Online Food Ordering and Delivery Applications: An Empirical Study of the Factors Affecting Intention to Reuse

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online ordering thesis

  • Evangelia Ganou 3 ,
  • George Karavasilis 3 ,
  • Vasiliki Vrana 3 &
  • Evangelos Kehris 3  

Part of the book series: Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics ((SPBE))

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Food ordering and delivery platforms/applications is an emerging technology, widely adopted by customers, especially under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. The study aims at investigating the factors that influence users’ intention to reuse platforms/applications. For the purpose of the study, a multiple linear regression model was developed and tested. Data was collected through an online survey and analyzed using SPSS 26. The model for first time integrates variables that access both quality of platform/application and quality of services. The quality of platform/application is the most significant success factor. It seems that consumers have already been convinced about the benefits of using these platforms/applications and the quality of platform/application is their main concern. Platform and application designers should emphasize and enhance the quality of the platform/application in order to gain competitive advantage.

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We would like to thank the M.B.A. in Hospitality and Tourism, International Hellenic University for financial support.

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Evangelia Ganou, George Karavasilis, Vasiliki Vrana & Evangelos Kehris

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Ganou, E., Karavasilis, G., Vrana, V., Kehris, E. (2022). Online Food Ordering and Delivery Applications: An Empirical Study of the Factors Affecting Intention to Reuse. In: Katsoni, V., Şerban, A.C. (eds) Transcending Borders in Tourism Through Innovation and Cultural Heritage. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics. Springer, Cham.

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Online Ordering System Capstone Project Document


Internet also known as World Wide Web is amazing and great innovation in human life.  The internet is known for its one of a kind tool for communication all over the world.  One of the things that the internet is useful to human is the trend nowadays, the Online Shopping.  This is where the customers can choose products and services they want by visiting a certain website.  This kind of trend in shopping has more advantages both customers and the sellers.  For clients, the online purchases will save them from time, money and effort to visit the store to have an actual checking of items.  By browsing the website of a seller, the clients will right away view the available sizes, colors, prices, discounts and the availability of the items needed.

Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs is an online web based ordering system.  The trends of online shopping where people are busy and they find it hard to have an extra time to look for the right items they really wanted for the party.  Celebrant or the party organizer will prefer to check online the things they needed for the party.  They can see a lot of items online and they can make good comparison from the internet.  They can order at the comfort of their own home by just one click of a mouse.  No need for the customers to visit the store to check the items and compare prices.

The primary goal of the company is to maintain good relationship to the customers by providing quality products and services.  The company will offer wide variety of quality party needs for customers.  Unique designs to choose from to fit the preferred theme of the celebrant. Also the company will let the customer choose the items they want to include in the package, like the piñata for the party. The system will also provide product catalog with product details and prices. In relation to this, the researchers will develop an online ordering system for a hassle-free shopping transