America” and “A Letter From Phyllis Wheatley” Both poems “Being Brought From Africa to America” and “A Letter From Phyllis Wheatley” are great reflections on the racism issue, and even now, their demand is not decreasing.
  • Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice One should not tolerate that a certain percentage of city residents live in much worse environmental conditions than all others – it is necessary to modernize the industry.
  • Racism: Black Lives Matter Central Idea Black Lives Matter’s central idea is to point out the unfair treatment of this ethnicity in the United States. The BLM movement highlights the implicit biases.
  • The Impact of Racism on Globalization Racism is a great impediment to globalization, the bad blood between the said people of color and those of no color has dealt a big blow to development.
  • Overcoming Racism in Environmental Decision Making Building a city for humans to live requires the construction of many industrial sites, living next to which is unsafe, thus ethnic minorities would be the ones predominately living there.
  • Racism and Discrimination towards African-Americans Racism and discrimination of the African-Americans in the United States of America have been a major issue that began way back during the colonial and slavery era.
  • Racism & Sexism: Black Women’s Experiences in Tennis Research suggests that exclusion and discrimination strategies are still being used to limit the chances and advancement accessible to colored minority groups.
  • Diversity, Racism, and Identity in the United States American society experiences a new wave of disagreements and debates on the most fundamental topics of American democracy functioning.
  • The Theoretical Origin of the Concept of Racism The paper raises the topic of the theoretical origin of the concept of racism. The initial understanding of racism has undergone significant changes.
  • Racial Injustice, Racial Discrimination, and Racism Racial injustice is a serious issue in today’s society. It has negative effects on a multitude of people’s personal and social development.
  • The Phenomenon of Racism The purpose of this paper is to discuss the texts of Anzaldúa, Fayad, Smith and Roppolo, who have addressed the topic of racism.
  • Internal Racism in the Movie Amreeka Refusal to an individual to work, based solely on nationality, is an example of how xenophobia meets its modern manifestation.
  • The Trauma of Enduring Racism and Ethnic Hatred: They Called Us Enemy This essay aims to discuss the effects of racism and ethnic hatred, as illustrated in the story They Called Us Enemy by George Takei.
  • Causes of Racism and Racial Discrimination Racism refers to the institution of prejudice against other people based on a particular racial or ethnic group membership. Racial bias causes low self-esteem.
  • Institutional Racism Against Native Americans: The Killers of the Flower Moon David Grann published The Killers of the Flower Moon about the murders in Oklahoma in the 1920s and contributed to the creation of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
  • Rasism in the USA: Personal Experience The fight against ethnicity and racism still has a long way to go and not unless everyone develops a new mentality, the world will remain a venue filled with racism.
  • Racism in “Get Out” Movie: Rhetorical Discussion The “Get Out” film’s primary medium is the modern illustration of a slave plantation, where the owners are represented as Caucasian people.
  • Racism in the “Devil in a Blue Dress” Film The film Devil in a Blue Dress introduces many topics for discussion, including the racial problem in the United States.
  • Racism Issue in the Play “A Raisin in the Sun” by Bill Duke The renowned play A Raisin in the Sun, directed by Bill Duke, depicts the challenges and biases endured by black families in America.
  • Racism Against the Blacks in the UK The UK is one of the most ethnically diversified countries, with residents from different parts of the world and various cultural backgrounds.
  • Overcoming Racism in the United States in the 1960s This paper will discuss how rampant racism prevented U.S. society in the 1960s from progressing forward as a nation.
  • James Baldwin’s Essays on Racism and Slavery By studying Baldwin’s reflection on the nature of racism, its link to slavery, and its traces in the American community, one can understand the nature of modern racism.
  • Racism and Oppression in “Native Son” by Wright The book Native Son is an engaging book by Wright that gives astonishing accounts relating to racism, segregation, and oppression.
  • Racism: Scene for Screenplay Illustrating Racism A scene for screenplay – a father-son after school conversation about racism. The boy wanted to join the group, but two boys were against it because the boy is black.
  • Racism: A Party Down at the Square Ellison’s narrative, A party down at the square, depicts public lynching at Southern point. It gives the reasons we must all stand for equality and eradicate racism.
  • Environmental Racism: Analyzing the Phenomenon The evolution of the industry, the rise of the consumer society, and the unwise use of resources placed people in a disaster because of the deterioration of the environment.
  • Examining Racism in American 21st Century Society Although racism is no longer outrightly practiced as it used to be two hundred years ago, it has evolved and manifested in different forms.
  • Racism and Social Injustice in Warriors Don’t Cry The book under consideration illustrates some of the strategies African Americans used to address racism in the United States in the first part of the twentieth century
  • Ethnocentrism and Racism in Child Development The case of a 14-year-old biracial girl will be analyzed to investigate the effects of ethnocentrism and racism in child development, especially during the adolescent period.
  • Racism and Ethnicity in the US Race and ethnicity in the United States are not based on any spelled out criteria and consequently, various people may label a certain group of people variously.
  • Racism Against Afro-Americans in Wilson’s “Fences” Play Fences is a play by August Wilson, an American playwright, a Pulitzer’s laureate, who wrote about the life of African Americans in different periods of the 20th century.
  • Racism and Its Definition Challenge As much as there are efforts by everybody and the whole society at large to fight racism, people have forgotten some underlying aspects and traits.
  • Symbolism and Racism in Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird” In the book “To Kill a Mockingbird,” symbolism has been used as the vessel by which racism is expressed indirectly, so readers explore the meaning behind such symbols.
  • Impact of Anti-Racism Campaigns in English League Football Racism trickles into every facet of people’s lives, causing members of ethnically and racially diverse communities to experience challenges and injustice.
  • Colorblind Racism in Modern Society Colorblind racism is a real and widespread phenomenon of being passive, dismissive, and non-acknowledging of existing race-related issues among marginalized and oppressed groups.
  • The Portrayal of Racism in Literary Works Each work reveals different aspects of racism in America, from social discrimination and segregation to economic exploitation.
  • Racism in Foster’s “Elegy of Color”, Hurston’s “Sweat,” and Wilson’s “Fences” This research focuses on Foster’s poem “Elegy of Color,” Hurston’s book “Sweat,” and Wilson’s play “Fences” which provide a historical context for the understanding of racism.
  • Modern Discrimination: Racism in the USA In the USA, there still exists widespread racism despite campaigns against the vice. People are subjected to discrimination because of differences in factors such as gender.
  • Racism Against African Americans and Its Effects Racism has significantly affected African-Americans’ social status due to negative perceptions and biases held concerning them.
  • Racism in Modern Canada: Taking Action as a Helping Professional Cases of racial and ethnic discrimination, xenophobia, and related intolerance, which occur daily, impede the improvement of the lives of millions of people around the world.
  • Health Care Policy: Eliminating Systemic Racism The paper states that the policy can be considered a stepping stone for meaningful change in eliminating systemic racism from the healthcare industry.
  • On White Privilege, Colorblindness, and Racism Critical Race Theory (CRT) is one of the approaches that attempt to address the issue of racism by identifying and investigating perpetual racial injustices.
  • Experiences of Institutional Racism at an Early Age The paper examines how experiences of institutional racism at an early age translate to orientations towards activism in the black community.
  • Racism, Social-Economic Status, and the Dominant Story Disparities in the distribution of social benefits such as education, healthcare, and employment are among the dominant stories in the United States (US).
  • Racism in Toni Morrison’s “Recitatif” Like Morrison’s other work, Recitatif focuses on the issue of prejudice and racial identity. However, in the short story, the races of the main characters are concealed.
  • Racism, Ethnoviolence, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder The paper states that experiencing racism can induce post-traumatic stress disorder. Most people do not draw a link between racism and PTSD.
  • The Ideas and Perspectives of Literary Works About Slavery and Racism The essay aims to provide insights into opinions about the ideas and perspectives of literary works about slavery, racism, and the oppression of African-Americans.
  • Racism as a Crime Racism is one of the oldest and most reprehensible forms of crime, which manifests itself in discrimination against people based on their racial or national origin. It is expressed through statements, actions, or policies that divide people. Racism creates prejudices and demonizes others, leading to a lack of access to…
  • Researching of Structural Racism Structural racism presents an issue that includes several institutions. Moreover, the interconnectedness between these institutions represents a major problem for people of color.
  • Racism as a Modern-Day Societal Challenge This essay analyzes racism as a modern-day societal challenge and proposes policies and measures that may help curb the issue.
  • So Cal’s Water Agency: Racism, Sexual Harassment, and Retaliation So Cal’s Water Agency has reported racial discrimination, sexual harassment, and retaliation cases. Practices of unequal hiring have been experienced by employees in this agency.
  • Doping: Racism and Discrimination of Athletes The issue of discrimination is linked to the point of doping by athletes, which significantly amplifies the implications for the fundamental values of sport.
  • Color-Blind Society and Racism Individuals would be seen as individuals without regard to race. This concept has been gaining traction recently.
  • Asian and Latin Americans’ Experience of Racism The article discusses the similarities and differences in the experience of racism faced by Asian and Latin Americans and highlights issues such as discrimination.
  • Systemic Racism in the US: Systemic Racism and America Today Discrimination in the US is an issue that has been dealt with for decades; however, there are no signs of it ending.
  • Racism: How Bigotry and Hate Runs Through History Courtesy of racial distinctions, the Europeans considered themselves more concrete in terms of reasoning and used racism as a convenient exploitation justification.
  • Racism in Modern American Society Racism is one of the common social problems within the American community, thus incorporating competent solutions through policies.
  • The Discrimination, Prejudice, and Racism Concepts This paper discusses the concepts of discrimination, prejudice, and racism, their relationship with each other, and how they affect society.
  • Rebranding to Address Racism: Aunt Jemima’s Case Cultural psychology theory and research emphasize the need of looking at racism not just in the mind but also in the environment.
  • Racism and Biases Based on Social Issues and Attitudes Racism is a complicated occurrence, and this essay focuses on analyzing bias based on language use, power control, social issues, and social attitudes.
  • Critical Thinking and Racism in Modern Times The new definition of racism is a belief that human capacities are determined by race and that differences in race lead to one race being viewed as superior to another race.
  • American Church’s Complicity in Racism This article demonstrates the theological challenge that slavery posed to the American church during the Civil War.
  • Decolonization as a Response to Racism and Discrimination Decolonization as a term is often connected to the second half of the 20th century when countries of the Global South gained their formal independence from the colonial powers.
  • Overcoming Racism in “The Blood of Jesus” Film Belittling the status of a person based on his gender or race is impossible and terrible in modern society, but it is the tendency of the present time.
  • Imperialism and Racism During the Colonial Period This analysis of primary sources aims to demonstrate how various historical actors interpreted imperialism during different periods.
  • New World Slavery and Racism in Society The effects of slavery and racial ideology can be observed even after the official abolition of this policy. There is racial discrimination in labor and health care.
  • Defining Race in Brazil and Racism Reducing The intent of the Brazilian government to reduce racism are noble, but the stratified classification is creating more identity challenges and making it hard to implement programs.
  • Native Americans in Schools: Effects of Racism Despite the improvement in educational policies, racism against Native Americans is still a problem in the education sector.
  • Psychological Perspectives on Racism This paper provides an insight into the nature of racism and largely contributes to people’s victory over racial and ideological prejudices.
  • Reconstruction in the United States: The Structural Racism The failure of the Reconstruction was unavoidable, and structural racism continued to plague the territory of the South with a higher intensity.
  • “The Costs of Racism to White People” by P. Kivel The article “The Costs of Racism to White People” by Paul Kivel examines the price of racial discrimination for representatives of the white population.
  • The Color of Compromise: The Truth About the American Church’s Complicity in Racism Personality development is essential for personal growth and involves different assessments, including awareness, relationships, and commitment.
  • Criminal Justice System and the Problem of Racism The issue of institutional racism continues to be prominent within the criminal justice system in England and Wales.
  • Environmental Racism as Rights Infringement This paper focuses on the problem of environmental racism from the point of view of discrimination and infringement of the rights of the “oppressed” category of society.
  • “Interrogating Racism: Toward an Antiracist Anthropology” and “Economics” The article “Interrogating racism: Toward antiracist anthropology” (2005) discusses the issue of racism in anthropological studies.
  • Researching the History of Racism The history of racism shows that it has evolved over time. Namely, the starting point was the radicalized violent behavior of the privileged people towards discriminated ones
  • Slavery and Racism: History and Linkage Slavery has changed over time; this institution in the ancient world was different from its modern forms; in particular, the Atlantic slave trade added a racial aspect to it.
  • The Issues of Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia Racism, sexism, and homophobia are more evident in white communities and other religious groups that have difficulty drawing the same levels of public disgrace.
  • The Asian Racism: Joel Best’s Constructivism In this essay, the social problem of modern Asian racism will be analyzed according to the framework of Joel Best’s theoretical model.
  • Individual and Systemic Racism No law applies only to one race and does not apply to another. If there is a violation of the law, there is a judicial system to deal with the problem.
  • Issue of Racism in Colonial Haiti The paper states that the understanding of racism in Haiti, at the time called St. Domingue, was different even among the people at the time.
  • Civil Rights Movement and Construction of US Racism Racism is associated with slurs, Islamophobia, police brutality, and Donald Trump. This list signals that racism today is a more insidious, politicized form of discrimination.
  • How Racism Makes Us Sick The expectations of discrimination lead to poorer health outcomes, both in the case of mental and physical health.
  • Racism and Its Impact on Society Racism negatively impacts society due to its destructive nature and contributes to the division of society, although the government can liquidate it.
  • Racism in Employment from Conley’s Viewpoint Racial issues can still prevent a person from getting a job or earning a decent wage, as black people are still left out because of the occupation of business by white people.
  • Researching the Racism and Race Due to centuries of colonialism and the subjugation of other cultures by the European one, racism can deservedly be called the worst blight on the history of humankind.
  • Racism and Prejudice: People’s Experiences The existence of prejudice and racism in present-day society shapes people’s experiences in a negative way and reduces their life chances of well-being.
  • Racism, Its Origins, and Evolution Racism is a broad subject; therefore, it is crucial to explore the historical origin of the idea of race and how race and racism have evolved with time.
  • American Racism, Violence, and Brutality in the 21st Century Despite the long journey from slavery to freedom, people continued to fight violence and hate crimes against the Black population in the 21st century.
  • How Black Lives Matter Movement Fights Racism The paper discusses the Black Lives Matter movement. It actively fights racism and murders of black people by police officers.
  • How Structural Racism Is Addressed by Open Science Structural racism is a problem that has persisted in society for a significant period. It becomes a danger and an issue requiring significant attention.
  • Colorblind Racism and Race-Based Medicine Many people tend to claim that the modern United States is equal and democratic, and it is an example of colorblind life when individuals ignore racist issues.
  • Analysis of Structural Racism in Healthcare The paper argues structural racism in health care is a problem with historical roots and extends far beyond the health sector.
  • Socety’s Problem: Family and Racism The paper provides annotated bibliography about sociology imperfections, racism and family problems in modern world.
  • The Persistence of White Racism in the United States In the present day, white Americans consider White racism a thing of the past. On the contrary, the population of color in America reports more incidents of racism.
  • Racism and White Supremacy in the USA Approximately 38% of Latinos/Hispanics in the US have noted experiencing some level of harassment, discrimination, or public criticism for their ethnicity.
  • Racism and White Privilege and Benefits The paper discusses and critiques how racism and white privilege can be observed as separate constructs and how they can interact.
  • Systemic Racism in the United States Racism is one of those concepts the current American society tries to eliminate, and significant effort is being put into stopping discrimination against people of color.
  • Dealing With the Issue of Medical Racism Racial issues in healthcare persist and continue to harm African-American people, it is possible to change the status quo by raising racial awareness and cultural sensitivity.
  • Reflection on Racism as a Social Injustice “13th” is a documentary directed by Ava DuVernay, which was produced in 2016 and explored the major elements are justice, race, and mass killings in the US.
  • Taking Joined Action to Confront Anti-Black Racism in Toronto The neighborhoods with the highest percentage of minorities have the lowest income per household rate, while the areas populated mostly by white Canadians thrive.
  • The Climate of Social Justice, Racism, COVID-19, and Other Issues The paper argues ideas of music, culture and society are contended to be inseparably connected, which can be clarified through the space of ethnomusicology.
  • Analysis of Environmental Racism in America Despite the decades-long struggle against racism, its effects are still tragically visible in present-day American society.
  • From Slavery to Racism: Historical Background Racism did not spur slavery or encourage it; instead, it was used to justify a phenomenon that would exist nonetheless due to the economic situation in the world at the time.
  • Cultural Racism in the Current Day The cultural-psychological perspective suggests that intervention is better aimed at large real-world, societal cues of racism.
  • Racial Disparities in Healthcare Through the Lens of Systemic Racism Racism and inequality in healthcare are serious and complex issues of today’s society that must be widely addressed for them to be acknowledged and finally changed.
  • Settler Society and Structural Racism The paper discusses white privilege. It is described by Johnson in detail as the process by which he used to acquire wealth.
  • Comparative Analysis of Three Books about Racism The books presented in the paper reflect on race and racism from different perspectives, but they may share some sentiments.
  • Social Psychology: Race, Racism, and Discrimination Understanding race, racism, and discrimination are equally important since the whole matter of race and racism revolves around the human ethnic background.
  • Fighting Racism Behavior Towards the Latino Community The public health system is one of the most prominent representatives of racial inequality, which affects the state of body and mind of Americans of color.
  • Ethical Considerations on Affirmative Action: Racism The high level of relevance of race issues in the United States has continuously imposed equality considerations on multiple levels of human interactions.
  • Personal Connections to Racism: A Very Short Introduction The reading made me more aware of two examples of such representation: the Futurama animation series and the Native American mascot controversy.
  • Environmental Justice Framework and Racism The environmental justice framework and environmental racism are related since there is a need to involve all people and treat them equally when enforcing environmental policies.
  • Racism, Racial Profiling and Bias in the War on Drugs Racial profiling occurs when law enforcement bases their criminal investigations on race, ethnicity, or religion, which in the process undermines human rights and freedom.
  • Eric Williams: Slavery Was Not Born Out of Racism In “Capitalism and Slavery,” Williams writes: “Slavery was not born out of racism: rather, racism was the consequence of slavery”.
  • Racism in the United States of America Racism is a serious problem that has affected American society for many centuries. It can be perpetrated in an overt (direct) or covert (indirect) manner.
  • Racism: Ku Klux Klan Case Study The Ku Klux Klan is considered as one of most racist and anti-Semantic group in the US, it employs all forms of techniques to achieve its interests.
  • Systemic Racism and Its Impact on Development In more or less veiled forms, racism, including everyday racism, has spread quite widely in some regions and social strata and manifests itself in a variety of forms.
  • Racism in the 21st Century Problem Analysis The existence of racism in modern education and healthcare systems undermines efforts to eliminate it in other areas.
  • Policing Racism as a Solvable Problem: A TED Talk Goff’s TED talk video “How We Can Make Racism a Solvable Problem and Improve Policing” triggers feelings of sympathy, surprise, and disgust.
  • Is Racism a Natural Condition of Human Society? The discussion around the new wave of the “Black Lives Matter” movement in the United States, for instance, proves that it stays the burning issue of most communities even today.
  • Systemic Racism and the American Justice System Taking into account reliable data and recent events in the United States of America, it is evident that racial discrimination is deeply ingrained in the justice system.
  • The Problems of Racism in Modern Society Racism is one of the oldest problems known to society. This paper focuses on the analysis of ideas about segregation based on data from two sources.
  • Racism & Privilege Within the Social Work Setting Racism and privilege are not the same, but their relationship cannot be ignored. Racism gave birth to privilege by translating beliefs into actions.
  • Carl Hart’s Talk on Racism, Poverty, and Drugs In his TED Talk, Carl Hart, a professor of neuroscience at Columbia University who studies drug addiction, exposes a relationship between racism, poverty, and drugs.
  • Racism and Impact of Racial Discrimination Racial discrimination occurs in different forms such as interpersonal level as well as in institutions and organizations through procedures, policies, and practices.
  • Racism, Crime and Justice and Growing-Up Bad Disproportionate discrimination of the black and Asian youths by justice and law enforcement agencies in Britain is a product of a multiplicity of factors.
  • Racism Against Health Care Workers In today’s world, the damaging problem of the racial disparities keeps affecting the workers of the health care systems, as well as its patients.
  • Research Methods in Psychology. Methods against Racism Actions and expressions are the two elements of being anti-racist. If one wants to shun racism, they must serve as an example by dealing with the mischief when it occurs.
  • Institutional Racism Mitigation in Criminal Justice, Education, and Health Systems From the 1990s, the concept of institutional racism gained a new meaning, new to the challenges and gaps that many people from minority groups were recording.
  • Institutional Racism Existing in the United States People of all skin colors are infuriated by the murders of African Americans by the racist police officers, their violence, and abuse of innocent people who did nothing wrong.
  • Discrimination and Racism in Cobb County I want to tackle the problem of institutional racism in my community of Cobb County, Georgia. I decided to focus on the subject of racial relations.
  • The Color Line: Racism in Dubois’ and Zinn’s Works Many blacks still live in adverse conditions and have no development opportunities. Neither a good education, nor a well-paid job, nor adequate housing are available to them.
  • The Problem of Racism and Its Possible Origins The article written by Tim Parrish discusses the problem of racism, its possible origins, and steps that could be taken to lessen the issue.
  • Racism and Kingdom Ethics. Main Aspects Addressing racism in the church requires critical attention. There is a need for the church to be a role model to the entire society on the ways of combating racism.
  • Racism May Be Natural in Modern Society Racism as an acknowledgment of genetic and cultural diversity in the modern world is quite a feature of society.
  • Racism Is the Problem of Society This paper provides evidence that racism is the problem of society, and it affects every person in the world. Racism is an issue that correlates with inequality in society.
  • How is Systemic Racism Becoming a News Spectacle? This paper describes “How is Systemic Racism Becoming a News Spectacle?”, writing about its introduction, body completeness, and development, conclusions, and documentation.
  • Does System Racism Exist in the USA? Centuries of racism and discrimination have made this chasm even wider for black families, cut off from the opportunities and resources available to whites.
  • Persistent Racism in the United States The racial issue has always occupied a central place in American history, and a modern melting pot cannot exist without conflict.
  • Racism Within the Public Health Framework In terms of the following paper, racism will be analyzed in the public health framework to outline major recommendations towards the issue resolution.
  • American Psychological Association and Racism The chipping in of the APA on matters concerning racism, xenophobia and racial bigotry led to the abolition of unfair treatments to the blacks in early 2001.
  • South Africa’s Handling of Racism and Ethnic Relations: How They Compare With Those of the USA The discriminative moves sparked racial tensions in both countries, both governments were obliged to formulate the strategies that advocated for rights to all citizens.
  • Negro Kids: Racism in American Schools Communication is important in solving this social problem in American society because it will cause people to reexamine race relations.
  • Modern Racism Concepts and Types While people may not be actually racially abusing others, race is influencing how they treat and perceive members of society.
  • Racism in Campus of the Montclair State University Effect Depending on the student’s high school and neighborhood segregation, the level of diverse thinking and acknowledgment is seriously determined by these factors.
  • Homophobia and Racism and Other Issues This article is well written and makes a number of excellent points with regards to homosexuality, however the article actually requests that people make a distinction between homophobia and racism.
  • Fredrickson’s Racism: A Short History This book covers the many aspects of racism, the history behind the phenomenon, and how the world now views racism, whether it takes it seriously.
  • Racism in Breast Cancer Treatment Cancer treatment is the least studied field that arises numerous ambiguities and requires a more sophisticated approach in studying.
  • Specific Racism Against Chinese Americans In this paper discuss various elements of racism in the US. It shows how racism affects the life of Chinese Americans, and the origin of racism in the US.
  • The Notion of Colorblind Racism it should be stated that the matters of racism, or as it is also called “color blind racism”, are often regarded as the strong tendency in treating the immigrants from Latin America countries.
  • Racism and Social Reform Movements in the United States The end of the civil war proclaimed freedom for the black people. However, the path to the total desegregation and equal rights for the black population was a thorny path with its end still long ahead.
  • Racism in Minnesota in Relation to the Klu Klux Klan
  • Racism in Minnesota: Archival Research Paper
  • Institutionalised Racism – Myth or Reality?
  • Color-Blind Racism as a New Face of Racism in Contemporary Society
  • Racism Effects in “Warriors Don’t Cry” by Melba Beals
  • A Plan to Reduce Racism in Medicine
  • Ethnical Ambiguousness as a Band-Aid for Racism
  • America’s Band-Aid for Racism Is the Ethnically Ambiguous
  • Ethnically Ambiguous – America’s Band-Aid for Racism
  • Racism in American Schools: NCLB Problems
  • Racism in the Contemporary America
  • Workplace Racism in Public Service Organization
  • American Racism in Coates’ The Case for Reparations
  • Racism and Inequality in the United States
  • Malcolm X and Anne Moody on Racism in the US
  • Racism Against African Americans as a Social Construct
  • Dismantling Institutional Racism: Effects and Possible Solutions
  • Problem of Racism in the Modern World
  • Dove’s Racism in Promoting New Shower Foam
  • African-Americans Racism and Discrimination
  • Racism and Constructing Otherness in the US
  • Divisiveness and Mismatching in Anti-Racism
  • Problems and Cultivation of Racism
  • Racism and Masculinity in the Film “A Soldier’s Story”
  • Racism Problem at Institutional and Interactional Levels
  • Racism in the United States Judicial System
  • American Racism in “Men We Reaped” by Jesmyn Ward
  • Racism in the Music Video: Locked Up and Styles P
  • Racism in America: Discrimination and Prejudice
  • Racism Causes and Impacts in America
  • Racism in American Schools
  • Racism in America between 1783 and 1836
  • Racism in American Education
  • Racism as “The Case for Reparations” by Coates
  • What Extent Can Racism Be Prevented in Society?
  • How Educational Institutions Perpetuate Racism?
  • How Does Racism and Prejudice Affect America?
  • Does Affirmative Action Solve Racism?
  • Does Racism Exist Still?
  • Has Racism Gotten Better in the Modern World?
  • How Different Young Australians Experience Racism?
  • Have You Experienced Racism in Korea?
  • What Contribution Has Science Made to the Development of Racism?
  • How Does Racism Influence Genocide?
  • Did You Know That Racism No Longer Exists?
  • How Does Racism Really Play?
  • Does Huck Finn Represent Racism?
  • How Does Racism Affect the Way of a Caste Like System?
  • Does Brexit Trigger Racism?
  • Do Racism and Discrimination Still Exist Today?
  • What Causes Racism Persists?
  • How Does John Steinbeck Portray Racism in “Of Mice and Men”?
  • Did Hurricane Katrina Expose Racism in America?
  • Did Secession and Racism Be So Intimately Connect?
  • What Contribution Has Psychoanalytic Theory Made to Our Political Understanding of Racism?
  • How Cultural Elements and History Have Created and Are Changing Racism in Brazil?
  • How Does Racism Affect Society?
  • Has Racism Today Changed Since the 1950s?
  • How Fake News Use Satire as a Medium to Address Issues on Racism?
  • Did Slavery Cause Racism?
  • Are Indian Mascots Racism?
  • Did Racism Precede Slavery?
  • How Might Christians Put Their Beliefs About Racism Into Action?
  • How Are American-Bron Chinese Faced With Racism in America?

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StudyCorgi. (2021, September 9). 229 Racism Essay Topics.

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These essay examples and topics on Racism were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

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Home — Blog — Topic Ideas — Essay Topics on Racism: 150 Ideas for Analysis and Discussion

Essay Topics on Racism: 150 Ideas for Analysis and Discussion

essay topics on racism

Here’s a list of 150 essay ideas on racism to help you ace a perfect paper. The subjects are divided based on what you require!

Before we continue with the list of essay topics on racism, let's remember the definition of racism. In brief, it's a complex prejudice and a form of discrimination based on race. It can be done by an individual, a group, or an institution. If you belong to a racial or ethnic group, you are facing being in the minority. As it's usually caused by the group in power, there are many types of racism, including socio-cultural racism, internal racism, legal racism, systematic racism, interpersonal racism, institutional racism, and historical racism. You can also find educational or economic racism as there are many sub-sections that one can encounter.

150 Essay Topics on Racism to Help You Ace a Perfect Essay

General Recommendations

The subject of racism is one of the most popular among college students today because you can discuss it regardless of your academic discipline. Even though we are dealing with technical progress and the Internet, the problem of racism is still there. The world may go further and talk about philosophical matters, yet we still have to face them and explore the challenges. It makes it even more difficult to find a good topic that would be unique and inspiring. As a way to help you out, we have collected 150 racism essay topics that have been chosen by our experts. We recommend you choose something that motivates you and narrow things down a little bit to make your writing easier.

Why Choose a Topic on Racial Issues? 

When we explore racial issues, we are not only seeking the most efficient solutions but also reminding ourselves about the past and the mistakes that we should never make again. It is an inspirational type of work as we all can change the world. If you cannot choose a topic that inspires you, think about recent events, talk about your friend, or discuss something that has happened in your local area. Just take your time and think about how you can make the world a safer and better place.

The Secrets of a Good Essay About Racism 

The secret to writing a good essay on racism is not only stating that racism is bad but by exploring the origins and finding a solution. You can choose a discipline and start from there. For example, if you are a nursing student, talk about the medical principles and responsibilities where every person is the same. Talk about how it has not always been this way and discuss the methods and the famous theorists who have done their best to bring equality to our society. Keep your tone inspiring, explore, and tell a story with a moral lesson in the end. Now let’s explore the topic ideas on racism!

General Essay Topics On Racism 

As we know, no person is born a racist since we are not born this way and it cannot be considered a biological phenomenon. Since it is a practice that is learned and a social issue, the general topics related to racism may include socio-cultural, philosophical, and political aspects as you can see below. Here are the ideas that you should consider as you plan to write an essay on racial issues:

  • Are we born with racial prejudice? 
  • Can racism be unlearned? 
  • The political constituent of the racial prejudice and the colonial past? 
  • The humiliation of the African continent and the control of power. 
  • The heritage of the Black Lives Matter movement and its historical origins. 
  • The skin color issue and the cultural perceptions of the African Americans vs Mexican Americans. 
  • The role of social media in the prevention of racial conflicts in 2022 . 
  • Martin Luther King Jr. and his role in modern education. 
  • Konrad Lorenz and the biological perception of the human race. 
  • The relation of racial issues to nazism and chauvinism.

The Best Racism Essay Topics 

School and college learners often ask about what can be considered the best essay subject when asked to write on racial issues. Essentially, you have to talk about the origins of racism and provide a moral lesson with a solution as every person can be a solid contribution to the prevention of hatred and racial discrimination.

  • The schoolchildren's example and the attitude to the racial conflicts. 
  • Perception of racism in the United States versus Germany. 
  • The role of the scouting movement as a way to promote equality in our society. 
  •  Social justice and the range of opportunities that African American individuals could receive during the 1960s.
  •  The workplace equality and the negative perception of the race when the documents are being filed. 
  •  The institutional racism and the sources of the legislation that has paved the way for injustice. 
  •  Why should we talk to the children about racial prejudice and set good examples ? 
  •  The role of anthropology in racial research during the 1990s in the USA. 
  •  The Black Poverty phenomenon and the origins of the Black Culture across the globe. 
  •  The controversy of Malcolm X’s personality and his transition from anger to peacemaking.

Shocking Racism Essay Ideas 

Unfortunately, there are many subjects that are not easy to deal with when you are talking about the most horrible sides of racism. Since these subjects are sensitive, dealing with the shocking aspects of this problem should be approached with a warning in your introduction part so your readers know what to expect. As a rule, many medical and forensic students will dive into the issue, so these topic ideas are still relevant:

  • The prejudice against wearing a hoodie. 
  •  The racial violence in Western Africa and the crimes by the Belgian government. 
  •  The comparison of homophobic beliefs and the link to racial prejudice. 
  •  Domestic violence and the bias towards the cases based on race. 
  •  Racial discrimination in the field of the sex industry. 
  •  Slavery in the Middle East and the modern cultural perceptions. 
  •  Internal racism in the United States: why the black communities keep silent. 
  •  Racism in the American schools: the bias among the teachers. 
  •  Cyberbullying and the distorted image of the typical racists . 
  •  The prisons of Apartheid in South Africa.

Light and Simple Ideas Regarding Racism

If you are a high-school learner or a first-year college student, your essay on racism may not have to represent complex research with a dozen of sources. Here are some good ideas that are light and simple enough to provide you with inspiration and the basic points to follow:

  • My first encounter with racial prejudice. 
  •  Why do college students are always in the vanguard of social campaigns? 
  •  How are the racial issues addressed by my school? 
  •  The promotion of the African-American culture is a method to challenge prejudice and stereotypes. 
  • The history of blues music and the Black culture of the blues in the United States.
  • The role of slavery in the Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. 
  •  School segregation in the United States during the 1960s. 
  •  The negative effect of racism on the mental health of a person. 
  •  The advocacy of racism in modern society . 
  •  The heritage of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” and the modern perception of the historical issues.

Interesting Topics on Racism For an Essay 

Contrary to the popular belief, when you have to talk about the cases of racial prejudice, you will also encounter many interesting essay topic ideas. As long as these are related to your main academic course, you can explore them. Here are some great ideas to consider:

  • Has the perception of Michael Jackson changed because of his skin transition? 
  •  The perception of racial problems by the British Broadcasting Corporation. 
  •  The role of the African American influencers on Instagram. 
  •  The comparison between the Asian students and the Mexican learners in the USA. 
  •  Latin culture and the similarities when compared to the Black culture with its peculiarities. 
  •  The racial impact in the “Boy In The Stripped Pajamas”. 
  •  Can we eliminate racism completely and how exactly, considering the answer is “Yes”? 
  •  Scientific research of modern racism and social media campaigns. 
  •  Why do some people believe that the Black Lives Matter movement is controversial? 
  • Male vs female challenges in relation to racial attitudes.

Argumentative Essay Topics About Race 

An argumentative type of writing requires making a clear statement or posing an assumption that will deal with a particular question. As we are dealing with racial prejudice or theories, it is essential to support your writing with at least one piece of evidence to make sure that you can support your opinion and stand for it as you write. Here are some good African American argumentative essay examples of topics and other ideas to consider:

  •  Racism is a mental disorder and cannot be treated with words alone. 
  •  Analysis of the traumatic experiences based on racial prejudice. 
  •  African-American communities and the sense of being inferior are caused by poverty. 
  •  Reading the memoirs of famous people that describe racial issues often provides a distorted image through the lens of a single person. 
  •  There is no academic explanation of racism since every case is different and is often based on personal perceptions. 
  •  The negatives of the post-racial perception as the latent system that advocates racism. 
  •  The link of racial origins to the concept of feminism and gender inequality. 
  •  The military bias and the merits that are earned by the African-American soldiers. 
  •  The media causes a negative image of the Latin and Mexican youth in the United States. 
  •  Does racism exist in kindergarten and why the youngsters do not think about racial prejudice?

Racism Research Paper Topics 

Dealing with The Black Lives Matter essay , you should focus on those aspects of racism that are not often discussed or researched by the media. You can take a particular case study or talk about the reasons why the BLM social campaign has started and whether the timing has been right. Here are some interesting racism topics for research paper that you should consider:

  • The link of criminal offenses to race is an example of the primary injustice .  
  • The socio-emotional burdens of slavery that one can trace among the representatives of the African-American population. 
  • Study of the cardio-vascular diseases among the American youth: a comparison of the Caucasian and Latin representatives. 
  • The race and the politics: dealing with the racial issues and the Trump administration analysis. 
  • The best methods to achieve medical equality for all people: where race has no place to be. 
  • The perception of racism by the young children: the negative side of trying to educate the youngsters. 
  • Racial prejudice in the UK vs the United States: analysis of the core differences. 
  • The prisons in the United States: why do the Blacks constitute the majority? 
  • The culture of Voodoo and the slavery: the link between the occult practices.
  • The native American people and the African Americans: the common woes they share.

Racism in Culture Topics 

Racism topics for essay in culture are always upon the surface because we can encounter them in books, popular political shows, movies, social media, and more. The majority of college students often ignore this aspect because things easily become confusing since one has to take a stand and explain the point. As a way to help you a little bit, we have collected several cultural racism topic ideas to help you start:

  • The perception of wealth by the Black community: why it differs when researched through the lens of past poverty?  
  • The rap music and the cultural constituent of the African-American community. 
  • The moral constituent of the political shows where racial jargon is being used. 
  • Why the racial jokes on television are against the freedom of speech?  
  • The ways how the modern media promotes racism by stirring up the conflict and actually doing harm. 
  • The isolated cases of racism and police violence in the United States as portrayed by the movies. 
  • Playing with the Black musicians: the history of jazz in the United States. 
  • The social distancing and the perception of isolation by the different races. 
  • The cultural multitude in the cartoons by the Disney Corporations: the pros and cons.
  • From assimilation to genocide: can the African American child make it big without living through the cultural bias?

Racism Essay Ideas in Literature 

One of the best ways to study racism is by reading the books by those who have been through it on their own or by studying the explorations by those who can write emotionally and fight for racial equality where racism has no place to be. Keeping all of these challenges in mind, our experts suggest turning to the books as you can explore racism in the literature by focusing on those who are against it and discussing the cases in the classic literature that are quite controversial.

  • The racial controversy of Ernest Hemingway's writing.  
  • The personal attitude of Mark Twain towards slavery and the cultural peculiarities of the times. 
  • The reasons why "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee book has been banned in libraries. 
  • The "Hate You Give" by Angie Thomas and the analysis of the justified and "legit" racism. 
  • Is the poetry by the gangsta rap an example of hidden racism? 
  • Maya Angelou and her timeless poetry. 
  • The portrayal of xenophobia in modern English language literature. 
  • What can we learn from the "Schilder's List" screenplay as we discuss the subject of genocide? 
  • Are there racial elements in "Othello" or Shakespeare's creation is beyond the subject?
  • Kate Chopin's perception of inequality in "Desiree's Baby".

Racism in Science Essay Ideas 

Racism is often studied by scientists because it's not only a cultural point or a social agenda that is driven by personal inferiority and similar factors of mental distortion. Since we can talk about police violence and social campaigns, it is also possible to discuss things through different disciplines. Think over these racism thesis statement ideas by taking a scientific approach and getting a common idea explained:

  • Can physical trauma become a cause for a different perception of race? 
  • Do we inherit racial intolerance from our family members and friends? 
  • Can a white person assimilate and become a part of the primarily Black community? 
  • The people behind the concept of Apartheid: analysis of the critical factors. 
  • Can one prove the fact of the physical damage of the racial injustice that lasted through the years? 
  • The bond between mental diseases and the slavery heritage among the Black people. 
  • Should people carry the blame for the years of social injustice? 
  • How can we explain the metaphysics of race? 
  • What do the different religions tell us about race and the best ways to deal with it? 
  • Ethnic prejudices based on age, gender, and social status vs general racism.

Cinema and Race Topics to Write About 

As a rule, the movies are also a great source for writing an essay on racial issues. Remember to provide the basic information about the movie or include examples with the quotations to help your readers understand all the major points that you make. Here are some ideas that are worth your attention:

  • The negative aspect of the portrayal of racial issues by Hollywood.  
  • Should the disturbing facts and the graphic violence be included in the movies about slavery? 
  • Analysis of the "Green Mile" movie and the perception of equality in our society.  
  • The role of music and culture in the "Django Unchained" movie. 
  • The "Ghosts of Mississippi" and the social aspect of the American South compared to how we perceive it today. 
  • What can we learn from the "Malcolm X" movie created by Spike Lee? 
  • "I am Not Your Negro" movie and the role of education through the movies. 
  • "And the Children Shall Lead" the movie as an example that we are not born racist. 
  • Do we really have the "Black Hollywood" concept in reality? 
  • Do the movies about racial issues only cause even more racial prejudice?

Race and Ethnic Relations 

Another challenging problem is the internal racism and race and ethnicity essay topics that we can observe not only in the United States but all over the world as well. For example, the Black people in the United States and the representatives of the rap music culture will divide themselves between the East Coast and the West Coast where far more than cultural differences exist. The same can be encountered in Afghanistan or in Belgium. Here are some essay topics on race and ethnicity idea samples to consider:

  • The racial or the ethnic conflict? What can we learn from Afghan society? 
  • Religious beliefs divide us based on ethnicity . 
  • What are the major differences between ethnic and racial conflicts? 
  • Why we are able to identify the European Black person and the Black coming from the United States? 
  • Racism and ethnicity's role in sports. 
  • How can an ethnic conflict be resolved with the help of anti-racial methods? 
  • The medical aspect of being an Asian in the United States. 
  • The challenges of learning as an African American person during the 1950s. 
  • The role of the African American people in the Vietnam war and their perception by the locals. 
  • Ethnicity's role in South Africa as the concept of Apartheid has been formed.

Biology and Racial Issues 

If you are majoring in Biology or would like to research this side of the general issue of race, it is essential to think about how we can fight racism in practice by turning to healthcare or the concepts that are historical in their nature. Although we cannot explain slavery per se other than by turning to economics and the rule of power that has no justification, biologists believe that racial challenges can be approached by their core beliefs as well.

  • Can we create an isolated non-racist society in 2022? 
  • If we assume that a social group has never heard of racism, can it occur? 
  • The physical versus cultural differences in the racial inequality cases? 
  • The biological peculiarities of the different races? 
  • Do we carry the cultural heritage of our race? 
  • Interracial marriage through the lens of Biology. 
  • The origins of the racial concept and its evolution. 
  • The core ways how slavery has changed the African-American population. 
  • The linguistic peculiarities of the Latin people. 
  • The resistance of the different races towards vaccination.

Modern Racism Topics to Consider 

In case you would like to deal with a modern subject that deals with racism, you can go beyond the famous Black Lives Matter movement by focusing on the cases of racism in sports or talking about the peacemakers or the famous celebrities who have made a solid difference in the elimination of racism.

  • The Global Citizen campaign is a way to eliminate racial differences. 
  • The heritage of Aretha Franklin and her take on the racial challenges. 
  • The role of the Black Stars in modern society: the pros and cons. 
  • Martin Luther King Day in the modern schools. 
  • How can Instagram help to eliminate racism? 
  • The personality of Michelle Obama as a fighter for peace. 
  • Is a society without racism a utopian idea? 
  • How can comic books help youngsters understand equality? 
  • The controversy in the death of George Floyd. 
  • How can we break down the stereotypes about Mexicans in the United States?

Racial Discrimination Essay Ideas 

If your essay should focus on racial discrimination, you should think about the environment and the type of prejudice that you are facing. For example, it can be in school or at the workplace, at the hospital, or in a movie that you have attended. Here are some discrimination topics research paper ideas that will help you to get started:

  • How can a schoolchild report the case of racism while being a minor?  
  • The discrimination against women's rights during the 1960s. 
  • The employment problem and the chances of the Latin, Asian, and African American applicants. 
  • Do colleges implement a certain selection process against different races? 
  • How can discrimination be eliminated via education? 
  • African-American challenges in sports. 
  • The perception of discrimination, based on racial principles and the laws in the United States. 
  • How can one report racial comments on social media? 
  • Is there discrimination against white people in our society? 
  • Covid-19 and racial discrimination: the lessons we have learned.

Find Even More Essay Topics On Racism by Visiting Our Site 

If you are unsure about what to write about, you can always find an essay on racism by visiting our website. Offering over 150 topic ideas, you can always get in touch with our experts and find another one!

5 Tips to Make Your Essay Perfect

  • Start your essay on racial issues by narrowing things down after you choose the general topic. 
  • Get your facts straight by checking the dates, the names, opinions from both sides of an issue, etc. 
  • Provide examples if you are talking about the general aspects of racism. 
  • Do not use profanity and show due respect even if you are talking about shocking things. The same relates to race and ethnic relations essay topics that are based on religious conflicts. Stay respectful! 
  • Provide references and citations to avoid plagiarism and to keep your ideas supported by at least one piece of evidence.

Recommendations to Help You Get Inspired

Speaking of recommended books and articles to help you start with this subject, you should check " The Ideology of Racism: Misusing Science to Justify Racial Discrimination " by William H. Tucker who is a professor of social sciences at Rutgers University. Once you read this great article, think about the poetry by Maya Angelou as one of the best examples to see the practical side of things.

The other recommendations worth checking include:

- How to be Anti-Racist by Ibram X. Kendi . - White Fragility by Robin Diangelo . - So You Want to Talk About Race by Ijeoma Oluo .

The Final Word 

We sincerely believe that our article has helped you to choose the perfect essay subject to stir your writing skills. If you are still feeling stuck and need additional help, our team of writers can assist you in the creation of any essay based on what you would like to explore. You can get in touch with our skilled experts anytime by contacting our essay service for any race and ethnicity topics. Always confidential and plagiarism-free, we can assist you and help you get over the stress!

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124 Racism Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Racism is a pervasive issue that continues to plague societies around the world. From subtle microaggressions to overt acts of discrimination, racism manifests in various forms and affects individuals from all walks of life. As such, it is crucial to address this issue head-on and engage in meaningful conversations about its impact on individuals and communities.

To help spark dialogue and reflection on racism, we have compiled a list of 124 racism essay topic ideas and examples. These topics cover a wide range of issues related to racism, from historical events to contemporary debates. Whether you are a student looking for inspiration for an essay or a teacher seeking discussion prompts for your class, these topic ideas can serve as a valuable resource for exploring the complexities of racism in society.

  • The history of racism in the United States
  • The impact of colonialism on racism
  • The role of racial stereotypes in perpetuating racism
  • The intersection of race and class in experiences of racism
  • The effects of systemic racism on marginalized communities
  • The portrayal of race in the media
  • The relationship between racism and mental health
  • The role of education in combating racism
  • The impact of racism on healthcare disparities
  • The criminal justice system and racial bias
  • The legacy of slavery in shaping contemporary racism
  • The role of social media in amplifying racist discourse
  • The importance of allyship in addressing racism
  • The impact of racist policies on immigration
  • The representation of race in literature and art
  • The experiences of interracial couples in a racist society
  • The role of language in perpetuating racist attitudes
  • The impact of racism on Indigenous communities
  • The relationship between racism and environmental justice
  • The experiences of Black women in navigating racism and sexism
  • The impact of racism on mental health outcomes for people of color
  • The role of white privilege in perpetuating racism
  • The impact of racial profiling on communities of color
  • The experiences of Asian Americans in the face of anti-Asian racism
  • The impact of colorism within communities of color
  • The intersection of race and religion in experiences of discrimination
  • The impact of racist policing practices on communities of color
  • The role of social movements in challenging racism
  • The impact of racism on educational outcomes for students of color
  • The experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals of color in navigating multiple forms of discrimination
  • The impact of racism on economic opportunities for people of color
  • The portrayal of race in popular culture
  • The experiences of Muslim Americans in the face of Islamophobia
  • The impact of racist beauty standards on self-esteem
  • The role of racism in shaping housing segregation
  • The experiences of Latinx communities in navigating anti-immigrant sentiment
  • The impact of racism on access to healthcare for people of color
  • The portrayal of race in children's literature
  • The experiences of multiracial individuals in navigating identity
  • The impact of racist language on workplace dynamics
  • The role of racism in shaping voting rights
  • The experiences of refugees in the face of xenophobia
  • The impact of racist immigration policies on families
  • The portrayal of race in sports
  • The experiences of Native American communities in navigating stereotypes
  • The impact of racist policing practices on mental health outcomes
  • The role of racism in shaping environmental racism
  • The experiences of Black trans individuals in navigating discrimination
  • The impact of racist policies on access to affordable housing
  • The portrayal of race in video games
  • The experiences of incarcerated individuals of color in navigating systemic racism
  • The impact of racist dress codes on students of color
  • The role of racism in shaping access to quality education
  • The experiences of undocumented immigrants in navigating anti-immigrant sentiment
  • The impact of racist hiring practices on economic opportunities for people of color
  • The portrayal of race in advertising
  • The experiences of East Asian communities in navigating anti-Asian racism
  • The impact of racist healthcare practices on communities of color
  • The role of racism in shaping access to mental health services
  • The experiences of Black women in navigating workplace discrimination
  • The impact of racist beauty standards on body image
  • The portrayal of race in reality TV shows
  • The experiences of Muslim Americans in navigating discriminatory policies
  • The impact of racist housing policies on housing segregation
  • The role of racism in shaping access to reproductive healthcare
  • The experiences of Latinx communities in navigating anti-Latinx sentiment
  • The impact of racist language on interpersonal relationships
  • The portrayal of race in music
  • The experiences of multiracial individuals in navigating microaggressions
  • The impact of racist dress codes on workplace dynamics
  • The role of racism in shaping access to financial services
  • The experiences of refugees in navigating anti-refugee sentiment
  • The impact of racist immigration policies on family reunification
  • The portrayal of race in fashion
  • The experiences of Native American communities in navigating cultural appropriation
  • The impact of racist policing practices on community trust
  • The role of racism in shaping access to healthy food options
  • The experiences of Black trans individuals in navigating healthcare discrimination
  • The impact of racist policies on access to public transportation
  • The portrayal of race in film
  • The experiences of incarcerated individuals of color in navigating reentry
  • The impact of racist dress codes on access to public spaces
  • The role of racism in shaping access to quality childcare
  • The experiences of undocumented immigrants in navigating deportation
  • The impact of racist hiring practices on access to job training
  • The portrayal of race in social media
  • The experiences of East Asian communities in navigating stereotypes
  • The impact of racist healthcare practices on health outcomes
  • The role of racism in shaping access to affordable housing
  • The experiences of Black women in navigating reproductive healthcare
  • The impact of racist beauty standards on self-care practices
  • The portrayal of race in television shows
  • The experiences of Muslim Americans in navigating workplace discrimination
  • The impact of racist housing policies on access to safe housing
  • The impact of racist language on mental health outcomes
  • The portrayal of race in children's programming
  • The experiences of multiracial individuals in navigating identity development
  • The impact of racist dress codes on access to cultural events
  • The role of racism in shaping access to financial literacy resources
  • The experiences of refugees in navigating resettlement
  • The impact of racist immigration policies on access to legal services
  • The portrayal of race in online gaming
  • The experiences of Native American communities in navigating land rights
  • The impact of racist policing practices on access to justice
  • The role of racism in shaping access to affordable healthcare
  • The experiences of Black trans individuals in navigating gender-affirming care
  • The impact of racist policies on access to public parks
  • The portrayal of race in beauty pageants
  • The experiences of incarcerated individuals of color in navigating prison reentry
  • The impact of racist dress codes on access to recreational facilities
  • The role of racism in shaping access to quality mental health care
  • The experiences of undocumented immigrants in navigating detention
  • The impact of racist hiring practices on access to job placement
  • The portrayal of race in music videos
  • The experiences of East Asian communities in navigating cultural appropriation
  • The impact of racist healthcare practices on access to preventive care
  • The experiences of Black women in navigating access to childcare
  • The impact of racist beauty standards on access to self-care products
  • The portrayal of race in podcasts
  • The experiences of Muslim Americans in navigating access to religious services
  • The impact of racist housing policies on access to safe neighborhoods

These essay topic ideas and examples are just a starting point for exploring the complexities of racism in society. By engaging in thoughtful conversations and critical analysis, we can work towards creating a more just and equitable world for all individuals.

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398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples

  • 🔖 Secrets of Powerful Racism Essay

🏆 Best Racism Topic Ideas & Essay Examples

🥇 most interesting racism topics to write about, 🎓 simple & easy racism essay titles, ⚡ shocking essay topics on racism, 👍 good essay topics on racism, 💡 interesting essay titles about racism, ❓ racism questions for essay.

Looking for powerful racism essay topics? You will find them here! This list contains a great variety of titles for racism-themed papers. We’ve also included useful tips and plenty of racism essay examples to help you write an outstanding paper.

🔖 Secrets of a Powerful Racism Essay

Writing an essay on racism may seem easy at first. However, because racism is such a popular subject in social sciences, politics, and history, your piece needs to be truly powerful to receive a high mark. Here are the best tips to help make your racism essay stand out:

  • Consider the historical causes of racism. Papers on racism often focus on discrimination and equality in modern society. Digging a bit deeper and highlighting the origins of racism will make your essay more impressive. Check academic resources on the subject to see how racism was connected to the slave trade, politics, and social development in Europe. Explore these ideas in your paper to make it more compelling!
  • Show critical thinking. Racism essay titles often focus on the effects of racism on the population. To make your essay more powerful, you will need to discuss the things that are often left out. Think about why racial discrimination is still prevalent in modern society and who benefits from racist policies. This will show your tutor that you understand the topic in great depth.
  • Look for examples of racism in art. One of the reasons as to why racism spread so quickly is because artists and authors supported the narratives of race. If you explore paintings by European artists created in 17-18 centuries, you will find that they often highlighted the differences between black and white people to make the former seem less human. In various literary works, such as Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Shakespeare’s Othello, racism plays a vital role. In contrast, more recent works of art consider racism from a critical viewpoint. Examining how racism is reflected in the art will help you to earn an excellent mark for your analysis of the subject.
  • Discuss the influences of racism. Of course, one of the key racism essay topics is the impact of racism on black populations in various countries. It is true that discrimination plays an essential role in the lives of black people, and reflecting this in your paper will help you to make it influential. You can discuss various themes here, from police brutality to healthcare access. Support your claims with high-quality data from official sources. If appropriate, you can also show how racism affected your life or the lives of your friends and loved ones.
  • Show the correlation between racism and other social issues. Racism is connected to many different types of discrimination, including sexism and homophobia. This allows you to expand your paper by showing these links and explaining them. For instance, you could write an essay on racism and xenophobia, or find other topics that interest you.

Finally, structure your essay well. Write an outline first to determine the sequence of key points. You can check out a racism essay example on this website to see how other people structure their work.

Racism Thesis Statement, Main Body, & Conclusion

A typical essay should have an introduction, the main body, and a conclusion. Each paragraph of the main body should start with a topic sentence. Here’s what a topic sentence for racism-themed essay can look like:

Racism continues to be a pervasive issue in society, with deep-rooted prejudices and discrimination that impact individuals and communities across the globe.

Don’t forget to include a racism essay thesis statement at the end of your introduction to identify the focus of the paper! Check out these racism thesis statements for inspiration:

Racism is pervasive social problem that manifests in various forms, perpetuating systemic inequalities and marginalizing minority groups. Through an examination of racism’s history and its psychological impact on individuals, it becomes evident that this pressing issue demands collective action for meaningful change.

In your essay’s conclusion, you can simply paraphrase the thesis and add a couple of additional remarks.

These guidelines will help you to ensure that your work is truly outstanding and deserving of a great mark! Be sure to visit our website for more racism example essays, topics, and other useful materials.

These points will help you to ensure that your work on racism is truly influential and receives a great mark! Be sure to visit our website for example papers, essay titles, and other useful materials.

  • The Challenges of Racism Influential for the Life of Frederick Douglass and Barack Obama However, Douglass became an influential anti-slavery and human rights activist because in the early childhood he learnt the power of education to fight inequality with the help of his literary and public speaking skills to […]
  • Racism in the “Dutchman” by Amiri Baraka Generally, one is to keep in mind that Baraka is recognized to be one of the most important representatives of the black community, and the theme of racism in The Dutchman has, therefore, some historical […]
  • Racism in “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” by Mark Twain The character of Pap is used to advance the theme of racism in the book. In the closing chapters of the book, Huck and Tom come to the realization that Jim is not property but […]
  • Racism in “The Black Table Is Still There” by Graham The black table, as he calls it, is a table, that was and still is, present in his school’s cafeteria, that accommodated the black students only depicting no more than racism in schools.
  • The Problem of Racism in Brazilian Football Skidmore describes it as the relationships that could result into conflict and consciousness and determination of the people’s status in a community or a particular group. In football, racism damages pride of the players and […]
  • Racism in Music: “(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue” The extreme popularity of the song among the black population can be explained with references to the fact that Armstrong changed the original lyrics to accentuate the social meaning of the composition and elaborated the […]
  • Maya Angelou: Racism and Segregation in “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings” An example is that, as she fails to recite her poem in church, she notes that her dress is probably a handout from a white woman.
  • Racism in Play “Othello” by William Shakespeare Since Othello is dark-skinned, the society is against his marriage to the daughter of the senator of Venice. In summary, the play Othello is captivating and presents racism as it was.
  • Racism and Discrimination as Social Constructs This is because the concept of race has a negative connotation in the society. For example in some societies, especially the western society; the concept of race implies un-fair treatment and discrimination of a particular […]
  • Imperialism and Racism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness He lauds “the book’s anti-imperialist theme…a stinging indictment of the callous and genocidal treatment of the Africans, and other nationals, at the hands of the British and the European imperial powers,” and also details the […]
  • Racial Discrimination Effects in Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody The vivid description of events from the beginning gives the reader a clear picture of a girl who was born in problems and in spite of her intelligence she always became a victim of circumstances.
  • Colonialism and Racism in Foe by J. M. Coetzee and Small Island by Andrea Levy This paper will try to expound on the relevance of real-life politics, of colonialism and racism, with regards to two popular works of fiction that used as themes or backdrop colonialism and racism.
  • Racial Discrimination in “A Raisin in the Sun” Racial discrimination is the main theme of the book, strongly reflecting the situation that prevailed during the 1950s in the United States, a time when the story’s Younger family lived in Chicago’s South Side ghetto.
  • Racism in Shakespeare’s “Othello” and Dick’s “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” The formalist analysis of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep repeats the same mistake, as it focuses on the plot devices and tropes presented in the story.
  • Racism in The Paper Menagerie Essay Also, it is a tragedy of the society the influence of which can be too devastating to heal.”The Paper Menagerie” teaches the audience how ungrateful and cruel a child can become under the pressure of […]
  • Comparison of Ethnicity and Racism in “Country Lovers” and “The Welcome Table” In both cases, the texts have devoted their concerns to the plight of a black female who is deposed off her meaning within the realms of the society.
  • Racial Discrimination at the Workplace The main change that is discussed in this essay is the introduction of legislation that will see the creation of a special authority that is aimed at guaranteeing the freedom of all workers at the […]
  • Black or White Racism When one listens to the “Black or White” song, it is clear that Michael Jackson is not expecting his audience to be either white or black people to listen and learn the message he is […]
  • Racism and Intolerance: The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre: Crafting a Legacy by Messer elaborates on the legacy of the event and its repercussions and offers a profound analysis of the issue, which strengthened my focus of the research.
  • Root Causes and Solutions to Racism Media is meant to eradicate racism and maintain unity among people but the case is different in some situations. Also, it is vital to make children understand nothing is amusing in the use of stereotypes […]
  • Racism and Motherhood Themes in Grimke’s “Rachel” In addition, her mother kept the cause of the deaths of Rachel’s father and brother secret. In essence, the play Rachel is educative and addresses some of the challenges people face in society.
  • Anti-Racism in Shakespeare’s Othello For Shakespeare, Brabantio’s views are representative of the racial prejudice of the society in general, rather than of his personal feelings towards the protagonist. On the other hand, Othello’s story is cohesive and believable; he […]
  • Racism in Ralph Ellison’s “Battle Royal” The main focus of the story is the problem of racism, particularly to African-American people in the United States. In terms of other issues that “Battle Royal” demonstrates and that are further developed in the […]
  • Racism: De Brahm’s Map and the Casta Paintings However, De Brahm’s map is one of the most striking pieces of evidence of the conquest of space and the entrenchment of the idea of land and people as titular property.
  • Racism and Inequality in Society The idea of race as a social construct is examined in the first episode of the documentary series “The Power of an Illusion”.
  • Anti-Racism: Marginalization and Exclusion in Healthcare This essay examines the course’s impact and the concepts of marginalization and exclusion in healthcare. Marginalization is a concept that has profoundly influenced the understanding of race and racism in healthcare.
  • The Issue of Racism in the United States The entire history of the United States is permeated with the evolution of the ideas of racism. Turning to history, we can see that the U.S.moved from slavery to using the Black population to solve […]
  • History of Racial Discrimination in Haiti and America The choice of topic, racial discrimination in Haiti and America, was influenced by beliefs, values, and assumptions emphasizing the importance of equality and justice for all races.
  • Racism and History of Discrimination As a result, advocacy should be aimed at creating new models in criminal justice that will ensure the protection of all minority groups and due process.
  • Racial Discrimination and Color Blindness Of the three ideologies, racial harmony is considered the most appropriate for coping with problems of racism and racial injustice due to various reasons.
  • Race, Racism, and Dangers of Race Thinking While it is true that some forms of race thinking can be used to justify and perpetuate racism, it is not necessarily the case that all forms of race thinking are inherently racist. Race thinking […]
  • Racial Discrimination in American Literature In this way, the author denies the difference between people of color and whites and, therefore, the concept of racism in general.
  • Racism in the US: Settler Imperialism They prove that colonial imperialism is a structure, not a contextual phenomenon and that, as such, it propagates the marginalization of native people.
  • Why Empathy in Racism Should Be Avoided Empathy is the capacity to comprehend and experience the emotions and ideas of others. Moreover, empathic emotions are essential to social and interpersonal life since they allow individuals to adapt their cognitive processes to their […]
  • Racial Discrimination in High Education This peer-reviewed scholar article was found in the JSTOR database through entering key words “race affirmative action” and marking the publication period between 2017 and 2022.
  • Social Sciences: Racism Through Different Lenses A thorough analysis of diversity adds value to social interactions by informing human behavior through a deeper understanding of racism and its impacts on society. Using the humanities lens leads to a better understanding of […]
  • Racial Discrimination in Dormitory Discrimination is considered to be behavior that restricts the rights and freedoms of the individual. Therefore, it is essential to investigate discrimination in dormitories and propose solutions to this problem, such as disseminating knowledge about […]
  • Racism and Its Impact on Populations and Society The ignorance of many individuals about other people’s cultures and ethnicities is one of the causes of racism. One can examine the various components of society and how they relate to the issue of racism […]
  • Institutionalized Racism and Individualistic Racism Excellent examples of individualistic racism include the belief in white supremacy, racial jokes, employment discrimination, and personal prejudices against black people. Overall, institutionalized and individualistic racism is a perversive issue that affects racial relations in […]
  • Community Engagement with Racism To enhance the population’s degree of involvement in racism, the study calls for collaboration; this can be seen as a community effort to foster a sense of teamwork.
  • Racism Detection with Implicit Association Test Racial bias is deeply rooted in human society and propelled by norms and stereotypic ideologies that lead to implicit bias and the unfair treatment of minority groups.
  • Identity and Belonging: Racism and Ethnicity In the documentary Afro Germany – Being Black and German, several individuals share their stories of feeling mistreated and excluded because of their skin color.
  • Policies to Eliminate Racial Disparities and Discrimination The solution to exclusion is to build social inclusion in the classroom and within the school by encouraging peer acceptance, cross-group friendships, and built-in prevention.
  • Causes, Facilitators, and Solutions to Racism These theories suggest that racism serves a particular function in society, occurs due to the interactions of individuals from dominant groups, and results from a human culture of prejudice and discrimination.
  • Racial Discrimination and Justice in Education An example is the complaint of the parents of one of the black students that, during the passage of civilizations, the Greeks, Romans, and Incas were discussed in the lessons, but nothing was said about […]
  • Empathy and Racism in Stockett’s The Help and Li’s To Kill a Mockingbird To start with, the first approach to racism and promoting empathy is to confront prevalent discrimination and racism, which was often shown in The Help. Another solution to racism and the possibility of promoting empathy […]
  • Is Troy Maxson (Wilson’s Fences) a Victim of Racism? As a black American, Troy’s childhood experiences have been passed on to his children, making him a victim of an oppressive culture. Therefore, this makes Troy a victim of racism and culture, contributing to his […]
  • Racism in the Healthcare Sector In 2020, the cases and instances of racism in healthcare rose by 16% from 2018; there were notable instances of racism in various spheres of health. 9% of blacks have been protected from discrimination and […]
  • Racism in Healthcare and Education The mission should emphasize that it promotes diversity and equality of all students and seeks to eliminate racial bias. It is necessary to modify the mission to include the concept of inclusiveness and equality.
  • Institutional Racism in the Workplace Despite countless efforts to offer African-Americans the same rights and opportunities as Whites, the situation cannot be resolved due to the emergence of new factors and challenges.
  • Racism in Education in the United States Such racial disparities in the educational workforce confirm the problem of structural racism and barrier to implementing diversity in higher medical education. Structural racism has a long history and continues to affect the growth of […]
  • Rhetoric in Obama’s 2008 Speech on Racism When the audience became excited, it was Obama’s responsibility to convey his message in a more accessible form. To conclude, Obama’s speech in 2008 facilitated his election as the first African American President in history.
  • How to Talk to Children About Racism The text begins by referring to recent events that were related to race-based discrimination and hatred, such as the murder of George Floyd and the protests dedicated to the matter.
  • Care for Real: Racism and Food Insecurity Care for Real relies on the generosity of residents, donation campaigns, and business owners to collect and deliver these supplies. The research article discusses some of the factors that contribute to the creation of racism […]
  • Racism Towards Just and Holistic Health Therefore, the critical content of the event was to determine the steps covered so far in the fight for racial equality in the provision of care and what can be done to improve the status […]
  • Systemic Racism and Discrimination Thus, exploring the concept of race from a sociological perspective emphasizes the initial aspect of inequality in the foundation of the concept and provides valuable insight into the reasons of racial discrimination in modern society.
  • The Racism Problem and Its Relevance The images demonstrate how deeply racism is rooted in our society and the role the media plays in spreading and combating racism.
  • Aspects of Socio-Economic Sides of Racism And the answer is given in Dorothy Brown’s article for CNN “Whites who escape the attention of the police benefit because of slavery’s long reach”.. This shows that the problem of racism is actual in […]
  • Tackling Racism in the Workplace It means that reporting racism to HR does not have the expected positive effect on workplace relations, and employees may not feel secure to notify HR about the incidences of racism.
  • Issue of Racism Around the World One of the instances of racism around the world is the manifestations of violence against indigenous women, which threatens the safety of this vulnerable group and should be mitigated.
  • Environmental Racism: The Water Crisis in Flint, Michigan The situation is a manifestation of environmental racism and classism since most of the city’s population is people of color and poor. Thus, the water crisis in Flint, Michigan, is a manifestation of environmental racism […]
  • The “Racism and Discrimination” Documentary The documentary “Racism and Discrimination” is about an anti-racist teacher Jane Elliot who attempts to show the white people the feeling of discrimination. The central argument of the documentary is diversity training to seize the […]
  • Abortion-Related Racial Discrimination in the US In spite of being a numerical minority, Black women in the U.S.resort to abortion services rather often compared to the White population.
  • Social Problems Surrounding Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination This kind of discrimination makes the students lose their self-esteem and the traumas experienced affects the mental health of these students in the long term.
  • The Unethical Practice of Racism in a Doctor’s Case The involvement of Barrett in the protest is both unethical for the university’s image and immoral for the community. However, the school would likely face tougher court fines and a direct order to reinstate Barrett’s […]
  • The Problem of Racism in America One explanation of racism by feminist thinkers is that racism is a manifestation of the agency and power of people of a particular racial identity over others.
  • Racism: “The Sum of Us” Article by McGhee The economic analysis and sociological findings in America have drawn a detailed picture of the cost of racism in America and how to overcome it together.
  • Contemporary Sociological Theories and American Racism The central intention of this theory paper is to apply modern theoretical concepts from the humanities discipline of sociology to the topic of racism in the United States.
  • A Cause-and-Effect Analysis of Racism and Discrimination As a result, it is vital to conduct a cause-and-effect analysis to determine the key immediate and hidden causes of racism to be able to address them in a proper manner.
  • Cause and Effect of Racial Discrimination Irrespective of massive efforts to emphasize the role of diversity and equality in society, it is still impossible to state that the United States is free from racial discrimination.
  • Institutional Racism Through the Lenses of Housing Policy While not being allowed to buy property because of the racial covenants, the discriminated people had to house in other areas.
  • Role of Racism in Contemporary US Public Opinion This source is useful because it defines racism, describes its forms, and presents the survey results about the prevalence of five types of racial bias.
  • The Mutation of Racism into New Subtle Forms The trend reflects the ability of racism to respond to the rising sensitivity of the people and the widespread rejection of prejudice.
  • Racism: Healthcare Crisis and the Nurses Role The diminished admittance to mind is because of the impacts of fundamental bigotry, going from doubt of the medical care framework to coordinate racial segregation by medical care suppliers.
  • Origins of Racial Discrimination Despite such limitations as statistical data being left out, I will use this article to support the historical evaluation of racism in the United States and add ineffective policing to the origins of racism.
  • Beverly Greene Life and View of Racism The plot of the biography, identified and formed by the Ackerman Institute for the Family in the life of the heroine, consists of dynamics, personality development and its patterns.
  • Historical Racism in South Africa and the US One of the major differences between the US and South Africa is the fact that in the case of the former, an African American minority was brought to the continent to serve the White majority.
  • Capitalism and Racism in Past and Present Racism includes social and economic inequalities due to racial identity and is represented through dispossession, colonialism, and slavery in the past and lynching, criminalization, and incarceration in the present.
  • Minstrels’ Influence on the Spread of Racism The negative caricatures and disturbing artifacts developed to portray Black people within the museum were crucial in raising awareness on the existence of racism.
  • How Parents of Color Transcend Nightmare of Racism Even after President Abraham Lincoln outlawed enslavement and won the American Civil War in 1965, prejudice toward black people remained engrained in both the northern and southern cultural structures of the United States.
  • A Problem of Racial Discrimination in the Modern World This minor case suggests the greater problem that is unjustly treating people in the context of the criminal justice system. In the book, Stevenson writes about groups of people who are vulnerable to being victimized […]
  • Beverly Tatum’s Monolog About Injustice of Racism Furthermore, the author’s point is to define the state of discrimination in the country and the world nowadays and explore what steps need to be taken to develop identity.
  • Issue of Institutional Racism Systemic and structural racisms are a form of prejudice that is prevalent and deeply ingrained in structures, legislation, documented or unpublished guidelines, and entrenched customs and rituals.
  • Racism in America Today: Problems of Today Even though racism and practices of racial discrimination had been banned in the 1960s after the mass protests and the changes to the laws that banned racial discrimination institutionally.
  • Evidence of Existence of Modern Racism It would be wrong to claim that currently, the prevalence and extent of manifestations of racism are at the same level as in the middle of the last century.
  • Culture Play in Prejudices, Stereotyping, and Racism However, cognitive and social aspects are significant dimensions that determine in-group members and the constituents of a threat in a global religious view hence the relationship between religion and prejudices.
  • Contrast Between Tituba and John Indian and Countering Racism The declaration suggests that Conde believed the story of Tituba’s maltreatment needed to be told to expose the truth she had been denied due to her skin color and gender.
  • Latin-African Philosophical Wars on Racism in US Hooker juxtaposition Vasconcelos’ ‘Cosmic Race’ theory to Douglass’s account of ethnicity-based segregation in the a way of showing the similarities between the racial versions of the two Americas.
  • Confronting Stereotypes, Racism and Microaggression Stereotypes are established thought forms rooted in the minds of particular groups of people, in the social environment, and in the perception of other nations.
  • Racial Discrimination in Dallas-Fort Worth Region Thus, there is a historical imbalance in the political representation of racial minorities in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Nonetheless, the Black population is reported to thrive best in the suburban areas of DFW, where this […]
  • Healthcare Call to Action: Racism in Medicine To start the fight, it is necessary to identify the main manifestations of discrimination in health care, the reasons for the emergence of the location of social superiority and discrimination, and the scale.
  • White Counselors Broaching Race and Racism Study The essence of the verbal behavior of the consultants is the ways of their reaction in the process of interaction with the client – the basic skills of counseling, accessibly including race and racism topics.
  • British Colonial Racism for Aboriginal Australians Precisely this colonial racism and genocide can be considered to be the cruelest in the history of the world and may have influenced the ideas and plans of Adolf Hitler, who got inspired by the […]
  • The Black People: Sexuality and Racial Discrimination Nevertheless, the author does not provide practical solutions to the issue of racism and discrimination of the LGBTQ community. The purpose of this interview is to demonstrate the author’s attitude to the sexuality of black […]
  • Racial Discrimination Through the Cosmetics Industry The variety of preconceptions such as the hypersexuality of black women and the perception of their beauty as an unideal version of whites’ one also indicates racism.
  • Racism Evolution: Experience of African Diaspora As a result, distinct foundations fostered the necessity of inequality to establish effectiveness of inferiority and superiority complexes. To determine the effect of slavery and racism to modern society.
  • Racial Discrimination and Residential Segregation Despite the end of segregation policies and the passing of Fair Housing laws and numerous subsidy measures, people of color cannot access wealthy areas, facing unofficial exclusion into poorer parts of the city.
  • Significance of Perceived Racism:Ethnic Group Disparities in Health Coates points out that a sign of the gulf between blacks and whites manifests in the context where there is expectation for him to enlighten his opinions while in mind the essential indication lies in […]
  • Racism as Origin of Enslavement Some ideas are mentioned in the video, for example, the enslavement of Black people and their children. The most shocking fact mentioned by the speaker of the video is that children of enslaved people were […]
  • Colorblind Racism and Its Minimization Colorblind racism is a practice that people use to defend themselves against accusations of racism and deny the significance of the problem.
  • The Bill H.R.666 Anti-Racism in Public Health Act of 2021 That is why the given paper will identify a current and health-related bill and comment on it. This information demonstrates that it is not reasonable to oppose passing the bill under consideration.
  • Summary of the Issue About Racism In schools in the United States, with the advent of the new president, a critical racial theory began to be taught.
  • How the Prison Industrial Complex Perpetuate Racism In the United States, the system is a normalization of various dynamics, such as historical, cultural, and interpersonal, that routinely benefit the whites while causing negative impacts for the people of color.
  • Battling Racism in the Modern World Racism and racial discrimination undermine the foundations of the dignity of an individual, as they aim to divide the human family, to which all peoples and people belong, into different categories, marking some of them […]
  • Indian Youth Against Racism: Photo Analysis The main cause of racism within American societies is the high superiority complex possessed by the white individuals living with the Asian American in the society.
  • Racism: Do We Need More Stringent Laws? The Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice is worried that national origin discrimination in the U.S.may go undetected because victims of prejudice are unaware of their legal rights or are hesitant to complain […]
  • Problem of Racism in Schools Overview Racism should be discouraged by all means and the government should do its best to educate citizens on the importance of unity and the disadvantages of racism.
  • US Immigration Policy and Its Correlation to Structural Racism That may create breaches in the immigration policy and cause social instability that could endanger the status of immigrants and even negatively affect the lives of the nationals.
  • America: Racism, Terrorism, and Ethno-Culturalism The myth of the frontier is one of the strongest and long-lived myths of America that animates the imagination of the Americans even to this day.
  • Issue of Racism in Healthcare The theory would question whether racism in healthcare is ethical and whether it facilitates the provision of care in a manner that is centered on values such as compassion, fairness, and integrity.
  • Solving Racial Discrimination in the US: The Best Strategies The Hollywood representation of a black woman is often a magical hero who “is a virtuous black character who serves to better the lives of white people…and asks nothing for herself”.
  • Popular Music at the Times of Racism and Segregation The following work will compare and contrast the compositions of Louis Armstrong and Scott Joplin and examine the impact of racism on popular music.
  • Temporary Aid Program: Racism in Child Welfare The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program in the context of child welfare disparities.
  • Western Scientific Approach as a Cause of Racism This paper will highlight the main methods of refuting the works of racist anthropologists and how they influenced the emergence of stereotypes about people of color.
  • How Does Racism Affect Health? Many people of color experience internalized racism, which can lead to anxiety and depression that can be the cause of physical issues.
  • Citizen: An American Lyric and Systemic Racism In essence, the primary objective of the author is to trigger the readers’ thoughts towards the devastating racism situation in America and the world in general.
  • The Reflection of Twain’s Views on Racism in Huck Finn One of the most problematic aspects in the novel that potentially can make readers think that Twain’s attitude toward slavery and racism is not laudable is the excessive usage of the n-word by all sorts […]
  • Black as a Label: Racial Discrimination People are so used to identifying African Americans as black that they refuse to accept the possibility of the artificiality of labeling.
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and Racial Discrimination The author argues that despite increasing the overall prosperity of the local communities, the policies and projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority did not address the well-being of the white population and Afro-American citizens equally.
  • Flint Water Crisis: Environmental Racism and Racial Capitalism The Flint crisis is a result of the neoliberal approach of the local state as opposed to the typical factors of environmental injustice; a polluter or a reckless emitter cutting costs. The two main factors […]
  • Cancer Alley and Environmental Racism One of the sources under study is valuable, as it examines the current situation of the coronavirus and the impact of pollution on human health.
  • Cancer Alley and Environmental Racism in the US Bentlyewski and Juhn argue that the environmental racism in the country has been the result of aligning the public environmental policy and industrial activity to benefit the white majority and, at the same time, shifting […]
  • American Healthcare in the Context of Racism According to the researchers, the fundamental issue of racism in health care is the practitioners and public health representatives’ lack of desire to recognize the health specifics of racial and ethnic minorities, which results in […]
  • Origins of Modern Racism and Ancient Slavery The diversity of African kingdoms and the empires were engaged in the slave trade for hundreds of years prior to the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. The working and living condition of slaves were […]
  • Contribution of Racism to Economic Recession Due to COVID-19 The historical injustice accounts for unequal employment opportunities and the economic profile of the minority groups. Therefore, economic recovery for the older Latinos and Blacks is limited due to the lack of flexible occupational benefits.
  • What Stories Can Teach Us About Racism On top of this before the establishment of the school there was no public education for the Negro children and this made it more difficult for the children to access education just like the other […]
  • Racism in Canadian Medical System The difference in the treatment of indigenous and non-indigenous individuals in Canada is a result of racism in the medical facility.
  • Profit and Racism in the Prisons of the United States As an argument for the work of prisoners, the prison of Angola makes the argument that work is a way of rehabilitation for the prisoner.
  • Rio Tinto: Case Study About Racism and Discrimination The repercussions of this situation for the preservation of cultural heritage may be considerable, as the expert community was denied an opportunity to research the artifacts.
  • Racism: US v. The Amistad and Dred Scott v. Sandford In legal terms, the key difference between the two was that the Africans from Amistad were freeborn and enslaved in violation of the international agreements, while Dred Scott, despite his sojourn in Illinois, was born […]
  • Critical Social Problems Research: Racism and Racial Domination According to his opinion, which is proven today by many examples including the attitude of the authorities, people of color are treated as if they are worthless and not destined to achieve success.
  • Criminal Justice: Racial Prejudice and Racial Discrimination Souryal takes the reader through the racial prejudice and racial discrimination issues ranging from the temperament of racism, the fundamental premise of unfairness, the racial biasness and the causes of racial unfairness to ethical practices […]
  • Gonzalez v. Abercrombie & Fitch Discrimination Racism Lawsuit: An Analysis The case was filed in June 2003, and the claim was that this company has grossly violated the rights of the citizens as provided for in the constitution of the country.
  • The History of Racial Discrimination and Its Effects on the American Races The saddest part of it all is that our Indian American brothers are discussed in public and used as examples in a manner that makes it seem like they exist only as a mere caricature […]
  • Racial Discrimination in the US Criminal Justice System This report argues that when one studies the proportion of blacks in the Cincinnati community and the number of times that they have been stopped for traffic violations, one finds that there is a large […]
  • Policing in America: The Issue of Violence and Racism While the former proposition has various negative aspects to be considered, the latter appears to be the appropriate reaction to the challenges posed for the United States’ society in 2020.
  • Institutional and Interpersonal Racism, White Privilege One should be aware of the fact that issues such as institutional and interpersonal racism, privilege, power, and bias are complex problems, which need a thorough analysis and consideration of all the facts.
  • Racism and Sexism as a Threat Women suffer from sexism, people of color are affected by racism, and women of color are victims of both phenomena. Prejudices spread in families, communities, and are difficult to break down as they become part […]
  • The Development of a Measure to Assess Symbolic Racism The originators of the concept applied it only to the African-American race, while other scientists engaged in researching and applying the construct of symbolic racism to other races and cultures.
  • Racism and Tokenism in Bon Appetit: Leadership and Ethical Perspective Leadership is defined as a set of actions and beliefs of a manager who directs and controls the followers to achieve a common goal.
  • From “Scientific” Racism to Local Histories of Lynching Both chapters serve as a premise to the following arguments in the book, arguing that White power is still dominant in the contemporary world, and give context to the broader scale of oppression worldwide.
  • Subjective Assumptions and Medicine: Racism The given supposition demonstrates that Allen believed in the superiority of white southerners over Black Americans because the latter ones were made responsible for the deteriorated health of the former.
  • Racism and Gender in Beyoncé’s Lemonade The album Lemonade by an American singer Beyonce is one of the brightest examples when an artist portrays the elements of her culture in her music. Along with music videos, the album features a number […]
  • Racism Experiences in the Workplace in the UK This research paper provides the background of racism in the UK, particularly in the area of employment. The UK struggles against racial discrimination and paves the way to equity and inclusion in the area of […]
  • The History of Immigration to the United States and the Nature of Racism The development of the idea of race and ethnicity along with the idea of racial antagonism has two main stages in the history of the United States.
  • Race and Racism in the USA: The Origins and the Future In conclusion, the author suggests that the possible solution to the problem of racial conflicts is the amalgamation of different races and ethnics.
  • Racially Insensitive Name-Calling in Classroom Probably, the teacher had to initiate the lesson devoted to the topic of racial discrimination and to think over all the stages of the discussion, to organize it in a polite and friendly manner.
  • Environmental Racism in the United States: Concept, Solution to the Problem With regards to this definition, a row of issues connected to social justice and the equality in the rights of people which is firmly established in the Constitution of the United States are to be […]
  • Protecting George Wallace’s Organized Racism Instead of claiming that segregation was a necessary evil or that it benefited the minorities, he claimed that it is the only way to protect the freedom of the white people.
  • How Can the World Unite to Fight Racism? One of the highly discussed topics in the modern world is the question of racism. It all leads to the idea that racism could be fought due to the improved educational system, where the teachers […]
  • Racism in America and Its Literature In the first part of this stanza, Hughes articulates his view that when an African American is finally sitting at the table, others will recognize the beauty of African Americans.
  • Race, Class and Gender. Racism on Practice The separation and the segregation on an individual or group is what is based on the grounds of racism, and this has been well illustrated in the book the Ethics of Living Jim Crow where […]
  • Racism: Term Definition and History of Display of Racism Remarks It is no wonder that this form of discrimination is known to have caused the worst wars in the world and led to nations being formed together with all forms of legal codes.
  • Institutional Discrimination, Prejudice and Racism Racism that is in the society today is not evident like that of the early 19th and 20th century which was characterized by among other things separation based on color of the skin, religious differences […]
  • Racism in Contemporary North America The reality of the matter is that the different cultures and races share the political atmosphere, however, when it comes to religious, moral, and social practices, the diversified humanity of Canada does not share the […]
  • Racial Discrimination of Women in Modern Community The warning is a woman that thinks that all her problems are because of the color of her skin which is black; this is where the first theme appears.
  • Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Workplace and Housing Job discrimination is that discrimination which arises at the places of work Factors that include the presence of a high population of the unemployed create room for the vice.
  • “Bluest Eye” by Toni Morrison: Themes of Racism and Unequal Opportunity But the mismatch of the real-life and the world of the primer becomes obvious to the reader from the first pages of the novel.
  • Racism Without Racists in Patriarchal Society First of all, it should be mentioned that color-blind racism is not a new ideology that is only developing in the contemporary American society; it has been strengthening its positions over several decades gradually becoming […]
  • The Problem of Racism in Canada The main focus of the article “Racism in the Justice System” can be understood due to the title of the article.
  • Exploring and Comparing Racism and Ethnocentrism
  • Racism Cannot Be Unlearned Through Education
  • Racism in Movies: Stereotypes and Prejudices
  • Racism: Resolving by Means of Education
  • Facing Racism: A Short Story
  • White Supremacy as an Extreme Racism Group
  • American Racism: So Why Isn’t Obama White?
  • Rasism in “No Telephone to Heaven” by Michelle Cliff
  • Racism and Civil Rights: Then and Now
  • Racialism From a Biological Point of View
  • Social Construction of Race and Racism
  • Racism Issues: Looking and Stereotype
  • Hurricane Katrine Exposed Racism in New Orleans
  • AIDS in a Different Culture Review: Cultural Differences, Prejudice, and Racism
  • Anti-Racism Policy Statement in Australian Schools
  • Racism, Minorities and Majorities Analysis
  • Racism and Ethnicity in Latin America
  • Racial Discrimination in Song ‘Strange Fruit’
  • Racism Effects on the Premier League Players
  • Social Psychology: Racism in Jury Behaviour
  • Racism in the United States of the 21st Century
  • “A Genealogy of Modern Racism” by C. West
  • Appiah’s Ideas of Racism, Equality, and Justice
  • Sexism, Racism, Ableism, Ageism, Classism
  • Racism in Media: Positive and Negative Impact
  • Racism: Once Overt, but Now Covert
  • Racism: “Get Out” Film and “Screams on Screens” Article
  • How Racism Makes Us Sick: Public Talk That Matters
  • Environmental Racism and Indigenous Knowledge
  • Everyday Racism in C. Rankine’s “Citizen” Novel
  • Scientific Racism: the Eugenics of Social Darwinism
  • Racism in the “Do the Right Thing” Movie
  • Islam and Racism: Malcolm X’s Letter From Mecca
  • Racism vs. “Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself”
  • Racism in Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transgenders
  • Racism in Australian Football League Sporting Clubs
  • Thomas Jefferson on Civil Rights, Slavery, Racism
  • Racial Discrimination Forms Against Afro-Americas
  • Pressing Issues in Femininity: Gender and Racism
  • The Origins of Racial Hierarchy in Colonial America
  • Racial Discrimination in Employment
  • White Privilege and Racism in American Society
  • Racism, Privilege and Stereotyping Concepts
  • Racism in Rankine’s “Citizen” and Whitehead’s “The Underground Railroad”
  • Kansas State University Community’s Racism Issues
  • Racism Against Roma and Afro-American People
  • Impact of Racism as a Social Determinant of Health
  • Racism in the United States: Before and After World War II
  • Baldwin’s and Coates’ Anti-Racism Communication
  • The Problem of Racism and Injustice
  • Racism as the Epitome of Moral Bankruptcy
  • Racism and Prejudice: “Gone With the Wind“ and “The Help”
  • Racism in “The Invisible Man” by Ralph Ellison
  • Racism and Society: Different Perspectives
  • Racism in Trump’s and Clinton’s Campaigns
  • Obama’s Presidency and Racism in the USA
  • Colin Powell and the Fight Against Structural Racism
  • Racial Discrimination in Employment in the US
  • Racism in Media and Objective Coverage
  • Racism in “Passing” and “Uncle Tom’s Children” Novels
  • Racism in “To Kill Mocking Bird” by Harper Lee
  • Racism Elimination and Sociological Strategies
  • Racism History in No Name on the Street by Baldwin
  • “Nigger” as a Racially Directed Slur
  • Social and Cultural Diversity and Racism
  • Does Unconscious Racism Exist by Lincoln Quillian
  • Racism and Discrimination in Religion Context
  • Racism in Film “Savages” by Oliver Stone
  • Racism: Theoretical Perspectives and Research Methods
  • Racism in the Setting the Rising Sun Postcard
  • The Effects of Racism on Learners Academic Outcomes
  • Darwin’s and Galton’s Scientific Racism
  • Does Racism and Discrimination Still Exist Today?
  • The Voting Rights Act and Racial Discrimination
  • English Literature Impact on Racism Among Africans
  • Jerrell Shofner’s Views on the Racial Discrimination
  • Asian American Communities and Racism in the USA
  • Racial Discrimination and Its Effects on Employees
  • Racism in the USA: Causes, Consequences and Solutions
  • Racial Discrimination in Social Institutions
  • King’s and Obama’s Views on Racism in America
  • Racism Manifests in the Contemporary Society
  • Racism in USA: Virginia Laws on Slavery
  • Racism as a Reality of Modern American Society
  • Ethnicity and Issues of Racism in the United States
  • Rodney King’s Case of Racial Discrimination
  • Educational Attainment and Racial Discrimination
  • Racial Discrimination Against Asian American Students
  • Racism Issue and Solutions
  • Intersectionality and Gendered Racism
  • Racism and Education in the United States
  • Racism in Michigan University
  • Racism and Sexism Ethical Problem
  • Conflict and Racial Hostility
  • Racism as a Case of Ignorance and Prejudice
  • Racism and Segregation in American History
  • Humanism, Racism, and Speciesism
  • Racism in American Schools
  • Racist America: Current Realities and Future Prospects
  • Racism: Impact on Minorities in American Society
  • Racism Against Native Americans
  • Obama’s First Election and Racism
  • Adolf Hitler: From Patriotism to Racism
  • “Globalization and the Unleashing of New Racism: an Introduction” by Macedo and Gounari
  • Problems of Environmental Racism
  • How Obama’s First Election Has Been Affected by Racism?
  • How Different Young Australians Experience Racism?
  • Racial Discrimination in Organizations
  • Understanding Race and Racism
  • In Australia, Are Cultural Rights a Form of Racism?
  • Racism, Stigma, and Eexism – Sociology
  • Racism and Ethnicity in United States
  • ‘Animal Rights’ Activists and Racism
  • The Racial Discrimination Among Employers
  • Psychological Impact: Stereotyping, Prejudice and Racism
  • Multicultural Psychology: Cultural Identity and Racism
  • How Fake News Use Satire as a Medium to Address Issues on Racism?
  • Young Australians and Racism
  • Relationship Between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism
  • Democratic Racism in Canada
  • Social Construction of “Race” and “Racism” and Its Relationship to Democratic Racism in Canada
  • Ethnicity: Oppression and Racism
  • Racism in Family Therapy by Laszloffy and Hardy
  • The Roma Problems and the Causes of Racism
  • Racial Discrimination in the US
  • The ‘Peopling’ Process of Australia Since 1788 With Influence of Racism
  • Is Racism and Anti-Semitism Still a Problem in the United States?
  • Globalization and Racism
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  • Society Moral Standards: Racism and Its Harmful Effects
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  • The Issue of Racial Segregation in the United States
  • Racism and Male Dominance in Education
  • Comparison of Racism in the United States and South Africa
  • English Racism During World Cup
  • The Historical Roots of Racism in Australia
  • Racism Is Not All About Individual Attitude
  • Discrimination, Prejudice and Racism in the United States
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  • The Role of Racism in American Art During the 1930s and 1940s
  • Promotion of Racism in US Through Sports
  • Racism in U.S. Criminal Justice System
  • Racism, Colonialism and the Emergence of Third World
  • Slavery and Racism: Black Brazilians v. Black Americans
  • Why the Philosophy of King is More Effective in Fighting Racism than Malcolm’s?
  • Racism and Discrimination: White Privilege
  • Racism and Segregation in the United States
  • The Root Cause of Racism and Ethnic Stratification in the US
  • Racism and Anti-Semitism in the United States: The Issues Which Are Yet to Be Solved
  • Racism in the USA
  • Evidence of Racism in the American Schools
  • Analysis on Religion, Racism and Family Conflicts
  • Racism in American Schools: A Critical Look at the Modern School Mini-Society
  • The Concept of Racism
  • The Theme of Liberation From Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson
  • The Policy Status Quo to Prevent Racism in American Schools
  • Racial Profiling: Discrimination the People of Color
  • Racism as a Central Factor in Representing Asian American History
  • The Problem of Racism and Injustice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
  • Reducing Racism in the University of Alberta and University of York
  • Achebe’s Views on Racism
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  • Racism in the American Nation
  • The Civil Rights Movement: Ending Racial Discrimination and Segregation in America
  • Institutionalized Racism and Sexism
  • The Anatomy of Scientific Racism: Racialist Responses to Black Athletic Achievement
  • The Problem of Global Racism in Modern World
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  • Australian Identities: Indigenous and Multicultural
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  • Institutionalized Racism From John Brown Raid to Jim Crow Laws
  • Racism in America After the Civil War up to 1900
  • Have You Experienced Racism in Korea?
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  • Contemporary Racism in Australia: the Experience of Aborigines
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  • Addressing the Racism in Society
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  • Different Challenges of Racial Discrimination
  • Slavery, Racism, and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Attitude to Racism in Literature
  • American Indians: Racial Segregation and Discrimination
  • Why it is Safe to Say that Northrop’s Book Exposes the Roots of Racism in America
  • Psychological Development: Racism, Affirmative Action and Health Care
  • How Has Racism Changed Throughout History, Starting From the Emancipation Proclamation to Today?
  • Do Racism and Discrimination Still Exist Today?
  • How Did Ideas of Black Stereotypes and Racism Become Embedded in American Culture?
  • How Does Racism Affect the Way of a Caste Like System?
  • What Connection Is Between Globalization and Racism?
  • Why Do Exist Discrimination and Racism?
  • How Do Educational Institutions Perpetuate Racism, Sexism, and Patriarchy?
  • How Do Racism and Exclusion Shape the Social Geography of Race and Ethnicity?
  • What Ways Does Cultural Racism Manifest Itself?
  • How the Media Maintains Racism?
  • Why Slavery and Racism Issues Still Affect America Today?
  • How Racism and Ethnicity Affect the Sector of Education?
  • How Has Racism Impacted Immigrant Families and Children?
  • When Did Racism Begin?
  • Racism: Why It’s Bad for Society and the Greater Health Issues It Creates?
  • How Have Evolutionary Ideas Shaped Racism?
  • Why Is Racism Bad for Society?
  • What Effect Does Color-Blind Racism Have On Minorities in Society Today?
  • How Does Sports Helped Diminish Racism?
  • How Does Both Individual and Institutional Racism Impact Service Provision and the Experiences of People Receiving Services?
  • Did Slavery Cause Racism?
  • When You Think About Racism, What Do You Think About?
  • What Does Racism Mean?
  • Does Affirmative Action Solve Racism?
  • Did Racism Precede Slavery?
  • How Does Racism Affect Society?
  • Does Racism Still Occur Today and Why People Can’t a Change?
  • Between Compassion and Racism: How the Biopolitics of Neoliberal Welfare Turns Citizens Into Affective ‘Idiots’?
  • Does Racism Play a Role in Health Inequities?
  • Sexual Abuse Essay Titles
  • Youth Violence Research Topics
  • Black Lives Matter Topics
  • Ethnocentrism Topics
  • Fascism Questions
  • Segregation Research Topics
  • Genocide Essay Titles
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IvyPanda. (2024, March 1). 398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples.

"398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples." IvyPanda , 1 Mar. 2024,

IvyPanda . (2024) '398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples'. 1 March.

IvyPanda . 2024. "398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples." March 1, 2024.

1. IvyPanda . "398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples." March 1, 2024.


IvyPanda . "398 Racism Essay Titles & Writing Examples." March 1, 2024.

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racism research paper topics

Top 70 Racism Topics For Research Paper That Really Stand Out

Racism Topics For Research Paper

The year 2020 has seen the United States of America experience violence in various racism claims. When George Floyd was killed in May this year, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and other US states went awash with protests. Never before in recent American history have such demonstrations occurred. That is why finding racism topics for your research paper is essential. Here is a list of professionally handpicked racism topics for your motivation.

Causes of Racism Argumentative Topics For Research Paper

  • Is the ego the leading cause of racism in the United States?
  • Is racism the result of people’s direct experience with other backgrounds?
  • Are associations and the mind forms silent fuels for discrimination?
  • Is the reticular activating system a stimulus for discrimination?
  • Should we attribute racism to the ignorance in the world?
  • Are supremacy attitudes among the whites the cause?
  • Do we have an appropriate education curriculum addressing racism?

How To Deal With Racism Research Topics

  • How to stand up for yourself in a racial attack
  • The role of confidence and self-assurance when dealing with racism
  • Why you should point out the racial words or behavior instead of generalization
  • Citizens should know their rights to combat racism
  • Understanding the differences between racist actions and racist people
  • The importance of learning other cultures and languages
  • Recognizing the impacts of racism

Topics on Racism History

  • Historical policies of systematic discrimination
  • The contribution of the Holocaust to racism
  • Racism and North American slavery and the colonization
  • The exploitation of the minorities during colonization and its impact on racism today
  • The role of naming schools after confederates and racism
  • Racism comments from Albert Einstein’s diaries
  • Why the Georgia county drove out every black resident in 1912

Research Topics About Racism Laws

  • A critical analysis of The Race Relations Act 1976
  • The United Nations’ international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination in 1965
  • The role of international and domestic law in combating racism
  • Racial distinctions in the law
  • The Equality Act of 2010 and its impact on racism
  • Laws that guard against racially offensive material on the internet
  • Does the law provide for harsh racial speeches at a public rally?

It’s not a simple task to write a paper for a high grade. Sometimes every student need a professional help with research paper writing. Therefore, don’t be afraid to hire a writer to complete your assignment. So, are you ready to get best grades with little effort? Just write a message “Please, write a custom research paper for me” and get time to relax. Contact us today and get a 100% original paper. 

Racism Research Paper Topics on the Economic Aspects

  • How racism suppresses the economic mobility of people with different races
  • The role of creating more jobs in combating racial claims
  • Recipients of the healthcare assistance programs in countries
  • How racism has crept into the US economy
  • Racial discrimination against property rights and reconstruction
  • Why the lack of the feeling of belonging stirs economic recession
  • Employment rates for minorities in America.

Interesting Topics About Racism

  • When was the first racial attack, and why?
  • Why is racism still persistent in the 21st century?
  • Reasons why discrimination is both unethical and immoral
  • Should we regard racism as people with a mental disorder?
  • Is religion one of the key players in racism?
  • Why is the term ‘third world’ a racist declaration?
  • What is the relationship between racism and homophobia?

Research Topics About Race and Racism

  • Why the white supremacy battle is terrible for the world
  • Does the color of your skin matter in any circumstance?
  • Why is Western civilization causing a lack of appeal for the black race?
  • The role of different languages and their races in racism
  • Is the American Dream a cause for discrimination?
  • A critical approach to the subject of race and racism
  • Differences between race and racism and the confusion surrounding these two terms

Racism Argumentative Topics For Research Paper

  • Is race a factor in the race crimes experienced in the US?
  • Should we call Malcolm X a racist?
  • Do racial movements contribute to combating racism?
  • Is the work of Charles Darwin filled with racial ideas?
  • Should police brutality be seen in the line of racism?
  • Should the United States put sanctions against racial protests?
  • Do violent racial protests justify the problem at hand?

Sociology Racism Topics

  • The impact of racism on the process of identity formation
  • How racism shapes one’s trajectory in life
  • The effect of racism on student-teacher relationships
  • How policing tactics contribute to racial discrimination
  • Residential segregation and its place in racism
  • The sociology of race and social ethnicity in America
  • Understanding the concept of ‘white privilege’ in racism

Good Research Topics Dealing With Racism

  • A study of the different types of racism
  • What are the causes of racial prejudices?
  • The role of political campaigns in alleviating or fueling up racism
  • The origins and history of the Black Lives Matter movement
  • Compare and contrast discrimination in the US and other European countries
  • Can a person indeed be an anti-racist in the current society?
  • How can we use social media to sensitize people on the effects of racism?

Racism remains a contemporary issue, and thus your lecturer can give you an assignment on this subject at any time. Students need to arm themselves with the latest racism-related topics for top grades. If all these don’t seem to work, seeking professional college paper help would be the best solution. Get your paper done by experts, fast and easy today!

Shakespeare Research Topics

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A pandemic that disproportionately affected communities of color, roadblocks that obstructed efforts to expand the franchise and protect voting discrimination, a growing movement to push anti-racist curricula out of schools – events over the past year have only underscored how prevalent systemic racism and bias is in America today.

What can be done to dismantle centuries of discrimination in the U.S.? How can a more equitable society be achieved? What makes racism such a complicated problem to solve? Black History Month is a time marked for honoring and reflecting on the experience of Black Americans, and it is also an opportunity to reexamine our nation’s deeply embedded racial problems and the possible solutions that could help build a more equitable society.

Stanford scholars are tackling these issues head-on in their research from the perspectives of history, education, law and other disciplines. For example, historian Clayborne Carson is working to preserve and promote the legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. and religious studies scholar Lerone A. Martin has joined Stanford to continue expanding access and opportunities to learn from King’s teachings; sociologist Matthew Clair is examining how the criminal justice system can end a vicious cycle involving the disparate treatment of Black men; and education scholar Subini Ancy Annamma is studying ways to make education more equitable for historically marginalized students.

Learn more about these efforts and other projects examining racism and discrimination in areas like health and medicine, technology and the workplace below.

Update: Jan. 27, 2023: This story was originally published on Feb. 16, 2021, and has been updated on a number of occasions to include new content.

Understanding the impact of racism; advancing justice

One of the hardest elements of advancing racial justice is helping everyone understand the ways in which they are involved in a system or structure that perpetuates racism, according to Stanford legal scholar Ralph Richard Banks.

“The starting point for the center is the recognition that racial inequality and division have long been the fault line of American society. Thus, addressing racial inequity is essential to sustaining our nation, and furthering its democratic aspirations,” said Banks , the Jackson Eli Reynolds Professor of Law at Stanford Law School and co-founder of the Stanford Center for Racial Justice .

This sentiment was echoed by Stanford researcher Rebecca Hetey . One of the obstacles in solving inequality is people’s attitudes towards it, Hetey said. “One of the barriers of reducing inequality is how some people justify and rationalize it.”

How people talk about race and stereotypes matters. Here is some of that scholarship.

For Black Americans, COVID-19 is quickly reversing crucial economic gains

Research co-authored by SIEPR’s Peter Klenow and Chad Jones measures the welfare gap between Black and white Americans and provides a way to analyze policies to narrow the divide.

How an ‘impact mindset’ unites activists of different races

A new study finds that people’s involvement with Black Lives Matter stems from an impulse that goes beyond identity.

For democracy to work, racial inequalities must be addressed

The Stanford Center for Racial Justice is taking a hard look at the policies perpetuating systemic racism in America today and asking how we can imagine a more equitable society.

The psychological toll of George Floyd’s murder

As the nation mourned the death of George Floyd, more Black Americans than white Americans felt angry or sad – a finding that reveals the racial disparities of grief.

Seven factors contributing to American racism

Of the seven factors the researchers identified, perhaps the most insidious is passivism or passive racism, which includes an apathy toward systems of racial advantage or denial that those systems even exist.

Scholars reflect on Black history

Humanities and social sciences scholars reflect on “Black history as American history” and its impact on their personal and professional lives.

The history of Black History Month

It's February, so many teachers and schools are taking time to celebrate Black History Month. According to Stanford historian Michael Hines, there are still misunderstandings and misconceptions about the past, present, and future of the celebration.

Numbers about inequality don’t speak for themselves

In a new research paper, Stanford scholars Rebecca Hetey and Jennifer Eberhardt propose new ways to talk about racial disparities that exist across society, from education to health care and criminal justice systems.

Changing how people perceive problems

Drawing on an extensive body of research, Stanford psychologist Gregory Walton lays out a roadmap to positively influence the way people think about themselves and the world around them. These changes could improve society, too.

Welfare opposition linked to threats of racial standing

Research co-authored by sociologist Robb Willer finds that when white Americans perceive threats to their status as the dominant demographic group, their resentment of minorities increases. This resentment leads to opposing welfare programs they believe will mainly benefit minority groups.

Conversations about race between Black and white friends can feel risky, but are valuable

New research about how friends approach talking about their race-related experiences with each other reveals concerns but also the potential that these conversations have to strengthen relationships and further intergroup learning.

Defusing racial bias

Research shows why understanding the source of discrimination matters.

Many white parents aren’t having ‘the talk’ about race with their kids

After George Floyd’s murder, Black parents talked about race and racism with their kids more. White parents did not and were more likely to give their kids colorblind messages.

Stereotyping makes people more likely to act badly

Even slight cues, like reading a negative stereotype about your race or gender, can have an impact.

Why white people downplay their individual racial privileges

Research shows that white Americans, when faced with evidence of racial privilege, deny that they have benefited personally.

Clayborne Carson: Looking back at a legacy

Stanford historian Clayborne Carson reflects on a career dedicated to studying and preserving the legacy of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.

How race influences, amplifies backlash against outspoken women

When women break gender norms, the most negative reactions may come from people of the same race.

Examining disparities in education

Scholar Subini Ancy Annamma is studying ways to make education more equitable for historically marginalized students. Annamma’s research examines how schools contribute to the criminalization of Black youths by creating a culture of punishment that penalizes Black children more harshly than their white peers for the same behavior. Her work shows that youth of color are more likely to be closely watched, over-represented in special education, and reported to and arrested by police.

“These are all ways in which schools criminalize Black youth,” she said. “Day after day, these things start to sediment.”

That’s why Annamma has identified opportunities for teachers and administrators to intervene in these unfair practices. Below is some of that research, from Annamma and others.

New ‘Segregation Index’ shows American schools remain highly segregated by race, ethnicity, and economic status

Researchers at Stanford and USC developed a new tool to track neighborhood and school segregation in the U.S.

New evidence shows that school poverty shapes racial achievement gaps

Racial segregation leads to growing achievement gaps – but it does so entirely through differences in school poverty, according to new research from education Professor Sean Reardon, who is launching a new tool to help educators, parents and policymakers examine education trends by race and poverty level nationwide.

School closures intensify gentrification in Black neighborhoods nationwide

An analysis of census and school closure data finds that shuttering schools increases gentrification – but only in predominantly Black communities.

Ninth-grade ethnic studies helped students for years, Stanford researchers find

A new study shows that students assigned to an ethnic studies course had longer-term improvements in attendance and graduation rates.

Teaching about racism

Stanford sociologist Matthew Snipp discusses ways to educate students about race and ethnic relations in America.

Stanford scholar uncovers an early activist’s fight to get Black history into schools

In a new book, Assistant Professor Michael Hines chronicles the efforts of a Chicago schoolteacher in the 1930s who wanted to remedy the portrayal of Black history in textbooks of the time.

How disability intersects with race

Professor Alfredo J. Artiles discusses the complexities in creating inclusive policies for students with disabilities.

Access to program for black male students lowered dropout rates

New research led by Stanford education professor Thomas S. Dee provides the first evidence of effectiveness for a district-wide initiative targeted at black male high school students.

How school systems make criminals of Black youth

Stanford education professor Subini Ancy Annamma talks about the role schools play in creating a culture of punishment against Black students.

Reducing racial disparities in school discipline

Stanford psychologists find that brief exercises early in middle school can improve students’ relationships with their teachers, increase their sense of belonging and reduce teachers’ reports of discipline issues among black and Latino boys.

Science lessons through a different lens

In his new book, Science in the City, Stanford education professor Bryan A. Brown helps bridge the gap between students’ culture and the science classroom.

Teachers more likely to label black students as troublemakers, Stanford research shows

Stanford psychologists Jennifer Eberhardt and Jason Okonofua experimentally examined the psychological processes involved when teachers discipline black students more harshly than white students.

Why we need Black teachers

Travis Bristol, MA '04, talks about what it takes for schools to hire and retain teachers of color.

Understanding racism in the criminal justice system

Research has shown that time and time again, inequality is embedded into all facets of the criminal justice system. From being arrested to being charged, convicted and sentenced, people of color – particularly Black men – are disproportionately targeted by the police.

“So many reforms are needed: police accountability, judicial intervention, reducing prosecutorial power and increasing resources for public defenders are places we can start,” said sociologist Matthew Clair . “But beyond piecemeal reforms, we need to continue having critical conversations about transformation and the role of the courts in bringing about the abolition of police and prisons.”

Clair is one of several Stanford scholars who have examined the intersection of race and the criminal process and offered solutions to end the vicious cycle of racism. Here is some of that work.

Police Facebook posts disproportionately highlight crimes involving Black suspects, study finds

Researchers examined crime-related posts from 14,000 Facebook pages maintained by U.S. law enforcement agencies and found that Facebook users are exposed to posts that overrepresent Black suspects by 25% relative to local arrest rates.

Supporting students involved in the justice system

New data show that a one-page letter asking a teacher to support a youth as they navigate the difficult transition from juvenile detention back to school can reduce the likelihood that the student re-offends.

Race and mass criminalization in the U.S.

Stanford sociologist discusses how race and class inequalities are embedded in the American criminal legal system.

New Stanford research lab explores incarcerated students’ educational paths

Associate Professor Subini Annamma examines the policies and practices that push marginalized students out of school and into prisons.

Derek Chauvin verdict important, but much remains to be done

Stanford scholars Hakeem Jefferson, Robert Weisberg and Matthew Clair weigh in on the Derek Chauvin verdict, emphasizing that while the outcome is important, much work remains to be done to bring about long-lasting justice.

A ‘veil of darkness’ reduces racial bias in traffic stops

After analyzing 95 million traffic stop records, filed by officers with 21 state patrol agencies and 35 municipal police forces from 2011 to 2018, researchers concluded that “police stops and search decisions suffer from persistent racial bias.”

Stanford big data study finds racial disparities in Oakland, Calif., police behavior, offers solutions

Analyzing thousands of data points, the researchers found racial disparities in how Oakland officers treated African Americans on routine traffic and pedestrian stops. They suggest 50 measures to improve police-community relations.

Race and the death penalty

As questions about racial bias in the criminal justice system dominate the headlines, research by Stanford law Professor John J. Donohue III offers insight into one of the most fraught areas: the death penalty.

Diagnosing disparities in health, medicine

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted communities of color and has highlighted the health disparities between Black Americans, whites and other demographic groups.

As Iris Gibbs , professor of radiation oncology and associate dean of MD program admissions, pointed out at an event sponsored by Stanford Medicine: “We need more sustained attention and real action towards eliminating health inequities, educating our entire community and going beyond ‘allyship,’ because that one fizzles out. We really do need people who are truly there all the way.”

Below is some of that research as well as solutions that can address some of the disparities in the American healthcare system.

racism research paper topics

Stanford researchers testing ways to improve clinical trial diversity

The American Heart Association has provided funding to two Stanford Medicine professors to develop ways to diversify enrollment in heart disease clinical trials.

Striking inequalities in maternal and infant health

Research by SIEPR’s Petra Persson and Maya Rossin-Slater finds wealthy Black mothers and infants in the U.S. fare worse than the poorest white mothers and infants.

More racial diversity among physicians would lead to better health among black men

A clinical trial in Oakland by Stanford researchers found that black men are more likely to seek out preventive care after being seen by black doctors compared to non-black doctors.

A better measuring stick: Algorithmic approach to pain diagnosis could eliminate racial bias

Traditional approaches to pain management don’t treat all patients the same. AI could level the playing field.

5 questions: Alice Popejoy on race, ethnicity and ancestry in science

Alice Popejoy, a postdoctoral scholar who studies biomedical data sciences, speaks to the role – and pitfalls – of race, ethnicity and ancestry in research.

Stanford Medicine community calls for action against racial injustice, inequities

The event at Stanford provided a venue for health care workers and students to express their feelings about violence against African Americans and to voice their demands for change.

Racial disparity remains in heart-transplant mortality rates, Stanford study finds

African-American heart transplant patients have had persistently higher mortality rates than white patients, but exactly why still remains a mystery.

Finding the COVID-19 Victims that Big Data Misses

Widely used virus tracking data undercounts older people and people of color. Scholars propose a solution to this demographic bias.

Studying how racial stressors affect mental health

Farzana Saleem, an assistant professor at Stanford Graduate School of Education, is interested in the way Black youth and other young people of color navigate adolescence—and the racial stressors that can make the journey harder.

Infants’ race influences quality of hospital care in California

Disparities exist in how babies of different racial and ethnic origins are treated in California’s neonatal intensive care units, but this could be changed, say Stanford researchers.

Immigrants don’t move state-to-state in search of health benefits

When states expand public health insurance to include low-income, legal immigrants, it does not lead to out-of-state immigrants moving in search of benefits.

Excess mortality rates early in pandemic highest among Blacks

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been starkly uneven across race, ethnicity and geography, according to a new study led by SHP's Maria Polyakova.

Decoding bias in media, technology

Driving Artificial Intelligence are machine learning algorithms, sets of rules that tell a computer how to solve a problem, perform a task and in some cases, predict an outcome. These predictive models are based on massive datasets to recognize certain patterns, which according to communication scholar Angele Christin , sometimes come flawed with human bias . 

“Technology changes things, but perhaps not always as much as we think,” Christin said. “Social context matters a lot in shaping the actual effects of the technological tools. […] So, it’s important to understand that connection between humans and machines.”

Below is some of that research, as well as other ways discrimination unfolds across technology, in the media, and ways to counteract it.

IRS disproportionately audits Black taxpayers

A Stanford collaboration with the Department of the Treasury yields the first direct evidence of differences in audit rates by race.

Automated speech recognition less accurate for blacks

The disparity likely occurs because such technologies are based on machine learning systems that rely heavily on databases of English as spoken by white Americans.

New algorithm trains AI to avoid bad behaviors

Robots, self-driving cars and other intelligent machines could become better-behaved thanks to a new way to help machine learning designers build AI applications with safeguards against specific, undesirable outcomes such as racial and gender bias.

Stanford scholar analyzes responses to algorithms in journalism, criminal justice

In a recent study, assistant professor of communication Angèle Christin finds a gap between intended and actual uses of algorithmic tools in journalism and criminal justice fields.

Move responsibly and think about things

In the course CS 181: Computers, Ethics and Public Policy , Stanford students become computer programmers, policymakers and philosophers to examine the ethical and social impacts of technological innovation.

Homicide victims from Black and Hispanic neighborhoods devalued

Social scientists found that homicide victims killed in Chicago’s predominantly Black and Hispanic neighborhoods received less news coverage than those killed in mostly white neighborhoods.

Algorithms reveal changes in stereotypes

New Stanford research shows that, over the past century, linguistic changes in gender and ethnic stereotypes correlated with major social movements and demographic changes in the U.S. Census data.

AI Index Diversity Report: An Unmoving Needle

Stanford HAI’s 2021 AI Index reveals stalled progress in diversifying AI and a scarcity of the data needed to fix it.

Identifying discrimination in the workplace and economy

From who moves forward in the hiring process to who receives funding from venture capitalists, research has revealed how Blacks and other minority groups are discriminated against in the workplace and economy-at-large. 

“There is not one silver bullet here that you can walk away with. Hiring and retention with respect to employee diversity are complex problems,” said Adina Sterling , associate professor of organizational behavior at the Graduate School of Business (GSB). 

Sterling has offered a few places where employers can expand employee diversity at their companies. For example, she suggests hiring managers track data about their recruitment methods and the pools that result from those efforts, as well as examining who they ultimately hire.

Here is some of that insight.

How To: Use a Scorecard to Evaluate People More Fairly

A written framework is an easy way to hold everyone to the same standard.

Archiving Black histories of Silicon Valley

A new collection at Stanford Libraries will highlight Black Americans who helped transform California’s Silicon Valley region into a hub for innovation, ideas.

Race influences professional investors’ judgments

In their evaluations of high-performing venture capital funds, professional investors rate white-led teams more favorably than they do black-led teams with identical credentials, a new Stanford study led by Jennifer L. Eberhardt finds.

Who moves forward in the hiring process?

People whose employment histories include part-time, temporary help agency or mismatched work can face challenges during the hiring process, according to new research by Stanford sociologist David Pedulla.

How emotions may result in hiring, workplace bias

Stanford study suggests that the emotions American employers are looking for in job candidates may not match up with emotions valued by jobseekers from some cultural backgrounds – potentially leading to hiring bias.

Do VCs really favor white male founders?

A field experiment used fake emails to measure gender and racial bias among startup investors.

Can you spot diversity? (Probably not)

New research shows a “spillover effect” that might be clouding your judgment.

Can job referrals improve employee diversity?

New research looks at how referrals impact promotions of minorities and women.

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racism research paper topics

Unpacking Race and Racism | A Resource Guide: Research Topic Ideas

  • Racial Identity
  • Gender & Race
  • Race Relations
  • Implicit Bias
  • Racism in America
  • Racism Around the World
  • Anti-Racism
  • Black Lives Matter
  • Hispanic/Latinx Americans
  • Asian Pacific Islander Desi Americans
  • SWANA Peoples
  • American Indians/Native Americans/Indigenous People
  • Immigrants/Migrants/Refugees
  • Biracial/Multiracial People
  • Racism & Religions
  • Revisionist History
  • Fiction & Criticism

Research Topic Ideas

  • Finding Books, eBooks, and Articles
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Choosing a Research Topic

When choosing a research topic related to the subject of race or racism, it's helpful to start out by thinking of specifics. Either specific instances or time periods of racism throughout history (slavery, apartheid, Japanese internment, etc.) or more modern day examples such as the disproportionate incarceration of people of color or use of deadly force against people of color by police officers. Next, think of a question regarding this specific instance that you would like to find more information about or an answer to. Browse the books and articles in this guide for inspiration or take a look at the short list below of possible research topic ideas, but the possibilities of topics are endless.

  • Assimilation ability and historical versus modern racism. Immigrant groups, such as Irish or Italian, were historically discriminated against and are accepted today. Groups without a "white" appearance, however, still face discrimination.
  • The idea of "ideal immigrants." 
  • The recent resurgence of racism as a whole, especially immigrant discrimination and Islamophobia.
  • The differences and similarities between racism in America and in the rest of the world.
  • Different forms of racism and their varying impacts.
  • Racism as a public health crisis.
  • The trauma of racism causing mental health issues.
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378 Racism Topics for Essays & Research Papers

racism research paper topics

Racism is a combination of prejudices and discrimination against a person, group, or entire society. People are singled out and judged and considered a minority due to their origin. All in all, racism is the belief that some races are superior to others.

Today, you may often hear the term systemic or institutional racism . In essence, it is a failure of an organization or society to treat the representatives of all races equally. It is an inability to exclude prejudice and negligence towards non-dominant ethnic groups in regulations and laws.

Even though the world is continuously progressing, racial issues remain unresolved up till nowadays. Thus, your school or college instructor may ask you to write a paper on this topic. In this article, you will find outstanding racism essay topics and valuable tips prepared by our team .

🔝 Top 10 Racism Essay Topics

  • 🤔 Thought-Provoking Racism Questions

✅ Original Racism Essay Titles

  • 📙 Simple Topics About Racism

🔎 Racism Topics for Research Paper

✍️ how to write a racism essay outline, 🔗 references.

  • Racial injustice throughout the years.
  • Racial equality as told in schools.
  • The effect of racism on globalization.
  • Racial issues in education.
  • Overcoming racial prejudices.
  • How does racism shape poverty?
  • Racial equality in Shakespeare’s Othello .
  • Scandalous racial injustice in sports.
  • Systematic racism in To Kill a Mockingbird.
  • The Black Lives Matter movement.

🤔 Thought-Provoking Racism Questions for Essay

  • What is the essence of the Black Lives Matter movement?
  • What are the effects of American racial prejudice and racism?
  • Black Lives Matter: Its tools for addressing racial issues.
  • Excessive use of force towards Afro-Americans: Possible consequences.
  • Prejudices against Afro-Americans: How to fight them.
  • How does racial segregation contribute to concentrated poverty in minority communities?
  • The history of anti-racial movements in the US.
  • The usage of derogatory lexis towards Afro-Americans by Afro-Americans.
  • Afro-American impact on the US culture.
  • What are the effects of police racial profiling on people’s attitudes?
  • How to differentiate between offensive and non-offensive words for people of color?
  • Color blindness: The essence of notion.
  • The difference between non-racists and anti-racists.
  • Why should racial profiling be banned?
  • Racial bias: Typical associations.
  • The most effective ways to combat racism.
  • Anti-racial community development: The challenges activists face.
  • Policy: How to overcoming racial profiling?
  • Friends of different racial backgrounds: Does race matter?
  • From conversations about racial issues toward community engagement.
  • How to make conversations about racism effective?
  • What is the racism impact on African-American communities in the US?
  • How to approach people who hold racist views?
  • White supremacy: The history of the notion.
  • The best ways to overcome racial prejudices.
  • Has race relations improved since the Civil War?
  • The notion of white privilege: What does it embrace?
  • Acknowledgment of injustice: The first step of tackling racial issues.
  • Biological differences between races: How true is it?
  • How do various races and ethnicities view the library?
  • Can Afro-Americans be racist?
  • The evolution of the definition of “race” in the 19th-20th century.
  • Effective ways to resist racist policies.
  • Race and crime: Is there a correlation?
  • Racism and racial bias: Two sides of one notion.
  • How did Confederate history contribute to black movements?
  • The peculiarities of neo-Confederate political program.
  • How does skin complexion affects African Americans?
  • African heritage: The ways to preserve it.
  • The role of Martin Luther King in the civil rights movement.
  • The role of Afro-Americans in the Civil War.
  • What are the African American female principals’ challenges?
  • The origins of racism on the American continent.
  • Racism as a social phenomenon.
  • Racial discrimination in the US: Modern challenges.
  • How has slavery shaped the lives of African Americans?
  • Why is racism called anti-scientific?
  • The types and forms of racism.
  • How does philosophy explain racism?
  • What is the history of civil rights of African Americans?
  • What kind of a person can be called racist?
  • What is the difference between racism and discrimination?
  • What are the most racist countries in the world?
  • How does the black feminist theory impact African American women?
  • Is there racism in African countries?
  • What is the difference between traditional and modern racism?
  • Racism as a reflection of social problems.
  • What are the rights of African Americans?
  • The history of police arbitrariness against Afro-Americans.
  • Subdued racism: Where does it hide?
  • Racial ghetto: History and modern state.
  • How to stop African American males dropping out of high school?
  • The role of Afro-Americans in the American Revolution.
  • John Brown and his role in the abolitionist movement.
  • Antiracial legislation in the US: History and evolution.
  • What is the role of black feminism in the Black Lives Matter movement?
  • Voting rights for Afro-Americans: Legislative initiatives.
  • Scientific anti-racism: Origin and prominent scientists.
  • Racial microaggression: The essence of the notion.
  • What is the black on black suppression?
  • Strategies for confronting racial microaggression.
  • White genocide conspiracy theory: Its history and essence.
  • Mixed marriages: The challenges for Afro-Americans and the whites.
  • How do black women struggle in the workplace?
  • What anti-racist organizations and institutions do you know?
  • Antiracial movements: A space for educational dialogue.
  • The theory of polygenesis as a foundation for racism.
  • How is Black Lives Matter represented on social media?
  • Racism as the need to justify the subordination of people.
  • Racism in the colonial period: Main features.
  • Racial ideas of Joseph de Gobineau .
  • Why is Black Lives Matter a controversial issue?
  • The policy of segregation in US history.
  • Legislative abolition of racial discrimination in the US.
  • Affirmative action: Its essence and main features.
  • What are the aims of the Black Americans’ civil rights movement?
  • Racism as fear of otherness.
  • Affirmative action: Arguments for and against the practice.
  • Antiracial movements in the 21st century.
  • What is the state of discrimination in the US?
  • Slavery in colonial America and racial practices.
  • The etymology of the word “racism.”
  • Domestic racism during apartheid in South Africa.
  • How was criminal justice discrimination tackled in Foster v. Chatman?
  • The abolition of slavery and the contradictions it generated in society.
  • Domestic racism: Its definition and main features.
  • Cultural racism: A perspective on the difference between cultures.
  • What is the link between immigration and ethnic relations in the US?
  • Jim Crow laws as a reflection of racial practices.
  • “Black Panthers” movement and its anti-racial message.
  • The genocide of Serbs in the independent state of Croatia.
  • The themes of racial pride and personal dignity in the poetry of Langston Hughes.
  • Population transfer in the Soviet Union as a form of racism.
  • Linguistic origin and explanation of the word racism.
  • The relationship between racial discrimination and individual perception.
  • Issues of “underserved” racial and ethnic groups of people in education.
  • Labeling theory as an explanation of racism in criminal justice.
  • The place of racism in the Armenian genocide of the First World War.
  • How does racism affect the ability to empathize?
  • The evolving role of HBCUs in resolving racial tensions.
  • Determining the relationship between perceptions of racism and political preferences.
  • The role of racism in the creation of the US Constitution.
  • The effects of racism in the book Vanishing Half by Brit Bennett.
  • Racial struggles in Detroit during the riots of 1967.
  • Representation of racism in the film To Kill a Mockingbird .
  • Demonstration of racism in modern cinematography.
  • Is there white racism in the US?
  • Othello: The racial issues in the play.
  • Perception of racism against black and Asian people.
  • Differences in the perception of racism depending on the region of residence.
  • Racism as a form of cognitive disorder.
  • Flint poisoning: Environmental racism and racial capitalism.
  • The study of the relationship between the demonstration of racism and IQ.
  • The place of racism in the war between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Racism as the reason for the invasion of Russian troops in Ukraine.
  • Racial, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic issues in psychology.
  • The impact of racism on maternity and postpartum care for black women.
  • Leadership approaches limiting racism in the workplace.
  • Mental health practices to fight racism influence.
  • Future American cultural, racial, and ethnic diversity.
  • The contribution of racism on masculinity and man’s health.
  • Racism in the political premise of modernity.
  • How do protests and activism affect the elimination of racism?
  • Black Lives Matter: Racial perspectives on social media.
  • The significance of the Black Lives Matter movement for African Americans.
  • Differences in access to healthcare for people of color.
  • What effect does racism have on mental health stigmas?
  • Racial discrimination of African Americans during Jim Crow’s era.
  • Black Lives Matter as an initiative for equality in society.
  • The relationship between racism and gun violence.
  • The influence of race on the availability of education.
  • Racial disparities in access to health insurance.
  • How racial discrimination affects learning outcomes?
  • Effects of racism on adolescent depression and suicide.
  • The impact of racism among police officers on the African American population.
  • Racial discrimination in the cosmetics industry.
  • Martin Luther King’s contribution to the anti-discrimination movement.
  • Reflection of racism in neighborhoods of segregation in America.
  • The negative attitude of teachers towards black students.
  • White like me: Race, racism, and white privilege in America.
  • The impact of racism on the self-perception of black women and men.
  • Is there racism in preschool children?
  • Perception of black women in the social justice movement.
  • News, politics, and racism.
  • Stereotypes about black students in teachers’ behavior.
  • How does police racism affect the trust of people of color?
  • How does the lack of cultural education affect society?
  • Immigration and racism in Canada.
  • Differences between black and white candidates when hiring .
  • The influence of racism on the increase of substance addiction among adolescents.
  • The history of the introduction of Black History Month in America.
  • Environmental racism and justice.
  • How social anxiety alters the perception of time?
  • Violence and distrust as a consequence of the spread of racism.
  • The connection between religion and racism in modern America.
  • The phenomenon of inter-racism in the society.
  • The main activists of the Black Movement in the United States.
  • The fight against racism during the presidency of Barack Obama.
  • The theme of racism towards characters in the Harry Potter Films.
  • Racism and discrimination: The church vision and teaching.
  • The development of white supremacy and racism under Donald Trump.
  • How racism affects the incarceration of African American teenagers?
  • The relationship between racism and group identity.
  • List of privileges and ways I have experienced and demonstrated racism.
  • Reflection of racism in institutional policies and practices.
  • How do American corporations contribute to limiting racism?
  • The manifestation of racism in the film The Green Mile .
  • An image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness.”
  • Is there a connection between racism and Nazism as its manifestation?
  • 12 Years of Slavery as an example of racism in America.
  • Portraying African Americans as deviant people in cinematography.
  • Terrorism, race, and the criminal justice in America.
  • The cancel culture relation to cultural appropriation and racism.
  • Blackface as a new form of racism.

📙 Simple Topics About Racism for Essay

  • Racism as the superiority of one race over another.
  • Racial profiling in the United States.
  • Connections between prejudice, discrimination, and antagonism against people.
  • Role of social and biological differences in modern racism.
  • Effects of racism on the formation of political systems.
  • Racial discrimination in the US justice system.
  • Scientific racism as a supporting factor for discrimination.
  • Differences and similarities between nativism, xenophobia, and segregation.
  • The detrimental effect of supremacism on modern society.
  • Racial discrimination and prejudice in the US.
  • Perception of ethnicity and race in the racism ideology.
  • The role of culture and upbringing in racism beliefs.
  • The Justification of discrimination in scientific racism theories.
  • Racial discrimination practices in recruitment and selection.
  • The main historical events that caused modern racism.
  • Atlantic slave trade as a force behind racial segregation in the US.
  • Holocaust and genocides as a form of racism.
  • Racial injustice and its impact on employees.
  • Indigenous people as the main victim of racism.
  • Pseudo-scientific research assumptions connected to racism.
  • Influence of scientific research on the taxonomy of racism.
  • Racial bias and racial profiling in law enforcement.
  • Human genome research in the understanding of racism.
  • Frederick Hertz’s research about race hatred.
  • Racism as a natural political unit in Nazism.
  • Racial tensions in contemporary America.
  • Hierarchical power relationship in the racism ideology.
  • The main racism discriminatory actions and practices.
  • United States legislation concerning racism in society.
  • Racism against Afro and Latino Americans in the US.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a human rights instrument.
  • Main points of UNESCO Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.
  • Racial discrimination laws in Great Britain.
  • Racism in its forms and examples.
  • Laws concerning racism and racist practices in Norway.
  • Race as a social construct and its role in racism.
  • The nature and social influence of white racism.
  • Unconscious racism.
  • Social and economic outcomes of modern racism.
  • The concept of racial identity in social psychology.
  • The influence of racism on the African American population.
  • The problem of racism in the US.
  • Covert expression of racism in modern Western society.
  • Subconscious racism in the form of implicit or aversive racism.
  • The influence of implicit attitudes on racism worldview.
  • Institutional discrimination and racism.
  • The contribution of subconscious racism on individual biases.
  • Stereotypes and labels as a product of racism.
  • Nigerian prince as a reference to advance-fee scammers.
  • Racism and discrimination issues in the US.
  • Discourse analysis as a way to explain racism.
  • The view of African American literature on racism
  • Black racial experience in American fictional literature.
  • Racism: American progress in the 21 st century.
  • The phenomenon of white savior narrative in films.
  • Oppression of racial minorities in modern America.
  • Distinctions between racism and ethnocentrism.
  • The concepts of race and racism in the modern environment.
  • Ethical issues of racism in the workplace.
  • Anti-discrimination practices to spread awareness about racism.
  • Consequences of the lack of education of society regarding racism.
  • The meaning of gender and race.
  • Measures to limit racism in modern society.
  • Practices for spreading awareness about racism in education.
  • The influence of upbringing on the formation of a racist worldview.
  • Race discrimination: Aspects and effects.
  • The phenomenon of reverse racism in the modern United States.
  • Color-conscious policies to remedy racial inequality.
  • The influence of power structure on the spread of racism.
  • Equal opportunities and gender, age, and race.
  • Political and economic power to oppress racism.
  • Differences between aversive and traditional racism.
  • The empirical evidence of existing aversive racism.
  • Race and your community.
  • The role of past patterns in color blindness racism.
  • Cultural racism as a form of the superiority of one culture.
  • The negative influence of cultural racism on cultural identity.
  • Race, class, and the criminal justice system in the US.
  • The impact of economic and social disparity on modern society.
  • How does institutional racism on government policies and initiatives?
  • The phenomenon of othering in distinguishing certain groups.
  • Social science and the origins of race.
  • Othering and Orientalism in colonial Europe.
  • Representation of racism in the everyday life of African American people.
  • International laws concerning racial discrimination.
  • The issue of race and ethnic groups.
  • Influence of Paris Peace Conference on limitation of racism.
  • The role of scientific racism in the Holocaust.
  • The race question’s influence on the judicial system.
  • Discrimination against minority groups, races, and ethnic groups.
  • The impact of the European Union on reducing racism.
  • Racism ideology in 19th century America.
  • Intertwined concepts of culture and racism.
  • Race and gender in Hooks’ and Butler’s articles.
  • The impact of racism on increasing barriers between races and ethics.
  • Debate on the nature of the emergence of racism.
  • Racism as a form of ethnic and national conflict.
  • Jim Crow’s and segregation era’s implications for modern African American history.
  • Transatlantic slave trade as the main force of racism.
  • Declaration of Human Rights as a measure to fight racism.
  • Manifestations of racism in the judicial system of the US.
  • The African American civil rights movement history.
  • Anti-racist programs used in modern society.
  • How does globalization contribute to the spreading of cultural racism?
  • The impact of racism on increasing inequality.
  • The concept of race: Social science.
  • The phenomenology of racism in modern Western society.
  • Ethical features of racism as a phenomenon of modern society.
  • Criticism of racism: A view from different sides.
  • Race discrimination as a way of disrespect.
  • Racial profiling and its use at police stops and in crime reduction.
  • Racial discrimination at work: Law prosecution.
  • How to minimize racial discrimination at work?
  • How widespread is race harassment in the US?
  • Immigration and racial profiling and the role of law enforcement.
  • Racial slurs as one of the major types of racial harassment.
  • Should racial slurs be prohibited legislative level?
  • Can the legislation control the level of racial harassment?
  • Incarceration rates among racial and ethnic minorities.
  • Harassment at work: The race prejudices of employers.
  • The manifestations of race harassment in the workplace.
  • How may racism affect the development of the company?
  • Asian immigrants in the United States and racism.
  • How can racism in the workplace be minimized through HR management?
  • How does the hidden racial harassment at the workplace result in limited employee development opportunities?
  • Systematic harassment and its effect on employees’ productivity.
  • Aspects of racism and dehumanization in works of Africa.
  • The impact of racial discrimination on the total efficiency of the employees.
  • The unconsciousness and conscious race discrimination: Which is more hazardous?
  • Ignoring career promotion as a form of racial discrimination.
  • How various races and ethnicities view the library.
  • Racism during COVID-19: The comparison of the work loss between the representatives of different races.
  • The difference in the salaries of white and black employees in America.
  • The methods of providing a racial discrimination-free workplace.
  • Implicit association test: Attitudes on race and ethnicity.
  • How the anti-racist corporate culture advances the company.
  • Should the company’s employment policy include discrimination control inquiries?
  • Training as the most effective way to minimize racial harassment.
  • Shifting morality in race and education.
  • The psychological impact of race discrimination on the victims of harassment.
  • The employer as the workplace anti-racism facilitator.
  • Recent race/discrimination issues: Offensive working environment.
  • Gender and race discrimination at workplaces.
  • How to overcome the problem of clients’ intolerance towards employees of different races?
  • The physical isolation of the representatives of different races at the workplace.
  • Restriction of national minorities from certain occupational fields.
  • Jazz music and race relationship.
  • Hidden race discrimination: Externally neutral company policy.
  • Race and color as the professional characteristics in modern society.
  • Hostile work environment and mental problems of racial minorities.
  • Race and health relations.
  • Illegal race discrimination: How it is prosecuted.
  • The role of the complaint of racial discrimination in fighting injustice at the workplace.
  • The impact of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on discrimination in the workplace.
  • African American women obtaining higher education.
  • Comparison of laws on racial discrimination in the workplace by state.
  • Relevant remedies for racial discrimination in the workplace.
  • Compensation for moral damage to victims of racial discrimination as a measure of punishment for the employer.
  • African American teachers in segregated schools in the US.
  • Potential damages for employers under various anti-racial laws.
  • Going to court for racial discrimination: Potential pros and cons.
  • The productivity loss of race discrimination-based companies.
  • The lack of African American participation in clinical trials in the US.
  • The three directions of race discrimination: Employers, colleagues, and clients.
  • Race discrimination as the method of creating a cheaper workforce.
  • Unintentional race discrimination: Ways to overcome.
  • The African American women’s stereotyping in media.
  • Stereotypes as the major problem of race discrimination in the workplace.
  • The somatic consequences of workplace race discrimination.
  • The management of racism-based organizational conflicts.
  • African Americans’ historical progression since 1865.
  • Reputational risks for a company that practices race discrimination.
  • Should the government intervene in the fight against racial discrimination?
  • Capitalism and race discrimination: Is it possible to eliminate?
  • Hate crimes toward minorities in the United States.
  • Unequal conditions and labor rights for people of different races.
  • Prohibition of discrimination as a principle of labor law.
  • The role of research and statistical analysis in preventing race discrimination.
  • Disparity in the number of minority healthcare executives.
  • Racial biases at the workplace: The role in the discrimination elimination.
  • The discrimination-free organization: Growth opportunities.
  • The methods of confronting race discrimination in the workplace.
  • Cultural, ethnic, and gender differences at the workplace.
  • Employees’ rights violations related to racism.

A successful essay on racism requires complete in-depth research of the topic. As soon as you pick an appropriate title, start looking for credible sources and quotes for your paper. Then, structure your ideas properly. And the best way to reach a logical flow of ideas is to create a racism essay outline .

Introduction for a Racism Essay

An introduction gives the first impression of your essay, so make sure it is strong and clear. Typically, this paragraph includes three crucial elements:

  • a hook (first several sentences),
  • background (a few more sentences),
  • and a thesis statement (the last sentence).

Start your essay with an attention-grabbing element. It should be dynamic and intriguing. The key aim of the hook is to make your reader curious and engaged. For example:

“In America, black people are twice as likely to be unemployed than white people.”

After the hook, you provide all the background necessary to understand the chosen topic.

Thesis Statement About Racism

End your introduction with a concise thesis statement . It should reflect your key message and guide your readers through the paper. Also, you should make it as straightforward as possible not to confuse your audience about your position. If you struggle with the wording, paraphrase it using our rephrasing tool .

Here is an example of the thesis statement about racism:

Racism has a number of adverse ramifications for society, such as injustice, violation of human rights, and poverty.

Racism Essay: Body Paragraphs

Your racism essay should contain three body paragraphs : two with arguments and one with a counterargument.

It is essential to back up your points with valid supportive evidence. Make sure you rely only on credible sources while coming up with the arguments. Present only appropriate proof of your ideas. Keep in mind that examples play a crucial role in your essay.

Conclusion for a Racism Essay

In the last paragraph of your essay, summarize all the key points. Do not add any new arguments or examples. It will make the readers confused.

The key aim of the conclusion is to wrap up the essay and give the readers a sense of closure. So, develop your thesis statement from the introduction. Here is an example:

Injustice, violation of human rights, and poverty are three negative consequences of racism that have a detrimental effect on society.

That’s it! Thank you for reading our article. We hope you got many insights and are ready to compose your essay now. Don’t forget to proofread it once you finish it. Our read my paper tool will help you with that!

  • What is Racism? – Australian Human Rights Commission
  • African-Americans With College Degrees Are Twice As Likely to Be Unemployed as Other Graduates – Janell Ross and National Journal, The Atlantic
  • Systemic Racism: What Does It Mean and How Can You Help Dismantle It – N’dea Yancey-Bragg, USA Today
  • How Do I Write an Intro, Conclusion, & Body Paragraph – LSA Sweetland Center for Writing, the University of Michigan
  • On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart — Pew Research Center
  • Racism Poses a Public Health Threat to Millions Worldwide — World Economic Forum
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120 Racism Essay Topics You Should Check First

The racist system is very relevant in modern Society. Despite economic, technical, and social progress, many countries are still on the verge of social and racial intolerance. The same negative influences are relevant to future generations if they do not reconsider their point of view. That is why students need to choose racism essay topics that will reveal the essence of the problem and get a good grade.

The choice of social justice research topics is also relevant because modern society is still not ready to completely abandon prejudice towards people. Your research work should show the absurdity of such tendencies and motivate you to reject social inequality completely. You should choose exactly those social problem topics that will reflect your personal preferences and will be relevant to the society you live in. It will also help you find a lot of social studies that will help you add some facts to your research paper.

But this is not the whole list of requirements that you need to fulfill. The racism topics for the research paper require careful research and preparation of a key preliminary list with abstracts and important historical references. You need to confirm each statement not only with your personal views but also with real facts and scientific evidence.

For example, you can justify racism in the context of the psychological rejection of people who differ from certain social groups. You can also analyze prejudice and discrimination research paper topics for important information that can bring you the highest possible score. So, let's check the racism research topics.

Racism Essay Topics: History

When you select such research topics about racism, you will be able to examine the reasons for intolerance towards people of different skin colors through historical examples. For example, you can analyze racial intolerance based on a specific country or time period. This will help to understand the reasons for racism and intolerance towards people of other orientations.

  • The policy of racism of colonists against aborigines in Australia.
  • Racism in the United States and its causes.
  • American Mexican racism in the 20th Century.
  • Historical research on racism.
  • Racial prejudice against workers in the 1960s.
  • Harlem as a story of fighting racism.
  • The key figures in the fight for equal rights.
  • Racism as a lack of social progress.
  • The Ku Klux Klan and its history.
  • The history of apartheid in the South African republic.
  • Martin Luther King as black rights fighter.
  • The major historical figures against racism.
  • The chronology of the emergence of racism in Afghanistan.
  • The main nuances of modern racism.
  • Historical facts that support racism in ancient Egypt.

Argumentative Racism Paper Topics

When choosing research topics about racism like this, you need to be clear about how to argue your point of view or bring a specific example based on your chosen country or time period. For example, you can tell why racism is so relevant in modern society and the main motives it carries to everyone.

  • The reason for the emergence of racism inclinations.
  • The aspects of the immorality of racism.
  • How relevant is the issue of racism now?
  • Modern movements in the struggle for the rights of different races.
  • Racism as a manifestation of social intolerance.
  • When will humanity be able to defeat racism?
  • Examples of racism in everyday life.
  • Is religious racism possible in our time?
  • The benefits of racism in the context of political repression.
  • The main reasons for the irrationality of racism.
  • Why do women experience prejudice from men?
  • Is it possible to get rid of racism through aggression?
  • What are the main factors motivating racists?
  • How is Islam perceived in the context of racism?
  • What are the current problems of different races and nationalities?

Analytical Racism Paper Topics

Analytical information is always relevant when you pick up essay topics on racism. This will allow you to rely solely on real facts and draw parallels between different countries and specific cases. All of this will help you convey your research article's main message and explain the reasons for this or that fact of racial intolerance.

  • What are the main levers to reduce racism in the United States?
  • The main racial prejudices in the political environment.
  • Does racial discrimination affect language issues?
  • Why interracial marriage is unacceptable in modern society.
  • The peculiarities of racial discrimination against social workers.
  • What myths about ethnic groups exist in the United States?
  • Can Islamophobia be classified as racism?
  • The relationship between black discrimination and racism.
  • How does racism affect the health care system?
  • How is racism reflected in modern cinema?
  • Can the problem of racism be solved within the next 20 years?
  • Basic principles of overcoming racism in society.
  • How can you compare the social level and racism in society?
  • The nuances of modern racism and the reasons for its occurrence.

Racism Essay Topics: Definitions

Such social issue paper topics are always relevant in modern society. Racism is a reality that is still with us. You can give definitions of various forms and manifestations of racial intolerance and explain the reasons for such occurrence, even in modern society. It will be relevant in the context of your college or university studies and also allow you to get high grades.

  • Classification of types of racism in the United States.
  • How does cultural identity influence racist issues?
  • Is there institutional racism, and what are the reasons for it?
  • Can personality theory explain the premise of racism?
  • Racial-free opportunities in times of racism?
  • Interpolated racism as a new round of social inequality.
  • How does the theory of authoritarian prejudice work?
  • The concept of cultural racism in modern society.
  • What are pluralism and assimilation?
  • Does segregation affect personality perception?

Racism in the USA

When you choose racial profiling essay topics, you should think about the USA. This country has a huge number of freedoms and rights, which also goes through a stage of getting rid of racism inclinations. Towards democracy and racism cannot coexist in harmony. Therefore, society must get rid of all negative aspects. You can tell about the United States' history and how this country went through the millstones of racial hatred.

  • The main causes of racism in the United States.
  • Why were the early settlers racist?
  • Why weren't blacks the only slaves on the American Continent?
  • The reasons for the introduction of the slave system in the United States?
  • The main nuances that influenced the abolition of slavery in the United States.
  • Could the escalation of conflicts be repeated on the basis of racism?
  • How is the US fighting racism around the world?
  • Major trends for overcoming racism in pop culture?
  • How is society divided on the basis of racism?
  • Can racism be permanently removed from America?

Racism Topic Ideas: Literature, Art, and Movies

When choosing racism research paper topics, you should remember that art, literature, and cinema also have many examples of negative attitudes towards people of different skin colors. For example, you can take any old film from the thirties that will clearly show the attitude of people towards other nationalities and races. This will be able to show progress and general revolutionary movements in modern society more clearly.

  • The influence of the 1930s cinema on contemporary racism in America.
  • Why do many Disney cartoons of the late forties have racial prejudices?
  • Problems of white nationalism in the film The Invisible Man.
  • The influence of modern cinema on the elimination of racism
  • Modern literature as a factor in the fight against racial segregation.
  • A list of the most influential films of the past century that have influenced the destruction of racism.
  • Is there a racial bias in cinema today?
  • How can art fight against racism?
  • Modern filmmakers as flagships of the racial revolution.
  • Analysis of auteur cinema as the best example of the fight against racism.

Age Discrimination

The age discrimination topics research paper is also relevant to many people in the United States and around the world. Students can take as a basis certain cases of age intolerance or historical facts on the basis of which you can create your own paperwork. This is a very broad topic that includes many key stages of social intolerance that need to be discussed in society for the complete elimination of negative manifestations.

  • The basic definition of age discrimination.
  • The impact of age discrimination on employment.
  • Can an older person experience age discrimination in health care?
  • How does age discrimination affect the lives of today's Americans?
  • Problems of age discrimination as a factor of intolerance in society.
  • The main aspects of age discrimination and its impact on adolescents.
  • Methods of combating age discrimination.
  • Modern cinema as proof of the fight against age discrimination.
  • Older people in politics and the absence of age discrimination in advanced countries.
  • How can modern society avoid age discrimination?

Homophobia is a sad fact in world history. Traditional society is intolerant of manifestations of sexual deviations and other views. That is why such a topic may not only be relevant but will bring you high marks. Your job is to get facts and provide expert content with links to authoritative sources.

  • Psychological causes of homophobia.
  • How does homophobia affect the slowdown in the development of modern states?
  • Homophobia as the equivalent of racism in the modern world.
  • How society can get rid of homophobia.
  • Why does sexual difference affect attitudes towards people?
  • Social prejudice as a major factor in homophobia.
  • Teenage bullying is based on homophobia.
  • Nuances of homophobia as the highest manifestation of intolerance.
  • Can homophobia ruin the life of the average person?
  • The most tolerant countries for non-traditional sexual orientation.
  • Why is homophobia so common?
  • Reasons for psychological intolerance towards non-traditional sexual orientations.
  • The main factors in the fight against homophobia.

General Topic About Racism

You can also choose general racial discrimination topics that do not have a specific focus and are designed to reveal the whole problem in its entirety. Such a broad aspect will allow you not to look for any specific research and provide general facts about the various problems of racial discrimination and the reasons for this.

  • Definition of racism and racial segregation.
  • The main reasons for apartheid in the South Africa.
  • Why do people of color light negative B in their direction in developing countries?
  • Nuances of racism in the context of modern state politics.
  • Employment problems for people of color.
  • The nuances of social policy and the fight against racism.
  • How can you defeat racism around the world?
  • Racism as a global disaster in modern society.
  • Modern manifestations of racism in the social environment.
  • The general trend towards a decrease in intolerance towards other races.
  • Features of interaction between people of different races and nationalities.
  • The main nuances of the fight against racism.
  • Factors influencing racial intolerance.

Other Topic About Racism

You can also choose argumentative essay topics on racism, as this will keep you from delving into specific narrow specifics. It may also be interesting for you and bring you a good assessment. If tomorrow you are not on those important topics, you can give several pieces of evidence that will confirm your point of view. Buy a research paper will be especially relevant if you give real examples from life or literature relevant to modern society.

  • Racism & intercultural communication barriers.
  • The impact of Jim Crow laws on African Americans.
  • Racial bullying in schools.
  • Incidents in the life of slave girls in Uganda.
  • The black lives matter movement.
  • Race and ethnicity problems.
  • The illegal immigration.
  • Joseph Stieglitz and his research papers.
  • Contemporary problems of the black population.
  • Worldwide star collaborations against racism.

How to Write a Research Paper on Racism?

The preparation of a research paper on racism does not differ from other formats in the Technical Plan. You still have to adhere to certain formatting, the structure of your research, and general guidelines for presenting facts and certain statistics. You should also choose a relevant topic that will be important in the context of modern society or historical moments.

Your paper should follow a clear structure, have links to reliable sources, and confirmed statistical information only then you will be able to operate with facts and get high marks. Nevertheless, if you are still undecided about which topic you should choose, you can use our services.

We have a team of professionals who know many aspects of education and are ready to open the topic of racism for your research. All you need is to pick race and ethnic relations essay topics or any other theme. We will prepare expert material which will allow you to get high marks.

The Inspiration List:

  • Racism and Discrimination
  • Views on Race in America
  • Racism – News, Research and Analysis
  • Physiological Responses to Racism and Discrimination
  • Racism, discrimination and hypertension
  • Racism and Health
  • Dimensions of Racism
  • Study protocol
  • Open access
  • Published: 28 March 2019

The impact of racism on the future health of adults: protocol for a prospective cohort study

  • James Stanley   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Ricci Harris 2 ,
  • Donna Cormack 2 ,
  • Andrew Waa 2 &
  • Richard Edwards 1  

BMC Public Health volume  19 , Article number:  346 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

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Racial discrimination is recognised as a key social determinant of health and driver of racial/ethnic health inequities. Studies have shown that people exposed to racism have poorer health outcomes (particularly for mental health), alongside both reduced access to health care and poorer patient experiences. Most of these studies have used cross-sectional designs: this prospective cohort study (drawing on critical approaches to health research) should provide substantially stronger causal evidence regarding the impact of racism on subsequent health and health care outcomes.

Participants are adults aged 15+ sampled from 2016/17 New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) participants, sampled based on exposure to racism (ever exposed or never exposed, using five NZHS questions) and stratified by ethnic group (Māori, Pacific, Asian, European and Other). Target sample size is 1680 participants (half exposed, half unexposed) with follow-up survey timed for 12–24 months after baseline NZHS interview. All exposed participants are invited to participate, with unexposed participants selected using propensity score matching (propensity scores for exposure to racism, based on several major confounders). Respondents receive an initial invitation letter with choice of paper or web-based questionnaire. Those invitees not responding following reminders are contacted for computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI).

A brief questionnaire was developed covering current health status (mental and physical health measures) and recent health-service utilisation (unmet need and experiences with healthcare measures). Analysis will compare outcomes between those exposed and unexposed to racism, using regression models and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) to account for the propensity score sampling process.

This study will add robust evidence on the causal links between experience of racism and subsequent health. The use of the NZHS as a baseline for a prospective study allows for the use of propensity score methods during the sampling phase as a novel approach to recruiting participants from the NZHS. This method allows for management of confounding at the sampling stage, while also reducing the need and cost of following up with all NZHS participants.

Peer Review reports

Differential access to the social determinants of health both creates and maintains unjust and avoidable health inequities [ 1 ]. In New Zealand, these inequities are largely patterned by ethnicity, particularly for Māori (the indigenous peoples) and Pacific peoples, and intertwined with ethnic distributions of socioeconomic status [ 2 , 3 ]. In models of health, racism is recognised as a key social determinant that underpins systemic ethnic health and social inequities, as is evident in New Zealand and elsewhere [ 4 , 5 ].

Racism can be understood as an organised system based on the categorisation and ranking of racial/ethnic groups into social hierarchies whereby ethnic groups are assigned differential value and have differential access to power, opportunities and resources, resulting in disadvantage for some groups and advantage for others [ 4 , 6 ]. Historical power relationships underpin systems of racism [ 7 ], which in New Zealand relates specifically to our colonial history and ongoing colonial processes [ 8 ].

Racism can be expressed at structural and individual levels, with several taxonomies describing different levels of racism. Institutionalised racism, for example, has been defined as, “the structures, policies, practices, and norms resulting in differential access to the goods, services, and opportunities of society by race[/ethnicity]” (p. 10) [ 6 ]. In contrast, personally-mediated racism has been defined as, “prejudice and discrimination, where prejudice is differential assumptions about the abilities, motives, and intents of others by ‘race[/ethnicity],’ and discrimination is differential actions towards others by ‘race[/ethnicity]’” (p. 10) [ 6 ].

The multifarious expressions of racism can affect health via several recognised direct and indirect pathways. Indirect pathways include differential access to societal resources and health determinants by race/ethnicity, as evidenced by long-standing ethnic inequities in income, education, employment and living standards in New Zealand, with subsequent impacts on living environments and exposure to risk and protective factors [ 4 , 6 , 9 , 10 ]. At the individual level, experience of racism can affect health directly through physical violence and stress pathways, with negative psychological and physiological impacts leading to subsequent mental and physical health consequences. In addition, racism influences healthcare via institutions and individual health providers, leading to ethnic inequities in access to and quality of care. For example, ethnic disparities in socioeconomic status can indirectly result in differential access to care, while health provider ethnic bias can influence the quality and outcomes of healthcare interactions [ 11 ].

There has been considerable recent growth in research supporting a direct link between experience of racism and health. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis summarised the evidence for direct links between self-reported personally-mediated racism and negative physical and mental health outcomes [ 12 ], with the strongest effect sizes demonstrated for mental health. Related work has also shown that experience of racial discrimination is associated with other adverse health outcomes and preclinical indicators of disease and health risk across various ethnic groups and countries, including in New Zealand [ 9 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. Experience of racism has also been linked to a range of negative health care-related measures [ 16 ].

However, most studies have used cross-sectional designs: very few of the articles in a recent systematic review [ 12 ] used prospective or longitudinal designs ( n  = 30, 9% of total, including multiple articles from some studies), limiting our ability to draw strong causal conclusions as the direction of causality cannot be determined when racism exposure and health outcomes are measured at the same time. Additionally, cross-sectional studies may give biased estimates of the magnitude of association between experience of racism and health: for example, bias may occur if experience of ill health (outcome) increases reporting or perception of racism (exposure) [ 12 ]. This is suggested by meta-analyses where effect sizes for the association between racism and mental health were larger for cross-sectional compared to longitudinal studies [ 12 ]. Longitudinal research on the effects of racism has been particularly limited with respect to physical health outcomes and measures of healthcare access and quality [ 12 , 16 ]. Finally, existing prospective studies have largely been restricted to quite specific groups (e.g. adolescents, females, particular ethnic groups), with a limited number of studies undertaken at a national population level and few with sufficient data to explore the impact of racism on the health of Indigenous populations [ 12 ].

In New Zealand, reported experience of racism is substantially higher among Māori, Asian and Pacific ethnic groupings compared to European [ 3 , 17 ]. In our own research, we have examined cross-sectional links between reported experience of racism and various measures of adult health in New Zealand using data from the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS), an annual national survey by the Ministry of Health including ~ 13,000 adults per annum [ 2 , 18 , 19 ]. In these studies [ 17 , 20 , 21 , 22 ] we have shown that both individual experience of racism (e.g. personal attacks or unfair treatment) and markers of structural racism (deprivation, other socioeconomic indicators) are independently associated with poor health (mental health, physical health, cardiovascular disease), health risks (smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption) and healthcare experience and use (screening, unmet need and negative patient experiences). Other New Zealand researchers have reported similar findings including studies among older Māori [ 23 ], adolescents [ 24 ], and for maternal and child health outcomes [ 25 ]. However, evidence from New Zealand prospective studies is still limited. The NZ Attitudes and Values study showed that, among Māori, experience of racism was negatively linked to subsequent wellbeing [ 26 ], and the Growing Up in New Zealand study reported that maternal experience of racism (measured antenatally) was linked to a higher risk of postnatal depression among Māori, Pacific and Asian women [ 27 ].

While empirical evidence of the links between racism and health is growing in New Zealand, it remains limited in several areas. There is consistent evidence from cross-sectional studies for the hypothesis that racism is associated with poorer health and health care. This study seeks to build on existing research to provide more robust causal evidence using a prospective design that helps to rule out reverse causality, in order to inform policy and healthcare interventions.

Theoretical and conceptual approaches

Addressing racism as a health determinant is intrinsically linked to addressing ethnic health inequities. In New Zealand, Māori health is of special relevance given Māori rights under the Treaty of Waitangi [ 28 ] and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People [ 29 ], and in recognition of the inequities for Māori across most major health indicators [ 28 ]. We recognise the direct significance of this project to Māori and understand racism in its broader sense as underpinning our colonial history with ongoing contemporary manifestations and effects [ 8 ]. As such, our work is informed by critical approaches to health research that are explicitly concerned with understanding inequity and transforming systems and structures to achieve the goal of health equity. This includes decolonising and transformative research principles [ 30 ] that influence our approach to the research question, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data, and translation of research findings. The team includes senior Māori researchers as well as advisors with experience in Māori health research and policy.

Aims and research questions

The overall aim is to examine the relationship between reported experience of racism and a range of subsequent health measures. The specific objectives are:

To determine whether experience of racism leads to poorer mental health and/or physical health.

To determine the impact of racism on subsequent use and experience of health services.

Study design

The proposed study uses a prospective cohort study design. Respondents from the 2016/17 New Zealand Health Survey [ 2 , 18 , 19 ] (NZHS) provide the source of the follow-up cohort sample and the NZHS provides baseline data. The follow-up survey will be conducted between one and two years after respondents completed the NZHS. Using the NZHS data as our sampling frame provides access to exposure status (experience of racism), along with data on a substantial number of covariates (including age, gender, and socioeconomic variables) allowing us to select an appropriate study cohort for answering our research questions. Participant follow-up will be conducted by a multi-modality survey (mail, web and telephone modalities).

This study explores the impact of racism on health in the general NZ adult population (which is the target population of the NZHS that forms the baseline of the study).


Participants were selected from adult NZHS 2016/17 interviewees ( n  = 13,573, aged 15+ at NZHS interview) who consented to re-contact for future research within a 2 year re-contact window (92% of adult respondents). The NZHS is a complex-sample design survey with an 80% response rate for adults [ 18 ] and oversampling of Māori, Pacific, and Asian populations (who experience higher levels of racism), which facilitates studying the impact of racism on subsequent health status. Participants who had consented to re-contact ( n  = 12,530) also needed to have contact details recorded and sufficient data on exposures/confounders to be included in the sampling frame ( n  = 11,775, 93.9% of consenting adults). All invited participants will be aged at least 16 at the time of follow-up, as at least one year will have passed since participation in the NZHS (where all participants were aged at least 15).

Exposure to racism was determined from the five previously validated NZHS items [ 31 ] asked of all adult respondents (see Table  1 ) about personal experience of racism across five domains (verbal and physical attack; unfair treatment in health, housing, or work). Response options for each question cover recent exposure (within the past 12 months), more historical exposure (> 12 months ago), or no exposure to racism.

Identification of exposed and unexposed individuals

Individuals were classified as exposed to racism if they answered “yes” to any question in Table  1 , in either timeframe (recent or historical: referred to as “ever” exposure). This allows for analysis restricted to the nested subset of individuals reporting recent exposure to racism (past 12 months) and those only reporting more historical exposure (> 12 months ago). The unexposed group comprised all individuals answering “No” to all five domains of experience of racism. We selected all exposed individuals for follow-up, along with a matched sample of unexposed individuals. Individuals missing exposure data were explicitly excluded.

Matching of exposed and unexposed individuals

To address potential confounding, we used propensity score matching methods in our sampling stage to remove the impact of major confounders (as measured in the NZHS) of the causal association between experience of racism and health outcomes. Propensity score methods are increasingly used in observational epidemiology as a robust method for dealing with confounding in the analysis stage [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ] and have more recently been considered as a useful approach for secondary sampling of participants from existing cohorts for subsequent follow up [ 37 ].

All exposed NZHS respondents will be invited into the follow-up survey. To find matched unexposed individuals, potential participants were stratified based on self-reported ethnicity (Māori, Pacific, Asian, European and Other; using prioritised ethnicity for individuals identifying with more than one grouping) [ 38 ] and then further matched for potential sociodemographic and socioeconomic confounders using propensity score methods [ 39 , 40 ]. Stratification by ethnicity reflects the differential prevalence of racism by ethnic group, and furthermore allows ethnically-stratified estimates of the impact of racism [ 22 ].

Propensity scores were modelled using logistic regression for “ever” exposure to racism based on major confounder variables of the association between racism and poor health (Table  2 ), with modelling stratified by ethnic group. Selection of appropriate confounders was based on past work using cross-sectional analysis of the 2011/12 NZHS (e.g. [ 21 , 22 ]) and the wider literature that informed the conceptual model for the project. Some additional variables were considered for inclusion in the matching process but were removed prior to finalisation (details in Table  2 ).

Within each ethnic group stratum, exposed individuals were matched with unexposed individuals (1:1 matching) based on propensity scores to make these two groups approximately exchangeable (confounders balanced between exposure groups). The matching process [ 41 ] used nearest neighbour matching as implemented in MatchIt [ 42 ] in R 3.4 (R Institute, Vienna, Austria). As the propensity score modelling is blind to participants’ future outcome status, the final propensity score models were refined using just the baseline NZHS data to achieve maximal balance of confounders between exposure groups, without risking bias to the subsequent primary causal analyses [ 39 ]. Balance between groups was then checked on all matching variables prior to finalisation of the sampling lists.

Questionnaire development

Development of the follow-up questionnaire was informed by a literature review and a conceptual model (Figs.  1 and 2 ) of the potential pathways from racism to health outcomes (Fig.  1 ) and health service utilisation (Fig.  2 ) [ 4 , 10 , 16 , 43 , 44 ]. The literature review focussed on longitudinal studies of racism and health among adolescents and adults that included health or health service outcomes. The literature review covered longitudinal studies post-dating the 2015 systematic review by Paradies et al. [ 12 ], using similar search terms for papers between 2013 and 2017 indexed in Medline and PubMed databases, alongside additional studies from systematic reviews [ 12 , 16 ].

figure 1

Potential pathways between racism and health outcomes. Direct pathway: Main arrow represents the direct biopsychosocial and trauma pathways between experience of racial discrimination (Time 1) and negative health outcomes (Time 2) Indirect pathways: Racial discrimination (Time 1) can impact negatively on health outcomes (Time 2) via healthcare pathways (e.g. less engagement, unmet need). Racial discrimination (Time 1) can impact negatively on physical health outcomes (Time 2) via mental health pathways

figure 2

Potential pathways between racism and healthcare utilisation outcomes. Main pathway: Main arrow represents the pathway between experience of racial discrimination (Time 1) and negative healthcare measures (Time 2), via negative perceptions and expectations of healthcare (providers, organisations, systems) and future engagement. Secondary pathway: Racial discrimination (T1) can impact negatively on healthcare (Time 2) via negative impacts on health increasing healthcare need

We used several criteria for considering and prioritising variables for the questionnaire. The conceptual model also informed prioritisation of variables for the questionnaire. For outcome measures, these included: alignment with study aims and objectives; existing evidence of a relationship between racism and outcome; New Zealand evidence of ethnic inequities in outcome; previous cross-sectional relationships between racism and outcome in New Zealand data; availability of baseline measures (for health outcomes); plausibility of health effects manifesting within a 1–2 year follow-up period; and data quality (e.g. validated measures, low missing data, questions suitable for multimodal administration). Mediators and confounders were considered for variables not available in the baseline NZHS survey, as was recent experience of racism (following the NZHS interview) to provide additional measurement of exposure to recent racism. A final consideration for prioritising items for inclusion was keeping the length of the questionnaire short in order to maximise response rates (while being able to fully address the study aims). The questionnaire was extensively discussed by the research team and reviewed by the study advisors prior to finalisation.

Table  3 summarises the outcome measures by topic domain and original source (with references). The final questionnaire content can be found in the Additional file  1 , and includes: health outcome measures of mental and physical health (using SF12-v2 and K10 scales); health service measures (unmet need, satisfaction with usual medical centre, experiences with general practitioners); experience of racism in the last 12 months (adapted from items in the NZHS); and variables required to restrict data (e.g. having a usual medical centre, type of centre, having a General Practitioner [GP] visit in the last 12 months) or potential confounder and mediator variables not available at baseline (e.g. number of GP visits).

Recruitment and data collection

Recruitment is currently underway. The sampling phase provided a list of potential participants for invitation, and recruitment for the follow-up survey uses the contact details from the NZHS interview (physical address, mobile/landline telephone, and email address if available). Recruitment will take place over three tranches to (1) manage fieldwork capacity and (2) allow tracking of response rates and adaptation of contact strategies if recruitment is sub-optimal.

To maximise response rates, we chose to use a multi-modal survey [ 45 ]. Participants are invited to respond by a paper questionnaire included with the initial invitation letter (questionnaire returned by pre-paid post), by self-completed online questionnaire, or by computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI, on mobile or landline.) A pen is included in the study invitation to improve initial engagement with the paper-based survey [ 46 ]. Participants completing the survey are offered a NZ$20 gift card to recognise their participation. The contact information contains instructions for opting out of the study.

Those participants not responding online or by post receive a reminder postcard mailed out two weeks after the initial letter, containing a link to the web survey and a note that the participant will be contacted by telephone in two weeks’ time.

Two weeks after the reminder postcard (four weeks post-invitation) remaining non-respondents are contacted using CATI processes. For those with mobile phone numbers or email addresses, a text (SMS) or email reminder is sent two days before the telephone contact phase. Once contact is made by telephone, the interviewer asks the participant to complete the survey over the telephone at that time or organises a subsequent appointment (interview duration approximately 15 min). Interviewers make up to seven telephone contact attempts for each participant, using all recorded telephone numbers. Respondents who decline to complete the full interview at telephone follow-up are asked to consider answering two priority questions (self-rated health and any unmet need for healthcare in the last 12 months: questions 1 and 8 in Table  3 and Additional file 1 ).

Past surveys conducted in NZ have frequently noted lower response rates and hence under-representation of Māori [ 47 , 48 ]. Drawing on Kaupapa Māori research principles, we are explicitly aiming for equitable response rates of Māori to ensure maximum power for ethnically stratified analysis. This involves providing culturally appropriate invitations and interviewers for participants, and actively monitoring response rates by ethnicity during data collection to allow longer and more frequent follow-up of Māori, Pacific and Asian participants if required [ 48 , 49 ]. The use of a multi-modal survey is also expected to minimise recruitment problems inherent to any single modality (e.g. lower phone ownership or internet access in some ethnic groups).

We have contracted an external research company to co-ordinate recruitment and data collection fieldwork under our supervision (covering all contact processes described here), which follows recruitment and data management protocols set by our research team.

Statistical analysis

Propensity score methods for the sampling stage are described above: this section focuses on causal analyses for health outcomes in the achieved sample. The sampling frame selects participants based on “ever” experience of racism, which is our exposure definition.

All analyses will account for both the complex survey sampling frame (weights, strata and clusters from the NZHS) and the secondary sampling phase (selection based on propensity scores). Complex survey data will be handled using software to account for these designs (e.g. survey package [ 50 ] in R); propensity scores will be handled in the main analysis by using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) combined with the sampling weights [ 51 ].

Linear regression methods will be used to compare change in continuous outcome measures (e.g. K10 score) by estimating mean score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline. Analysis of dichotomous categorical outcomes (e.g. self-rated health) will use logistic regression methods, again adjusted for baseline (for health outcomes). We will conduct analyses stratified by ethnic group to explore whether the impact of racism differs by ethnic group. Models will adjust for confounders included in creating the propensity scores (doubly-robust estimation) to address residual confounding not fully covered by the propensity score approach [ 52 ]. Analysis for other outcomes will use similar methods.

As we hypothesise that some outcomes (e.g. self-reported mental distress) will be more strongly influenced by recent experience of racism, we will also examine our main outcomes restricted to those only reporting historical (more than 12 months ago) or recent (last 12 months) racism at baseline. These historical and recent experience groups (and corresponding unexposed individuals) form nested sub-groups of the total cohort, and so analysis will follow the same framework outlined above. Experience of racism in the last 12 months (measured at follow-up) will be examined in cross-sectional analyses and in combination with baseline measures of racism to create a measure to examine the cumulative impact of racism on outcomes.

Sensitivity analyses

While the sampling invitation lists are based on matched samples, we have no control about specific individuals choosing to participate in the follow-up survey, and so the original matching is unlikely to be maintained in the achieved sample. We will conduct sensitivity analyses using re-matched data (based on propensity scores for those participating in follow-up) to allow for re-calibration of exposed and unexposed groups in the achieved sample.

To consider potential for bias due to non-response in our follow-up sample, we will compare NZHS 2016/17 cross-sectional data for responders and non-responders on baseline sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and baseline health variables.

Sample size

Based on NZHS 2011/12 responses, we anticipated a total pool of 2100 potential participants with “ever” experience of racism, with approximately 1100 expected to be Māori/Pacific/Asian ethnicity, and 10,000 with no report of racism (at least 2 unexposed per exposed individual in each ethnic group).

For the main analyses (based on “ever” experience of racism) we assumed a conservative follow-up rate of 40%, giving a final sample size of at least 840 exposed individuals. This response rate includes re-contact and agreement to participate, based on past experience recruiting NZHS participants for other studies and the relative length of the current survey questionnaire.

Initial projections (based on NZHS2011/12 data) indicated sufficient numbers of unexposed individuals for 1:1 matching based on ethnicity and propensity scores. This gives a feasible total sample size of n  = 1680, providing substantial power for the K10 mental health outcome (standard deviation = 6.5: > 95% power to detect difference in change of 2 units of K10 between groups.) For the second main health outcome (change in self-rated health), this sample size will have > 85% power for a difference between 8% of those exposed to racism having worse self-reported health at follow-up (relative to baseline) compared to 5% of unexposed individuals.

For analyses of effects stratified by ethnicity, we expect > 95% power for Māori participants ( n  = 280 each exposed and unexposed) for the K10 outcome (assumptions as above); change in self-rated health will have 80% power for a difference between 12% of exposed individuals having worse self-reported health at follow-up (relative to baseline) compared to 5% of unexposed individuals. Stratified estimates for Pacific and Asian groups will have poorer precision, but should still provide valid comparisons.

Ethical approval and consent to participate

The study involves recruiting participants who have already completed the NZHS interview (including questions on racial discrimination) The NZHS as conducted by the Ministry of Health has its own ethical approval (MEC/10/10/103) and participants are only invited onto the present study if they explicitly consented (at the time of completing the NZHS) to re-contact for future health research. The current study was reviewed and approved by the University of Otago’s Human Ethics (Health) Committee prior to commencement of fieldwork (reference: H17/094). Participants provided informed consent to participate at the time of completing the follow-up survey depending on response modality: implicitly through completion and return of the paper survey which stated “By completing this survey, you indicate that you understand the research and are willing to participate” (see Additional file 1 : a separate written consent document was not required by the ethics committee); in the online survey by responding “yes” to a similarly worded question that they understood the study and agreed to take part (recorded as part of data collection, and participation could not continue unless ticked), or by verbal consent in a similar initial question in the telephone interview (since written consent could not be collected in this setting). These consent methods were approved by the reviewing Ethics committee [ 53 ]. Ethical approval for the study included using the same consent processes for those participants aged 16 to 18 as for older participants.

This study will contribute robust evidence to the limited national and international literature from prospective studies on the causal links between experience of racism and subsequent health. The use of the NZHS as the baseline for the prospective study capitalises on the inclusion of racism questions in that survey to provide a unique and important opportunity to build on and substantially strengthen the current evidence base for the impact of racism on health using data spanning the entire New Zealand adult population. In addition, our use of propensity scores in the sampling phase is a novel approach to prospective recruitment of participants from the NZHS. This approach should manage confounding while reducing the need (and cost) of following up all NZHS participants, without compromising the internal validity of the results. The novel methods developed for using the NZHS as the base for a prospective cohort study will have wider application to other health priority areas. One general limitation of this approach is that baseline data (for both propensity score development and baseline health measures) is limited to the data captured in the existing larger survey. We anticipate that this study will assist in prioritising racism as a health determinant and inform the development of anti-racism interventions in health service delivery and policy making.

Current stage of research

Funding for this project began October 1st 2017. The first set of respondent invitations was mailed out on July 12th 2018; fieldwork for the final tranche of invitations was underway at the time of submission and is expected to be completed by 31 December 2018. Analysis and reporting will take place in mid-to-late 2019.


Computer Assisted Telephone Interview

General Practitioner

General Social Survey

Index of Multiple Deprivation

Inverse Probability of Treatment Weights

  • New Zealand

New Zealand Deprivation Index

New Zealand Health Survey

12/36-Item Short Form Survey

short message service

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We would like to acknowledge the assistance of the Ministry of Health’s New Zealand Health Survey Team for facilitating access to the NZHS data and respondent lists, and for help with constructing the questionnaire (including providing the Helpline contact template).

We would also like to acknowledge the expertise and input of our project advisory team: Natalie Talamaivao (Senior Advisor, Māori Health Research, Ministry of Health), Associate Professor Bridget Robson (Director, Eru Pōmare Māori Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Wellington), and Dr. Sarah-Jane Paine (Senior Research Fellow, University of Auckland and University of Otago, Wellington). Thanks also to Ms. Ruruhira Rameka (Eru Pōmare Māori Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Wellington) for providing administrative support. Research New Zealand was contracted to undertake the data collection and other fieldwork for the follow-up survey.

This project was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC 17–066). The funding body approved the study but has no further role in the study design or outputs from the study.

Availability of data and materials

Data from the follow-up study is not available to other researchers as participants did not provide their consent for data sharing. The NZHS 2016/17 data used as the baseline for the study described in this protocol is available to approved researchers subject to the New Zealand Ministry of Health’s Survey Microdata Access agreement .

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JS and RH initiated the project and are co-principal investigators of the study, and jointly led writing of the grant application and this protocol paper. JS designed the sampling plan, led the development of the contact protocol, led the development of the statistical analysis plan, contributed to revising the questionnaire, and is guarantor of the paper. RH designed the questionnaire, contributed to development of the sampling and contact protocol, and co-led the statistical analysis plan. DC led the conceptual plan with support from RH. AW and RE contributed to the contact protocol. DC, AW and RE all contributed to writing the grant application, revising the questionnaire and sampling plans, and revising the draft protocol paper. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to James Stanley .

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate.

The follow-up study protocol and questionnaire were approved by the University of Otago’s Human Ethics (Health) Committee prior to commencement of fieldwork (reference: H17/094). The NZHS has its own ethical approval as granted to the New Zealand Ministry of Health (NZ Multi-Region Ethics Committee, MEC/10/10/103), and consent for re-contact was gained from participants at the time of their NZHS interview. Participants provided informed consented to participate at the time of completing the follow-up survey: implicitly through completion and return of the paper survey which stated “By completing this survey, you indicate that you understand the research and are willing to participate”; in the online survey by responding “yes” to a similarly worded question that they understood the study and agreed to take part, or by verbal consent in a similar initial question in the telephone interview.

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Not applicable.

Competing interests

JS, RH, DC, AW, and RE report funding from the Health Research Council of New Zealand to complete this work. JS and RH report personal fees from the Health Research Council of New Zealand for service as external members on committees (neither are employees of the HRC), outside the scope of the current work.

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Stanley, J., Harris, R., Cormack, D. et al. The impact of racism on the future health of adults: protocol for a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 19 , 346 (2019).

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racism research paper topics

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The fight against racism must continue

Psychologists are looking inward to dismantle racism within the field

Vol. 52 No. 1 Print version: page 48

  • Racism, Bias, and Discrimination

graphic close up of faces of two women of color

In the midst of America’s racial reckoning, psychologists are playing a key role in rethinking bias, policing, and other issues. But psychologists say the field itself has its own systemic injustices to dismantle.

Steven O. Roberts, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology at Stanford University, and colleagues, for instance, reviewed nearly five decades of psychological research and found substantial racial inequality in publishing, research he hopes gains more traction as the field takes a closer look. Others in the field are shedding light on unfair practices in the hiring, training, and retention of faculty and practitioners of color. In some cases, racial inequities are even being addressed more broadly at the systemic level.

“Many disciplines are looking inward right now, and we are no exception,” says Roberts. “The idea is to review psychology, but not for the sake of tearing it down—for the sake of making it more equitable and inclusive.”

Racial- and ethnic-minority psychologists say these efforts are promising but that there’s a long way to go—and the discipline will need to face its shortcomings head-on, including governance and policies of organizations such as APA.

“Psychologists are human beings. We have implicit biases that operate outside of our awareness,” says Art Blume, PhD, a professor of psychology at Washington State University and president of APA’s Div. 45 (Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity, and Race). “An honest approach to anti-racism involves embracing the limits of our objectivity—in our science, practice, and pedagogy.”

Increasing diversity in research

Racial disparities in psychological research, including who receives funding from the National Institutes of Health and others, are starting to make headlines. But those findings aren’t new. In 1983, James Jones, PhD, now a professor emeritus of psychological and brain sciences and Africana studies at the University of Delaware, was already documenting psychology’s lack of focus on people of color (Jones, J. M., “ The concept of race in the history of social psychology ,” 1983).

“Scholars of color have been talking about this for decades, but people were not listening,” Roberts says.

Now, Roberts and his team have used a new approach—one that explores how the identities of editors, authors, and participants are all systematically connected. Across social, developmental, and cognitive psychology, they found that most editors and authors are White, and that these editors published fewer publications on race and racism, as well as publications with fewer participants of color ( Perspectives on Psychological Science , 2020).

“In psychology, almost everything we know is about White people, but Whites don’t represent the entirety of human capacity,” says Jones.

Roberts and his colleagues recommend that journals employ racially diverse editors and reviewers and establish task forces to regularly review diversity among authors and samples. In response, the Society for Research in Child Development is revamping its peer-review process to consider racial diversity among participants as a review criterion. Roberts hopes other associations and journals will follow suit.

Even the titles of psychological research studies show bias that favors White American samples. In a study of more than 5,000 articles, Bobby Cheon, PhD, an assistant professor in the Division of Psychology at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, and colleagues found that article titles were much more likely to mention race, ethnicity, and nationality when study samples were not White American ( Social Psychological and Personality Science , Vol. 11, No. 7, 2020). The implication is that studies of White Americans are often seen as representing normative or standard human behavior, while research on other groups produces findings that may be perceived as less generalizable or culturally constrained.

Cheon says journals should mandate that authors specify limitations to generalizing their findings in the body of a paper, whether they’re studying White American college students or people from Singapore. Journals should also highlight or incentivize studies that include racially and ethnically diverse samples to help encourage psychologists to recruit such populations.

“Our current incentive structure prioritizes research that people perceive to have a wider impact or be more generalizable, which may undermine efforts to increase equity and diversity among participants,” he says.

Anti-racism and healing for academics

While some psychologists are working to reform research and publishing, others are applying their research and skills toward education and healing.

“The movement for Black lives became so intense this year that we couldn’t escape from it,” says Della Mosley, PhD, an assistant professor of counseling psychology at the University of Florida (UF). “We asked ourselves: Is doing research really the best use of our abilities as psychologists right now? Is moving through academia like it’s business as usual even ethical while this war on Black bodies and spirits is taking place?”

Together with a doctoral student, Pearis Bellamy, Mosley launched Academics for Black Survival and Wellness , an anti-racism and racial-healing movement grounded in Black feminist principles and Mosley’s theory, Critical Consciousness of Anti-Black Racism ( Journal of Counseling Psychology , 2020). More than 15,000 academics, hailing from psychology, medicine, the fine arts, and other disciplines, attended the group’s workshops last summer.

The initiative offers healing for Black academics and education for their non-Black colleagues. Mosley and her team host a series of wellness activities for Black students and faculty, including self-care, financial planning, and mentorship. They also deliver extensive anti-racism training to non-Black academics, starting with an introduction to anti-Black racism, power analytics, and racial trauma. Other lessons cover the history of racism in the United States and the activist ally role that non-Black academics can play. About 2,000 participants have joined “accountability groups,” typically 10 members or fewer, to extend their anti-racism work after formal training ends, Bellamy says. For example, a non-Black accountability group at UF is helping amplify messages from the school’s Black Affairs program across the student body.

Change from the top down

Universities are also increasingly prioritizing racial diversity in recruitment and admissions—and slowly, the makeup of psychology programs is changing. In 2019, 38% of psychology graduate students identified as people of color, up from 29% in 2009—and the share of tenured faculty and academic leaders of color is increasing (“ The state of the psychology training pipeline and workforce ,” APA, 2018; “ Racial/ethnic minority representation among the academic psychology workforce continues to increase ,” APA, 2020)

But more work is needed to address the troubling leaky pipeline that results in dwindling numbers of psychologists of color retained at the doctoral and tenure-track levels, says Monnica Williams, PhD, ABPP, a clinical psychologist and the Canada research chair for mental health disparities at the University of Ottawa. Though 31% of psychology doctoral degrees are awarded to racial and ethnic minorities, only 18% of associate professors and 12% of full professors in psychology departments identify as people of color (“ Psychology faculty salaries ,” APA Center for Workforce Studies, 2018–2019).

Departments should create a formal retention plan and assign mentors to meet regularly with academics of color to discuss and address race-related issues, Williams says. Having more than one person of color among the faculty in a department is also key for creating a culture of support and diversity.

She also points to a need to better prepare clinicians of color for race-related challenges they may face—such as an encounter with a patient who holds racist views—which has been tougher to address because clinical practice tends to be more diffuse and individualized than academia.

“There’s very little specific training, literature, or even thought on how to prepare therapists of color in all professional aspects,” Williams says.

Clinicians of color should have access to mentors from their own racial or ethnic group, she says, which can aid in navigating professional hurdles.

At the systemic level, change remains a challenge—and many say change within APA needs to move faster. Williams calls for stricter accreditation rules that require psychology programs to employ tenure-track faculty of color and recruit and retain racial- and ethnic-minority students. Currently, APA-accredited programs must show systematic efforts to attract and retain students and faculty of color, but programs are not penalized for falling short because of factors that may not be under their control.

Other proposed solutions involve elevating the role of ethnic-minority psychological association s (EMPAs) within APA. Theopia Jackson, PhD, president of the Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi), says each EMPA should have a decision-making role at APA, for instance by adding seats to the Council of Representatives—a change that would mean bylaws need to be amended. That requires a two-thirds consenting vote of membership, but members have rejected the measure in three separate votes in the past. It was voted on a fourth time in December 2020 with strong support from APA governance; the vote was not decided before Monitor press time.

“APA should leverage its power and influence to privilege the voices of [EMPAs] that are dedicated to promoting cultural ways of being,” Jackson says. For example, when addressing the needs of any ethnic group, APA should strategically include, consult, or defer to the science and scholarship of the respective ethnic psychological association.

Meanwhile, some institutional reforms have gained momentum in 2020. Blume launched Div. 45’s Warrior’s Path Task Force, charged with identifying barriers in APA’s governance, bylaws, and association rules that favor the status quo and harm psychologists of color.

Other institutions in the psychology field are facing their own racial reckoning. The National Latinx Psychological Association (NLPA) is working to hire a consultant on the Afro-Latinx experience who can help the organization center Blackness in its work. Changes will involve improving representation on the NLPA’s leadership council, updating the organization’s mission statement, and producing a special issue of the Journal of Latinx Psychology that will feature Afro-Latinx research.

“Social justice is so key to NLPA’s mission that we have to change the way our systems work,” says Andrea Romero, PhD, president of NLPA and vice provost for faculty affairs at the University of Arizona. “And we have to set it up in a way that will sustain anti-racist work in the future.”

“Issues of systemic racism have become more salient than ever before,” says Jones. “I believe that because those messages have become so potent in our minds and our society, psychologists will continue pressing to find ways to address it.”

Further reading

The fallacy of a raceless Latinidad: Action guidelines for centering Blackness in Latinx psychology Adames, H. Y., et al. Journal of Latinx Psychology , 2020

Eliminating race-based mental health disparities: Promoting equity and culturally responsive care across settings Williams, M. T., et al. (Eds.) Context Press, 2019

Decolonizing psychological science: Introduction to the special thematic section Adams, G., et al., Journal of Social and Political Psychology , 2015

Recommended Reading

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The social issues that we face today are more complex and multifaceted than ever before. And, as a result, there are a lot of great argumentative essay topics on racism. Here are just a few examples:

What You'll Learn

Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism

  • How has institutional Racism affected the history of minority groups in the US? –
  • Should we consider Islamophobia racism?
  • Racism: Can we refer to it as a mental disorder?
  • Race: Does it serve any purpose in modern society?
  • How Racism impact the way Chinese American has been viewed.
  • Irishness: Should it be considered a show of racism?
  • Comic books: Can we consider it racist against black people?
  • How does Racism impact the way we view immigration? Description: In recent years, views of immigration in the United States have shifted with many Americans perceiving immigrants as a source of national prosperity, rather than an eminent burden
  • Racism Against Hispanics in America Description: One of the main challenges facing American society is racism. While the country is a multicultural society comprising of individuals from different cultures around the world, minority groups often face discrimination in the form hate crimes and racist comments. Although the issue of racism affects all minorities.
  • African American males are 10 times more likely to resist arrest than Caucasian males, is this due to them essentially resisting police brutality, or are other factors at play?
  • What is the driving force of racial police brutality?
  • Is defunding the police an effective way to end racial police brutality?
  • Racism. Discrimination and racial inequality. Essay Description: Today, everyone wants to reap the benefits of a diverse workforce. However, racism continues to be a major challenge to achieving this goal.
  • Prejudice towards ladies in hijab: Is it baseless?
  • Racism: Is it rooted in fear?
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Argumentative Essay Ideas on Racism

  • Does police brutality exist for other ethnicities other than African Americans?
  • Do prisons treat Caucasians differently than other ethnic groups?
  • Should prisons be segregated by race?
  • Educational Institutions take to Address Systemic Racism Description: Racism is a social issue that has existed for a long time, causing chaos among people from various races. It refers to discriminating against a person based on skin colour and ethnicity. Systematic racism, sometimes called institutional racism, refers to racism embedded in the regulations.
  • What countries are the most racist in the EU?
  • Do you agree with the statement, “there will always be color racism?”
  • Prejudice and racism: Are they the same thing?
  • What can be done to create pathways for more minority judges to take the bench?
  • Does Islamophobia separate minority populations in prison?
  • Is enough being done in the legal system to deter and punish hate crimes?
  • Should there be a zero-tolerance policy for racially biased police brutality?
  • Racial Discrimination: How We Can Face Racism Description: One of the most effective approaches to face racism and defeat it is through teaching the people its detrimental effects and how each one of us can be an agent of change. (Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism)

Theories of race and racism in an Administration of Justice, Criminal Justice race, gender and Class

These are just a few examples – there are literally endless possibilities when it comes to racism that you can write about in an argumentative essay . So, if you’re looking for some inspiration, don’t hesitate to check out these Research Paper Ideas on Racism with prompts!

Research Paper Ideas on Racism with prompts

  • Xenophobia, Racism and Alien Representation in District 9 Prompt: The term alien has many connotations for different people, from the scientific theory and sci-fi representations of extra-terrestrial life to the resurgence in modern society of legal uses regarding immigration. In popular culture these uses can often coincide whether metaphorical, allegorical, or explicit.
  • White and Black Team in Remember the Titans Prompt: Reducing prejudice essentially entails changing the values and beliefs by which people live. For many reasons, this is difficult. The first is that the ideals and expectations of individuals are also a long-standing pillar of their psychological stability.
  • Transformation of the American Government and “Tradition of Exclusion” Prompt: The United States of America is a country known for its pride in its democratic government, where the American Dream encourages everyone to strive for the very best. That rhetoric is deeply rooted in every aspect of life in this country from its conception until…
  • This is America: Oppression in America in Glover’s Music Video Prompt: A common topic we see in our society is the debate of gun control in America. It has been an ongoing argument due to the mass of shootings in schools, churches, nightclubs, etc. The number of shootings has only been increasing over the years.
  • Theory of Slavery as a Kind of Social Death Prompt: The Orlando theory of slavery as a social death is among the first and major type of full-scale comparative study that is attached to different slavery aspects.
  • The Review of the Glory Road Prompt: Glory Road is an American sports drama film directed by James Gartner, in view of a genuine story encompassing the occasions of the 1966 NCAA University Division Basketball Championship. It was released on 13th January 2006.
  • The Relationship Between Racism and the Ideology of Progress Prompt: Through the years, as a result of the two world wars and the Great Depression, the term progress and the meaning attached to it greatly suffered.
  • The Racial Discrimination in Bob Dylan’s Song Prompt: President John F. Kennedy delivered a powerful message to the American People on June 11th of 1963, calling Congress to view civil rights as a moral obligation instead of a legal issue.
  • The People Segregation by Society in Divergent Prompt: It is clear that the society in Divergent places unrealistic limits on its members identities from the beginning of the book. Segregating different personality types into different factions not only has consequences on society but on the individual.
  • The Influence of Racial Or Ethnic Discrimination a Person’s Self-concept Prompt: Discrimination and prejudiced attitudes are assumed to be damaging aspects of society. The research presents the cognitive, emotional, and social damages related to experiencing discrimination. This research proposal focuses on determining the impacts of prejudice and how it negatively affects an individual. (Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism)
  • Find out more on  Argumentative Essay Topics About Social Media [Updated]

Racism research paper  outline

The social issues that we face today are more complex and multifaceted than ever before. And, as a result, there are a lot of great argumentative essay topics on racism. Here are just a few examples: racism research paper outline

Research Questions on Racism

  • Have you seen the video of George Floyd’s death? What was your reaction to it? How did it make you feel?
  • How would you define racism?
  • How have you experienced racism towards yourself or others? How did it make you feel?
  • Has anyone ever assumed something about you because of the color or your skin? If so, explain.
  • Have you ever assumed something about someone else because of the color of their skin? If so, explain.
  • Has anyone ever called you the “N” word or referred to others in that way while you were present? If so, please share what happened.
  • Why do you think racism exists in today’s society? How do you think it will affect your future?
  • How has the police brutality and the protests/demonstrations impacted you on a personal level?
  • Do you feel your relationship with God makes you better equipped to handle all that is going within society concerning race? Why or why not?
  • Do you think it is important to celebrate the differences in people? Why or why not?
  • Is it important to have oneness in Christ or sameness in Christ? Explain. Do you think there is a difference between the two? Explain.
  • How do you think we can move forward and carry out racial reconciliation as a society?

Great Racism Research Paper Topics

  • What are the effects of racism on society?
  • How can we stop racism from spreading in contemporary society?
  • The mental underpinnings of racism
  • How does racism impact a person’s brain?
  • Amounts of racism in various social groups
  • The importance of socialization in racial and ethnic groups
  • How does racial tension affect social interactions?
  • The following are some ideas for essays on racism and ethnicity in America.
  • Interethnic conflict in the United States and other countries
  • Systematic racism exists in America.
  • Racism is prevalent in American cities.
  • The rise of nationalism and xenophobia in America.
  • Postcolonial psychology essay topics for Native Americans
  • Latin American musical ethnography issues.
  • Legacy of Mesoamerican Civilizations
  • Endangered Native American languages
  • What steps are American businesses taking to combat racism?
  • The role of traditionalism in contemporary Latin American society
  • Ethnopolitical conflicts and their resolutions are good topics for African American research papers.
  • The prevalence of racism in hate crimes in the US.
  • Latin America Today: Religion, Celebration, and Identity
  • National politics of African Americans in contemporary America.

Good racism essay topics:

  • Why Should We Consider Race to Understand Fascism?
  • The Racial Problem in America
  • Postwar Race and Gender Histories: The Color of Sex
  • The Relevance of Race in Fascism Understanding
  • Cases of Racial Discrimination in the Workplace in the United States
  • Problems with Gender, Race, and Sexuality in Modern Society
  • “Frankie and Alice”: Race and Mental Health
  • The history of immigration, race, and labor in America
  • Power and racial symbolism in Coetzee’s “Disgrace.”
  • In America, race and educational attainment are related.
  • Race to the Top: The Early Learning Challenge
  • Social learning, critical racial theory, and feminist theories
  • Minority Crime and Race in the United States
  • Racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in society
  • Documentary series “Race: The Power of an Illusion.”

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40+ Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism Worth Exploring

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by  Antony W

April 21, 2023

Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism

The first step to write an essay on racism is to select the right topic to explore.

You then have to take a stance based on your research and use evidence to defend your position.

Even in a sensitive issue of racial discrimination, you have to consider the counterarguments highly likely to arise and address them accordingly. 

The goal of this list post is to give you some topic ideas that you can consider and explore.   We’ve put together 30+ topic ideas, so it should be easy to find an interesting issue to explore.

What is Racism?  

Racism is the conviction that we can credit capacities and qualities to individuals based on their race, color, ethnicity, or national origin. It can take the form of prejudice, hatred, and discrimination, and it can happen in any place and at any time.

Racism goes beyond the act of harassment and abuse. It stretches further to violence, intimidation, and exclusion from important group activities.

This act of judgment, prejudice, and discrimination easily reveal itself in the way we interact with people and our attitude towards them.

Some forms of racism , like looking at a person’s place of origin through a list of job applications, may not be obvious, but they play a part in preventing people or particular group from enjoying the dignity and equality of the benefits of life simply because they are different.

Argumentative Essay Topics on Racism  

  • Is racism a type of mental illness in the modern society?
  • Barrack Obama’s legacy hasn’t helped to improve the situation of racism in the United States of America
  • The women’s movement of the 1960s did NOT unite black and white women
  • Will racism eventually disappear on its own?
  • Is there a cure for racism?
  • There’s no sufficient evidence to prove that Mexicans are racists
  • Is the difference in skin color the cause of racism in the western world?
  • Racism isn’t in everyone’s heart
  • Racism is a toxic global disease
  • Will the human race ever overcome racial prejudice and discrimination?
  • Can a racist be equally cruel?
  • Should racism be a criminal offense punishable by death without the possibility of parole?
  • Are racists more principled than those who are not?
  • Can poor upbringing cause a person to become a racist?
  • Is it a crime if you’re a racist?
  • Can racism lead to another World War?
  • The government can’t stop people from being racists
  • Cultural diversity can cure racism
  • All racists in the world have psychological problems and therefore need medical attention
  • Can the government put effective measures in place to stop its citizens from promoting racism?
  • Can a racist president rule a country better than a president who is not a racist?
  • Should white and black people have equal rights?
  • Can cultural diversity breed racism?
  • Is racism a bigger threat to the human race?
  • Racism is common among adults than it is among children
  • Should white people enjoy more human rights than black people should?
  • Is the disparity in the healthcare system a form of racial discrimination?
  • Racial discrimination is a common thing in the United States of America
  • Film industries should be regulated to help mitigate racism
  • Disney movies should be banned for promoting racism
  • Should schools teach students to stand against racism?
  • Should parents punish their children for manifesting racist traits?
  • Is racism the root of all evil?
  • Can dialogue resolve the issue of racism?
  • Is the seed of racism sown in our children during childhood?
  • Do anti-racist movements help to unite people of different colors and race to fight racism?
  • Do religious doctrines promote racism?
  • There are no psychological health risks associated with racism
  • Can movements such as Black Lives Matter stop racism in America?
  • Do anti-racist movements help people to improve their self-esteem?
  • Racism is against religious beliefs
  • Can teaching children to treat each other equally help to promote an anti-racist world?

We understand that racism is such a controversial topic. However, it’s equally an interesting area to explore. If you wish to write an essay on racism but you have no idea where to start, you can pay for argumentative essay from Help for Assessment to do some custom writing for you.

If you hire Help for Assessment, our team will choose the most suitable topic based on your preference. In addition to conducting extensive research, we’ll choose a stance we can defend, and use strong evidence to demonstrate why your view on the subject is right. Get up to 15% discount here .

Is it Easy to Write an Argumentative Essay on Racism?

Racism is traumatic and a bad idea, and there must never be an excuse for it.

As controversial as the issue is, you can write an essay that explores this aspect and bring out a clear picture on why racism is such a bad idea altogether.

With that said, here’s a list of some argumentative essay topics on racism that you might want to consider for your next essay assignment.

How to Make Your Argumentative Essay on Racism Great 

The following are some useful writing tips that you can use to make your argumentative essay on racism stand out:

Examine the Historical Causes of Racism 

Try to dig deeper into the topic of racism by looking at historical causes of racial discrimination and prejudices.

Look at a number of credible sources to explore the connection between racism and salve trade, social developments, and politics.

Include these highlights in your essay to demonstrate that you researched widely on the topic before making your conclusion.

Demonstrate Critical Thinking 

Go the extra mile and talk about the things you believe people often leave out when writing argumentative essays on racism.

Consider why racial discrimination and prejudices are common in the society, their negative effects, and who benefits the most from racial policies.

Adding such information not only shows your instructor that you did your research but also understand the topic better.

Show the Relationship between Racism and Social Issues 

There’s no denying that racism has a strong connection with many types of social issues, including homophobia, slavery, and sexism.

Including these links, where necessary, and explaining them in details can make your essay more comprehensive and therefore worth reading.

related resources

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About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.


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Topic and Articles

  • Race & Ethnicity
  • White Privilege
  • Microaggressions & Implicit Bias
  • Criminal Justice
  • Economic Justice
  • Rights & Activism

11-Step Guide to Understanding Race, Racism, and White Privilege

Racism Defined

Race does not equal DNA

On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart

Race in America

5 charts reveal key racial inequality gaps in the US

Why I’m no longer talking to white people about race

What is white privilege, really?

10 Things you should know about white privilege

The Bias of ‘Professionalism’ Standards

White Supremacy Culture

White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard to Talk to White People About Racism

Paying Attention to White Culture and Privilege: A Missing Link to Advancing Racial Equity

Robin DiAngelo: How 'white fragility' supports racism and how whites can stop it

Disarming Racial Microaggressions: Microintervention Strategies for Targets, White Allies, and Bystanders

Don’t Talk about Implicit Bias Without Talking about Structural Racism

How to overcome our biases? Walk boldly toward them [TED talk]

Racial Microaggressions Are Real. Here’s How to Navigate Them

How to Respond to Racial Microaggressions When They Occur

Speak Up: Responding to Everyday Bigotry

10 things we know about race and policing in the U.S.

Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the U.S. Criminal Justice System

18 Examples Of Racism In The Criminal Legal System

ABC News analysis of police arrests nationwide reveals stark racial disparity

The Code Switch Guide To Race And Policing

Ten Solutions to Bridge the Racial Wealth Divide

From Jobs To Homeownership, Protests Put Spotlight On Racial Economic Divide

Racial Economic Inequality

Examining the Black-white wealth gap

Racial Wealth Equity

Why we need reparations for Black Americans

The case for reparations

What the Racial Data Show:The pandemic seems to be hitting people of color the hardest.

What Would It Take to Reduce Inequities in Healthy Life Expectancy?

Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity

Inequity and Health

Minority Population Health Profiles

In Focus: Reducing Racial Disparities in Health Care by Confronting Racism

Why Racism, Not Race, Is a Risk Factor for Dying of COVID-19

Racial and Ethnic Health Care Disparities

4 Ways Racial Inequity Harms American Schoolchildren


Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education

Inequality at school: What’s behind the racial disparity in our education system?

Teachers Are as Racially Biased as Everybody Else, Study Shows

Racial Equity Tools

14 Black Activists and Authors Providing Crucial Insight Into Racial Justice in the US


Curriculum for White Americans to Educate Themselves on Race and Racism–from Ferguson to Charleston

Being Antiracist

Western Mass Showing Up for Racial Justice


On Being Comfortable with Discomfort: Tiffany Jewell Explains What It Means To Be Anti-Racist

White allies: Here's a basic list of do's and don'ts to help you with your helplessness

75 Things White People Can Do for Racial Justice

An Ally’s Guide to Issues Facing the LGBTQ Community

Key Terms Defined

Anti-Racist : Someone who opposes and actively fights against racism. ( Source )

BIPOC : An acronym that stands for Black, Indigenous, People of Color

Colonialism: Domination of a people or area by a foreign state or nation; the practice of extending and maintaining   a nation's political and economic control over another people or area. ( Source )

Implicit Bias : Attitudes towards or stereotypes associated with people that exist without our conscious knowledge ( Source )

Intersectionality: The idea that individuals are shaped by and identify with a vast array of cultural, structural, sociobiological, economic, and social contexts. ( Source )

Micro aggressions: The everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership . ( Source )

People of Color : A term generally used to describe anyone who is not white. The term encompasses all people who experience systemic racism. However, when able, it is best to refer to people by their individual identities, rather than referring to them as a group, which can sometimes be dehumanizing and invalidate individual experiences. ( Source )

Racism: A belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race ( Source )

Restorative Justice: A theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by criminal behavior ( Source )

Social Justice : Fair treatment of all people in a society, including respect for the rights of minorities and equitable distribution of resources among members of a community . ( Source )

Systemic Racism  (Also known as institutional racism ):  Policies and practices that exist throughout a whole society or organization, and that result in and support a continued unfair advantage to some people and unfair and harmful treatment of others based on race. ( Source )

White Fragility: T he tendency among members of the dominant white cultural group to have a defensive, wounded, angry, or dismissive response to evidence of racism. ( Source )

White Privilege:   The unearned and mostly unacknowledged societal advantage that members of the dominant white racial group have and members of nonwhite groups do not, separate but compounding with wealth, income, class, education, and other demographic factors that form individua identities. ( Source )

White Supremacy:  T he belief, theory, or doctrine that white people are inherently superior to people from all other racial and ethnic groups, especially Black people, and are therefore rightfully the dominant group in any society. ( Source )

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racism research paper topics

  • 11 Jun 2024
  • In Practice

The Harvard Business School Faculty Summer Reader 2024

What's on your vacation reading list? Harvard Business School faculty members plan to explore not only sober themes, such as philosophy and climate policy, but classic mysteries and hip-hop history.

racism research paper topics

  • 30 May 2024
  • Research & Ideas

Racial Bias Might Be Infecting Patient Portals. Can AI Help?

Doctors and patients turned to virtual communication when the pandemic made in-person appointments risky. But research by Ariel Stern and Mitchell Tang finds that providers' responses can vary depending on a patient's race. Could technology bring more equity to portals?

racism research paper topics

  • 26 Apr 2024

Deion Sanders' Prime Lessons for Leading a Team to Victory

The former star athlete known for flash uses unglamorous command-and-control methods to get results as a college football coach. Business leaders can learn 10 key lessons from the way 'Coach Prime' builds a culture of respect and discipline without micromanaging, says Hise Gibson.

racism research paper topics

  • 04 Mar 2024

Want to Make Diversity Stick? Break the Cycle of Sameness

Whether on judicial benches or in corporate boardrooms, white men are more likely to step into roles that other white men vacate, says research by Edward Chang. But when people from historically marginalized groups land those positions, workforce diversification tends to last. Chang offers three pieces of advice for leaders striving for diversity.

racism research paper topics

  • 02 Jan 2024
  • Cold Call Podcast

Should Businesses Take a Stand on Societal Issues?

Should businesses take a stand for or against particular societal issues? And how should leaders determine when and how to engage on these sensitive matters? Harvard Business School Senior Lecturer Hubert Joly, who led the electronics retailer Best Buy for almost a decade, discusses examples of corporate leaders who had to determine whether and how to engage with humanitarian crises, geopolitical conflict, racial justice, climate change, and more in the case, “Deciding When to Engage on Societal Issues.”

racism research paper topics

  • 21 Nov 2023

Cold Call: Building a More Equitable Culture at Delta Air Lines

In December 2020 Delta Air Lines CEO Ed Bastian and his leadership team were reviewing the decision to join the OneTen coalition, where he and 36 other CEOs committed to recruiting, hiring, training, and advancing one million Black Americans over the next ten years into family-sustaining jobs. But, how do you ensure everyone has equal access to opportunity within an organization? Professor Linda Hill discusses Delta’s decision and its progress in embedding a culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion in her case, “OneTen at Delta Air Lines: Catalyzing Family-Sustaining Careers for Black Talent.”

racism research paper topics

  • 31 Oct 2023

Beyond the 'Business Case' in DEI: 6 Steps Toward Meaningful Change

Diversity and inclusion efforts that focus on business outcomes alone rarely address root causes. Jamillah Bowman Williams, a visiting fellow at the Institute for the Study of Business in Global Society, offers tips for companies navigating their next stage of the DEI journey.

racism research paper topics

  • 24 Oct 2023

When Tech Platforms Identify Black-Owned Businesses, White Customers Buy

Demand for Black-owned restaurants rises when they're easier to find on Yelp. Research by Michael Luca shows how companies can mobilize their own technology to advance racial equity.

racism research paper topics

  • 16 Oct 2023

Advancing Black Talent: From the Flight Ramp to 'Family-Sustaining' Careers at Delta

By emphasizing skills and expanding professional development opportunities, the airline is making strides toward recruiting and advancing Black employees. Case studies by Linda Hill offer an inside look at how Delta CEO Ed Bastian is creating a more equitable company and a stronger talent pipeline.

racism research paper topics

  • 10 Oct 2023

In Empowering Black Voters, Did a Landmark Law Stir White Angst?

The Voting Rights Act dramatically increased Black participation in US elections—until worried white Americans mobilized in response. Research by Marco Tabellini illustrates the power of a political backlash.

racism research paper topics

  • 26 Sep 2023

Unpacking That Icky Feeling of 'Shopping' for Diverse Job Candidates

Many companies want to bring a wider variety of lived experiences to their workforces. However, research by Summer Jackson shows how hiring managers' fears of seeming transactional can ultimately undermine their diversity goals.

racism research paper topics

  • 08 Aug 2023

Black Employees Not Only Earn Less, But Deal with Bad Bosses and Poor Conditions

More than 900,000 reviews highlight broad racial disparities in the American working experience. Beyond pay inequities, research by Letian Zhang shows how Black employees are less likely to work at companies known for positive cultures or work-life balance.

racism research paper topics

  • 18 Jul 2023

Diversity and Inclusion at Mars Petcare: Translating Awareness into Action

In 2020, the Mars Petcare leadership team found themselves facing critically important inclusion and diversity issues. Unprecedented protests for racial justice in the U.S. and across the globe generated demand for substantive change, and Mars Petcare's 100,000 employees across six continents were ready for visible signs of progress. How should Mars’ leadership build on their existing diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts and effectively capitalize on the new energy for change? Harvard Business School associate professor Katherine Coffman is joined by Erica Coletta, Mars Petcare’s chief people officer, and Ibtehal Fathy, global inclusion and diversity officer at Mars Inc., to discuss the case, “Inclusion and Diversity at Mars Petcare.”

racism research paper topics

  • 01 Jun 2023

A Nike Executive Hid His Criminal Past to Turn His Life Around. What If He Didn't Have To?

Larry Miller committed murder as a teenager, but earned a college degree while serving time and set out to start a new life. Still, he had to conceal his record to get a job that would ultimately take him to the heights of sports marketing. A case study by Francesca Gino, Hise Gibson, and Frances Frei shows the barriers that formerly incarcerated Black men are up against and the potential talent they could bring to business.

racism research paper topics

  • 31 May 2023

Why Business Leaders Need to Hear Larry Miller's Story

VIDEO: Nike executive Larry Miller concealed his criminal past to get a job. What if more companies were willing to hire people with blemishes on their records? Hise Gibson explores why business leaders should give the formerly incarcerated a second chance.

racism research paper topics

From Prison Cell to Nike’s C-Suite: The Journey of Larry Miller

VIDEO: Before leading one of the world’s largest brands, Nike executive Larry Miller served time in prison for murder. In this interview, Miller shares how education helped him escape a life of crime and why employers should give the formerly incarcerated a second chance. Inspired by a Harvard Business School case study.

racism research paper topics

  • 08 May 2023

How Trump’s Anti-Immigrant Rhetoric Crushed Crowdfunding for Minority Entrepreneurs

When public anxiety about immigration surges, Black, Asian, and Hispanic inventors have a harder time raising funds for new ideas on Kickstarter, says research by William Kerr. What can platforms do to confront bias in entrepreneurial finance?

racism research paper topics

  • 03 May 2023

Why Confronting Racism in AI 'Creates a Better Future for All of Us'

Rather than build on biased data and technology from the past, artificial intelligence has an opportunity to do better, says Business in Global Society Fellow Broderick Turner. He highlights three myths that prevent business leaders from breaking down racial inequality.

racism research paper topics

  • 21 Feb 2023

What's Missing from the Racial Equity Dialogue?

Fellows visiting the Institute for the Study of Business in Global Society (BiGS) at Harvard Business School talk about how racism harms everyone and why it’s important to find new ways to support formerly incarcerated people.

racism research paper topics

  • 31 Jan 2023

Addressing Racial Discrimination on Airbnb

For years, Airbnb gave hosts extensive discretion to accept or reject a guest after seeing little more than a name and a picture, believing that eliminating anonymity was the best way for the company to build trust. However, the apartment rental platform failed to track or account for the possibility that this could facilitate discrimination. After research published by Professor Michael Luca and others provided evidence that Black hosts received less in rent than hosts of other races and showed signs of discrimination against guests with African American sounding names, the company had to decide what to do. In the case, “Racial Discrimination on Airbnb,” Luca discusses his research and explores the implication for Airbnb and other platform companies. Should they change the design of the platform to reduce discrimination? And what’s the best way to measure the success of any changes?

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60 Racism Essay Topics for Any Purpose

Choosing an interesting topic for discussion in an academic paper is always a challenge. And there is a theme that always has a lot to write about: racism. This topic is quite broad. You can write about your attitude to racism, provide an overview of its history, raise awareness of this issue, or analyze the current state of things with racism. Whatever position you take, you should first find an appropriate topic. That is why this article where we collected popular racism essay topics will be of much help to you. So go on and pick your favorite one!

How to Choose a Good Essay Topic on Racism?

Selecting a topic about racism is not easy. Even though it seems like you already know what to do research on, still this problem has many fields for discussion. So before you start writing an introduction, you have to come up with a creative and appropriate topic.

When choosing essay topics on racism, you have to orientate on the factor that it is important to explain this issue from many angles. Racism academic papers should not only be filled with your thoughts on how bad it is and how people struggle with it. You should also write about the origins of this problem and ways to overcome it. So when making your choice regarding one topic about racism, make sure it meets the following criteria:

  • You are passionate about it. Nothing can make your paper more successful than your interest in it.
  • You know something about that subject. If you are already into that topic, it will be much easier to write a good paper.
  • You have found enough sources about it. Every good paper is based on solid proof and facts.
  • You find it controversial. Good racism essay titles always have different points of view.

So as you might see, choosing the right racism topic for your research is crucial as the whole work will depend on it. No worries though, as we have prepared for you multiple topic ideas so you will definitely find your one!

Argumentative Essay Topics About Racism

Racism essay topics can be perfectly discovered in an argumentative type of essay. There can be multiple arguments built around this theme. In this section, we have gathered engaging racism topics for writing argumentative essays.

  • Black Lives Matter movement: a strong confrontation of racism.
  • What is Dismantling Institutional Racism?
  • Can racism be treated as an illness?
  • The contribution of Malcolm X to resolving racism issues.
  • Is Islamophobia a type of racism?
  • How do African American influencers help fight racism in social media?
  • What is the film “The Boy in the Striped Pajamas” useful for?
  • Racism at a workplace: ways to prevent it.
  • Would Michael Jackson be perceived the same if he didn’t change his skin color?
  • Are there any negative sides to the Black Lives Matter movement?
  • Overview of the forms of racism.
  • What is the main factor that makes a person a racist?
  • In what forms does racism exist in the media?
  • Does racism come from religion?
  • The problem of racism at schools and ways of solving it.
  • The main message of “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling.
  • Should racism be treated by specialists?
  • Academic explanation of racism: does it even exist?
  • Why children don’t share racism and treat each other equally?
  • Is there a connection between racism and feminism?

Racism Persuasive Essay Topics

When it comes to explaining your position and making the audience think about it, the best way to do that is to write a persuasive essay. In the case of racism topics, you can be really free in proving your point of view since there are many sides to take on this topic. So below, you will find more examples of topics to write a persuasive essay about.

  • Where do we find more racism: in the United States or in Germany?
  • Do we still face antisemitism in the 21st century?
  • Is racism in any way beneficial?
  • Does the media promote racism?
  • Should we call racism a global problem?
  • Do people acquire racial prejudice or are born with it?
  • The difference in attitude to African Americans and Mexican Americans.
  • The connection of racism with nazism.
  • “Get out” movie and its message about racism.
  • Color-blind racial ideology.
  • Does systemic or institutional racism really exist?
  • Why is it important to talk about racism to children?
  • Is Black Poverty caused by racism in the first place?
  • The issue of racism in “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain.
  • What reforms should be done in the United States to fight racism?
  • Chinese Americans and racism.
  • The connection between homophobia and racism.
  • Globalization and racism.
  • Racism and the American Psychological Association.
  • Does racism become natural in society?

Racism Research Paper Topics

College students know for sure that in order to write an A+ research paper, it is essential to find a theme that would give a lot of ideas to write about. And racism is one of the suitable topics to build a research paper on. So here you will get inspiration from racism topics for research paper.

  • Comparative analysis of racial prejudice in the United States and the United Kingdom.
  • Voodoo culture and racism.
  • The African-American culture: factors that show it is influenced by racial prejudice.
  • Overview of the movies that represent criminal cases of racism in the US.
  • Juzz: the music of Black musicians.
  • The rise of racism during Trump’s presidency.
  • The analysis of racism in different countries.
  • The history of racial prejudice in the world.
  • Is there racism in the Disney Corporations?
  • What health issues do people who are being bullied for their skin color suffer from?
  • Controversial ideas of racism in the works of Ernest Hemingway.
  • Psychological methods of fighting racism.
  • The history of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • The connection between xenophobia and racism.
  • How is gangsta rap connected with racial prejudice?
  • Is there racism in Shakespeare’s “Othello”?
  • Does slavery come from racism?
  • Cultural racism definition.
  • Racism in education: what problems does it cause?
  • Aboriginal racism in Australia.

Examples of Racism Questions for Essay

As soon as you choose one topic among multiple racism topics for essay, you are ready to start writing your work. And we want to give you some more examples of how to explain the theme of racism in academic papers. You can use these questions as an inspiration for what to write about in your essay and how to make a smooth transition from one paragraph to another.

So while writing about racism, you can rise the following questions:

  • What is the history of racism? – Almost in every theme about racial prejudice, it is necessary to write about how this was in the past and what it brought for today.
  • What impact does racism have on health? – This question could lead to a dissertation as racial prejudice causes a lot of mental and even physical illnesses for people who are being treated differently because of their skin color.
  • What measures can be done to stop racism from rising? – Solutions are what every academic paper has to have. And you as a researcher should include this point in your work.
  • What does racism look like in a certain country? – A good question to hook the audience in your essay is to analyze the racism issue in a certain country.
  • How does racism exist in society? – Analyzing people’s behavior and social problems is always a good idea to focus on in your academic work.
  • What are the forms of racism? – When providing research on racism, it is also important to cover its forms since this issue can be revealed in many social aspects.
  • How does racism exist in education? – It is not a novelty that even in educational institutions students are being bullied. So that is also a task for teachers to identify this problem and overcome it.
  • How does racial prejudice exist in the media? – Even in the media, there is still racism. And it is important to talk about it, especially in academic works.
  • How to deal with racism in the workplace? – One of the racism essay ideas can be to look at it in the workplace as many workers are treated disrespectfully because of their origins.
  • Why is it important to strive to fight racism? – It is essential to write that fighting racism equals bringing more harmony to the world.

Need Help Writing an Essay on Racism?

If you want besides choosing topics about racism for essay get help from a professional essay writing service , then you can definitely count on us. We offer a variety of services for academic writing purposes so students could rest assured about their writing tasks.

We have a professional team of writers from whom you can buy persuasive essay , ask for definition essay topics , get help with writing your research paper, or submit your paper for editing and proofreading. Here is what we also provide:

  • A quick help. We always submit papers on the agreed deadline so you can be sure that you will never miss the deadline.
  • Professional expertise. We guarantee the best quality of the work. And many positive reviews from our clients can prove it.
  • A responsive support team. Our mission is to be in touch 24/7, so that is why we have a round-the-clock support team that can guide you through all your questions.
  • A lot of bonuses and offers. We always provide our customers with multiple benefits.

No matter what kind of writing task you have – we can complete it in time and of the highest quality. So don’t hesitate to reach out to us!

How to choose a racism essay topic?

If you are choosing race and ethnicity essay topics, pay attention to these factors: your knowledge of the topic; your interest in it; the topic’s controversial character, and a solid base of resources.

What is a good racism essay topic?

When defining what racism argumentative essay topics are good, first take into account how much you like it and whether it is an actual problem or not.

How many racism paper topics do you have?

We provide more than hundreds of good essay topics about racism, so you can always check our article or ask for help from our writers with the topic selection for your paper about racism.

What are easy racism essay topics to write about?

The easiest topics about racism are those that are the most familiar to you. In fact, writing about this issue is never easy but it is worth doing research.

Argumentative Essay Introduction

In essay writing, the toughest part is always starting it. Most students agree: when you get the introduction paragraph right, you become much more confident about writing the rest of the paper. And, when it comes to more specific academic…  Read More

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Book essay writing is an omnipresent assignment imposed by many professors, especially if you are dealing with literature constantly. An essay on a book is usually a way for your teacher to get proof that you gained something from analyzing…  Read More

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Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping Your World

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Racial Bias & Discrimination

Most black americans believe u.s. institutions were designed to hold black people back.

Those who experienced racial discrimination are more likely to say these institutions intentionally or negligently harm Black people.

Cultural Issues and the 2024 Election

Voters who support Biden and Trump have starkly different opinions on many issues, and these two groups are divided internally as well.

Rising Numbers of Americans Say Jews and Muslims Face a Lot of Discrimination

40% of U.S. adults say there’s a lot of discrimination against Jews in society, and 44% say there’s a lot of discrimination against Muslims.

How U.S. Muslims are experiencing the Israel-Hamas war

Seven-in-ten Muslim Americans say they think discrimination against Muslims has risen in the United States since the Israel-Hamas war began.

How U.S. Jews are experiencing the Israel-Hamas war

Nine-in-ten American Jews say they think discrimination against Jews has risen in the United States since the Israel-Hamas war began.

Discrimination Experiences Shape Most Asian Americans’ Lives

Most Asian adults in the U.S. have been treated as a foreigner or experienced incidents where people assume they are a “model minority.”

Americans are more pessimistic than optimistic about many aspects of the country’s future

63% of Americans are pessimistic about the country’s moral and ethical standards, and 59% are pessimistic about its education system.

Black workers’ views and experiences in the U.S. labor force stand out in key ways

Black workers account for about 13% of all U.S. workers, including those who work full time, part time and are self-employed.

Americans are divided on whether society overlooks racial discrimination or sees it where it doesn’t exist

53% of U.S. adults say people overlooking racial discrimination is a bigger problem than people seeing it where it really didn’t exist.

Martin Luther King Jr.’s Legacy 60 Years After the March on Washington

Most Americans say Martin Luther King Jr. has had a positive impact on the country, with 47% saying he has had a very positive impact. 52% say the country has made a great deal or a fair amount of progress on racial equality in the past six decades.


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Journals that published Richard Lynn’s racist ‘research’ articles should retract them

By Dan Samorodnitsky , Kevin Bird , Jedidiah Carlson , James Lingford , Jon Phillips , Rebecca Sear , and Cathryn Townsend June 20, 2024

racism research paper topics

I n 2012, the Elsevier journal Personality and Individual Differences published a special issue that included articles with titles like “Life history theory and race differences: An appreciation of Richard Lynn’s contribution to science” and “National IQs and economic outcomes.” At a celebratory dinner at the Oxford and Cambridge Club in London, contributors to the issue awarded Lynn a ceremonial sword and a pair of horns. Lynn, an academic psychologist, was being honored “for his long-standing contributions to Eugenics and Psychometrics.”

Why such honors were bestowed on someone who espoused racist ideas, and even racial cleansing, is perplexing. “I was not sure,” Lynn wrote in his memoir , “why they had given me the horns, which are traditionally presented to cuckolds in England. I then spoke on the decay of European civilisation resulting from … the immigration of non-European peoples.” Even more baffling is why journals and publishers haven’t retracted his paper, and resist calls for retraction.


Lynn, who died in 2023 , was a professor at the University of Ulster and the president of the Pioneer Fund , a nonprofit foundation created in 1937 by American Nazi sympathizers to support “race betterment” and “race realism.” It has been a primary funding source of scientific racism and, for decades, Lynn was one of the loudest proponents of the unfounded idea that Western civilization is threatened by “inferior races” that are genetically predisposed to low intelligence, violence, and criminality.

Lynn’s work has been repeatedly condemned by social scientists and biologists for using flawed methodology and deceptively collated data to support racism. In particular, he created deeply flawed datasets purporting to show differences in IQ culminating in a highly cited national IQ database . Many of Lynn’s papers appear in journals owned by the billion-dollar publishing giants Elsevier and Springer, including Personality and Individual Differences and Intelligence.

Related: Coalition wages campaign for retractions of Richard Lynn’s racist journal articles

The last article in a mainstream journal co-authored by Lynn was published early in 2023 in the Elsevier journal Intelligence. His work continues to be cited today ; Google Scholar reports more than 22,000 citations , with almost 4,500 of them coming after 2019. A posthumously published article by Lynn recently appeared in the fringe journal Mankind Quarterly. Given that Lynn was embedded in a network of like-minded co-authors who are still active, it is possible that more of his work will be published posthumously. (A list of Lynn’s papers as recorded by World of Science is available here .)

Despite decades of criticism of the poor quality and practices of his work, only a few journals have taken any action to retract his papers or even acknowledge the criticism.

The influence of Lynn’s work has been extensive. He published at least 386 academic articles. His most prominent books have accrued more than 2,200 citations over the past 20 years. Many of those citing this work treat the IQ database, and Lynn’s interpretations of it, as an uncontroversial set of facts and appear to be deliberately laundering his white supremacist ideology behind the facade of legitimate scientific inquiry.

Some publications that use national IQ data, however, do not come to explicitly racist conclusions and may involve researchers who were careless enough to use the dataset without looking into its provenance. These publications further launder the dataset into the legitimate scientific literature and provide cover for Lynn’s ideological activities.

National IQ: origin and evolution

The first appearance of Lynn’s analysis of national IQ scores was published in 1991 in the journal Mankind Quarterly, which was bankrolled by the Pioneer Fund. This journal was described by the eminent population geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky in an oral history interview as “a true racist periodical, the kind of thing which would gladden the heart of Mr. Goebbels or Mr. Hitler if they could read it.” In 2002 , Lynn and a colleague expanded on this work and published a collated “national IQ database” which contained what they claimed to be average intelligence estimates for entire nations. Since then, the database has been updated, most recently in 2019 , to provide “measured IQ” for 131 countries.

In the original 1991 paper, Lynn made clear that his goal was not simply to compile IQ data as part of an impartial academic review, but to support his view that racial IQ differences have a genetic etiology. To determine the source of IQ differences between presumed “races,” Lynn synthesized what he saw as three lines of evidence:

  • the “contributions to civilization” that he judged different “races” had made
  • the differences in reaction time test scores, which measure the length of time a person takes to react to a stimulus
  • the differences in IQ scores

After reviewing IQ studies from across the world, Lynn determined that the average IQ of racial groups was about 100 for “Caucasoids” (Northern European white people), 105 for “Mongoloids” (East Asian people), but a mere 70 for “Negroids” (African people). Lynn concluded these alleged differences must be genetic in origin. As he wrote in the 1991 paper, “The general consistency of the results from the three sources of evidence, and the consistency of the different intellectual achievements of the races over a long historical period, points to a substantial genetic determination for these differences.”

Click here to see a selected list of citations referencing Lynn’s books on national IQ.

Related: Hold science to higher standards on racism

Limitations and flaws of the national iq idea.

Lynn danced around the implications of some key questions. Do IQ scores really represent an individual’s genetically determined intelligence? Are IQ scores set in stone throughout human history? The answers to both questions is a resounding no. There is no such thing as a culture-free test of cognitive ability. Existing intelligence tests, to some degree, inherently reflect formal education.

Lynn’s lack of critical thinking here is not surprising, since the through line of his career was his use of glaringly bad scientific practices to support his viewpoints. Lynn and colleagues constructed the national IQ dataset by searching for studies that contained cognitive test data and picking and choosing only some for inclusion. Normally, researchers who perform this sort of meta-analysis take great care to define strict selection criteria that individual studies must meet. For instance, a basic criterion might be that the test subjects in the study are healthy and not malnourished, or else there would be no way to know if their cognitive scores are normal or a reflection of their health issues. But Lynn never published any sort of selection criteria or methodology for how he decided to include studies into his dataset.

Lynn’s lack of critical thinking here is not surprising, since the through line of his career was his use of glaringly bad scientific practices to support his viewpoints.

In 2010 , a group of psychologists led by Jelte Wicherts at the University of Amsterdam conducted their own search of the literature and found evidence that Lynn’s dataset was systematically biased: He had selectively included samples with particularly low scores for sub-Saharan Africa, while disregarding those with higher scores. For example, Lynn rejected a relatively high scoring sample of children with an average IQ of 91 because he said the study lacked information regarding the age of the children. At the same time, he included five studies where age information was also lacking, except these studies reported low IQs ranging from 63 to 72.

Why this inconsistency? Wicherts and colleagues found that the only consistent feature in Lynn’s decision-making process in whether to include a study in his African national IQ dataset was the average IQ reported by the study itself. The lower the IQ score, the more likely it was that Lynn chose to include it. In fact, Lynn did not use a single one of the many studies available that reported an average IQ above 85 in an African sample. The Wicherts study concluded “it is hard to avoid the impression that [Lynn’s] assessment of representativeness [of African IQ] was a function of the average IQ in the sample.”

To make matters worse, the studies Lynn included are generally not suitable for calculating national averages. Most psychological research does not rely on nationally representative data, because psychologists are rarely interested in national level cognitive data. Instead, they generally perform cognitive tests because they want to understand how cognitive performance is affected by particular characteristics. Such research is often based on samples that are easy to collect, such as among schoolchildren or college students. Many of the studies included in Lynn’s dataset tested, for example, how cognitive ability differs between children with and without malnutrition or lead exposure, twins compared with singletons, or adults with and without malaria. The authors of several of these studies explicitly stated that their results were not suitable for use in any research comparing intelligence across populations, yet Lynn included them in his dataset anyway. In addition, sloppy inferences about intelligence were made by making adjustments to national educational assessment data, which are designed to assess learning, not intelligence.

Estimating national IQ averages for populations with millions of people requires enormous sample sizes, usually in the thousands. But the studies Lynn often included few people. The IQs Lynn assigned to half of sub-Saharan African and Latin American nations were calculated from fewer than 1,000 people, sometimes far fewer. He calculated the national IQ of Angola, a nation of 35 million people, from tests performed on 19 individuals, about whom almost the only thing known is that they did not have malaria. He calculated the IQ of the Dominican Republic from 34 individuals; Greenland from 40; Uzbekistan from 51; the Republic of Congo from 88 schoolchildren; Namibia from 103 schoolchildren from an ethnic group which makes up only 7% of the national population; Sierra Leone from 119 individuals, all tested in 1966; and Botswana from 140 adolescents who don’t even appear to have been citizens of Botswana.

Despite the dataset having been updated several times, and critiques describing its flaws having been published over several decades, the flaws described here were still present in the latest 2019 version of the dataset. Even a recent attempt to defend the dataset observed that no methodology had ever been described for selecting samples into the dataset, and that it did not provide comparable estimates of intelligence for different nations. Exactly why the author of that paper concluded the dataset should continue to be used is something of a mystery to us.

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Advancing a racist agenda

The glaring shoddiness of Lynn’s academic works does not reflect a man interested in scientific rigor. It does, however, start to make sense in light of Lynn’s intellectual project to, in his own words, “ have a go at the rehabilitation of eugenics.” Lynn wanted to prove that the poor are poor because of a problem within them: “they have some deficit,” he claimed. He believed that there exists “ a racial hierarchy in the United States of IQs of racial-ethnic groups ” and advocated for “secession of the whitest states.” He also believed that “mass immigration of third world peoples … will mean the destruction of European civilization.” He even advocated that non-white societies “have to be allowed to go to the wall” and be “phased out” if European civilization is to be saved. Such white supremacist ideology espoused by Lynn is reminiscent of the racial hygiene concept pursued by the Nazis. In this light, scientific rigor or curiosity were never important to Lynn, his academic work was merely a vehicle to promote these wider ideological goals.

Lynn’s eugenic goals gained access to a wider audience with his involvement in the discredited 1994 book “The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life” by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. This book cites Lynn’s work 24 times and even thanks him in the acknowledgements. Archival documents were recently uncovered revealing that Herrnstein and Murray solicited Lynn’s feedback multiple times, and corresponded with him in the years prior to publishing. This correspondence, unearthed by historian Quinn Slobodian, includes discussions of how to spread their ideas about ostensible genetically based racial differences in intelligence through academia, policy think tanks, members of the media, and government officials.

In one letter to Herrnstein, Lynn wrote, “one of our most important tasks is to convince the people in the US political economy Think Tanks of the significance of the heritability of intelligence and criminality, and of race differences for the social problems confronting the US. These Think Tanks have considerable influence on informed public opinion and on politicians, far more than we in psychology do, and if some of them could be converted public understanding of these problems would be greatly advanced.”

Lynn’s impact extends far beyond the academic literature: The national IQ dataset is pervasive across the internet. Countless online data almanacs overwhelm Google search results for “Average IQ of [Country]” or similar queries. YouTube videos referencing the dataset accumulate hundreds of thousands of views. Websites that provide information on medical and psychological topics include pages with Lynn’s national IQ tables. The data can even be found on the website for a children’s autism therapy company that serves families in more than 100 U.S. cities. (Authors’ note: We approached this company about Lynn’s work, but it did not respond.)

These reproductions of Lynn’s data typically make no mention of the flawed underlying methodology or his transparent ideological stance. We contacted all of these websites for comment on why they decided to publish Lynn’s national IQ data, but received a response from only one of them, which belligerently defended Lynn’s work.

Given that Lynn’s work is explicitly motivated by white supremacist ideology, its prominence reflects a massive failure among the scientific community to self-correct.

The national IQ dataset has become part of the ideological fabric of contemporary white supremacist movements. Arthur Kemp , a prominent South African-British neo-Nazi and Holocaust denier, includes the entirety of Lynn’s national IQ table in his 2020 book “The War Against Whites: The Racial Psychology Behind the Anti-White Hatred Sweeping the West.” Lynn is regularly cited in white supremacist and anti-immigration forums and publications, such as VDARE ( at least 410 times ), American Renaissance ( more than 480 times ), and video sharing site Bitchute ( more than 450 times ). White supremacist memes based on Lynn’s maps of national IQs are wildly popular on the 4chan imageboards . Lynn’s data, and its derivatives, have been explicitly cited in the manifestos of white supremacist terrorists in Buffalo, N.Y., in May 2022 and Norway in July 2011.

Given that Lynn’s work is explicitly motivated by white supremacist ideology, its prominence reflects a massive failure among the scientific community to self-correct. Its continued popularity in both the scientific literature and mainstream discourse is a disturbing monument to the success of Lynn’s decades-long effort to claim the genetic and intellectual inferiority of historically marginalized groups and countries in the Global South.

Describing countries as having low “national IQ” is often a short step away from dehumanizing — if not outright genocidal — rhetoric. For example, following escalation of the Israel-Hamas War in October 2023, an obscure 2014 paper co-authored by Lynn claiming to estimate the national IQ of Palestine (based on a sample of 257 schoolchildren in Gaza) has been repeatedly invoked to justify Israel’s atrocities against Palestinian civilians. In an essay written for the conservative magazine The American Spectator, commentator Scott McKay cites Lynn’s estimate of the median IQ of Gazans and states :

Yes, it sucks to be a Gazan right now. But here’s the thing — if you’re so indolent and primitive that you can’t run your own water system or power plant, then don’t start a war with the neighbor you depend on.

Related: Henrietta Lacks settlement hailed by experts as step toward correcting medicine’s racist history

Retractions are in order, but journals and publishers are resistant.

Elsevier, Springer, and other publishers should retract all of Lynn’s articles on the topic of national IQ. Further, all academic publishers should conduct investigations into articles that use or cite Lynn’s national IQ database — at least 70 of which were published in just the past five years — with a view to correcting or retracting those that uncritically rely on his canon to support their findings.

Some work using Lynn’s data has already been involved in retractions, and his emeritus status was revoked by his former university due to his racist and sexist views.

In 2020, the journal Psychological Science, owned by Sage, retracted an article at the request of its authors due to its reliance on Lynn’s 2019 national IQ dataset. Facing pressure from critics, the authors were forced to acknowledge concerns over “lack of representativeness of the samples, questionable support for some of the measures, an excess of researcher degrees of freedom, and concern about the vulnerability of the data to bias.” In 2019, an editorial written by Lynn in the MDPI journal Psych was recategorized to an opinion piece. The journal wrote “we recommend against using [Lynn’s piece] as established fact, and … statements made in the article should be treated with skepticism,” pointing to Lynn’s failure to distinguish correlation from causation for national IQ’s relationship to gross domestic product, for advocating statements not supported by current research, and for exaggerating the mainstream acceptance of the work.

Around that time, five papers authored by Jean-Philippe Rushton, a longtime Lynn associate (who published an “ appreciation ” of Lynn’s work in the Elsevier journal Personality and Individual Differences), were retracted by the journal Psychological Reports, also owned by Sage. “This retraction is following a review that found that the research was unethical, scientifically flawed, and based on racist ideas and agenda,” the journal said in a statement .

More recently, a journal published by nonprofit publisher Royal Society Publishing acted swiftly and transparently to conduct an investigation when one of us (R.S.) raised a concern about a paper using Lynn’s national IQ data, and then decided to retract the paper, stating “the manifest problems in the data warranted retraction in order to uphold [the journal’s] standards.” Similarly, an article posted to ResearchSquare, a preprint server acquired by SpringerNature in 2022, was recently withdrawn by the editors, with a note saying “This decision reflects our commitment to disseminate research that meets our rigorous standards for integrity and respect for all individuals.”

These examples set a precedent for a thorough scientific appraisal of literature that cites Lynn’s deeply flawed and ideologically motivated work. In 2020, the European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association issued a statement on the national IQ dataset , explicitly highlighting its flaws and role in the history of racism in the evolutionary behavioral sciences, writing, “Any conclusions drawn from these data are both untenable, and likely to give rise to racist conclusions, even where that is not the intention of the authors.” This statement was publicized and emailed directly to all editors of journals in the human evolutionary behavioral sciences.

Although papers citing Lynn or using his database are widespread, they are especially concentrated in a small number of journals: the Elsevier journals Intelligence and Personality and Individual Differences (at least six in each in the past five years), and the Springer journal Evolutionary Psychological Science (at least three in the past five years).

When one of us (R.S.) raised concerns with editors at several different Elsevier and Springer journals about some of the papers that used Lynn’s national IQ data, editors either declined to act or simply did not respond to emails. Elsevier and Springer declined to conduct independent investigations into these papers, saying that such decisions were left in the hands of journal editors. A paper using national IQ data was also published by the academic publisher Frontiers. In this case, while the editor was responsive to an email raising a concern about the paper, later emails to Frontiers’ research integrity office then received no response.

When we reached out to Springer and Elsevier for comment on this article in late February 2024, a Springer spokesperson wrote: “Springer Nature was already aware of concerns raised regarding the national IQ dataset. Springer Nature has placed a Publisher’s Note onto the article which uses the dataset to alert our readers to the criticisms raised. Springer Nature takes all concerns about papers we have published seriously, and whenever concerns are raised about any paper we have published, we look into them carefully, following an established process. However, whilst we can provide advice and support, editors of a journal are responsible for decisions regarding what papers they select for publication in their journals and any editorial actions taken post publication.” (The Publisher’s Note appeared only after we asked the publisher for comment about this article).

Here are our questions and the responses from the Elsevier spokesperson:

Has Elsevier considered retracting Lynn’s work before? Yes, papers by Richard Lynn have been considered for retraction in the past.

Will it consider retracting these articles in the future? Yes, Elsevier takes all claims and allegations of unethical behaviour related to published research seriously and all are investigated by our Research Integrity and Ethics teams in accordance with our standard policies on retractions. We will consider any future retractions also in accordance with those policies. Information on those policies may be found at this link .

What standards does Elsevier use to ensure it is not (intentionally or unintentionally) publishing racist pseudo-science? Elsevier abides by the same standards for every paper submitted for publishing to ensure scientific rigour. Ultimately, we can’t be responsible for how papers that meet our standards for scientific rigour are used or misused. It is important to remember that Elsevier’s journals operate under the guidance of an Editor-in-Chief and an Editorial Board. Editors-in-Chief are established researchers with a broad interest in their field and are well connected and respected in their subject community. They are ultimately responsible for the journal’s content and editorial processes and assess incoming submissions, make decisions and manage the peer review process. As publishers, we must follow the principles of academic freedom and editorial independence.

Retracting Lynn’s egregiously racist studies would not be censorship. … Over and over, Lynn stated his racist beliefs, used biased practices to justify them, and actively worked to spread and amplify them.

Despite Elsevier’s claim that its research integrity and ethics teams investigate all claims and allegations of unethical behavior, there is no evidence that an investigation was conducted when one of us (R.S.) raised concerns about a paper that used national IQ in an Elsevier journal. Instead, an Elsevier representative replied, “I respectfully decline your request for an independent Elsevier investigation regarding the paper.” Similarly, when she requested in 2023 that Springer’s research integrity team conduct an investigation into a paper published in one of their journals that used Lynn’s national IQ data, the response was merely that “the Research Integrity Group has an advisory role and editorial decisions on whether to take action on published articles lies with the Editor-in-Chief of the relevant journal.”

We also contacted the editors-in-chief of the journal Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, and the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science. We received one response, from Richard Haier, editor-in-chief at Intelligence, which offered no insight and referred us to guidelines on retractions from the Committee on Publication Ethics .

It is worth noting that the journals that have been most willing to correct or retract articles are those that didn’t habitually publish work by Lynn or those not heavily influenced by him. Intelligence has published at least 43 articles by Lynn, many of which used his national IQ data. Lynn also sat on Intelligence’s editorial board until 2018. This highlights the necessity for publishers to get involved when concerns are raised about publications, and to conduct independent investigations where necessary, rather than leaving decisions entirely in the hands of editors, who may experience conflicts of interest.

Prioritizing integrity

The refusal to correct the scientific record when inconvertible flaws are pointed out reflects the lack of priority given to research integrity at academic journals.

Retracting Lynn’s egregiously racist studies would not be censorship. He was not a dispassionate scientist following the data where it led him. Over and over, Lynn stated his racist beliefs, used biased practices to justify them, and actively worked to spread and amplify them.

Given the systematic flaws in the national IQ dataset and evidence that Lynn’s research was a white supremacist propaganda project, widespread retractions are in order, in line with widely accepted standards set out by the Committee on Publication Ethics. We urge Elsevier, Springer, and the editorial boards of other scientific journals to conduct investigations into Lynn’s articles and those that cite him. As stewards of the scientific record, journals must avoid the publication of misleading research that derives from Lynn’s canon.

Dan Samorodnitsky is a science journalist covering biology, genetics, and medicine, and a co-founder of Sequencer Magazine . Kevin Bird is an evolutionary biologist at the University of California-Davis who studies genome evolution in plants. Jedidiah Carlson is a population geneticist at the University of Texas at Austin who studies human genome evolution, in addition to work in meta-research and scientometrics. James Lingford is a biochemist at Monash University who studies protein structure and evolution. Jon Phillips is a historian of science who studies the histories of evolutionary biology and scientific racism in addition to the history of the physical sciences. Rebecca Sear is an interdisciplinary researcher, drawing on anthropology, demography and human behavioral ecology at Brunel University London. Cathryn Townsend is an anthropologist at Baylor University who studies cooperation and social equality.


Have an opinion on this essay submit a letter to the editor here ., about the authors reprints, dan samorodnitsky, jedidiah carlson, james lingford, jon phillips, rebecca sear, cathryn townsend.

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    Its findings can potentially improve the resources designed to help Black adolescents cope with racism. Assaf Oshri, lead author of the study, is an associate professor whose research focuses on ...

  25. Journals should retract Richard Lynn's racist 'research' articles

    Lynn, who died in 2023, was a professor at the University of Ulster and the president of the Pioneer Fund, a nonprofit foundation created in 1937 by American Nazi sympathizers to support "race ...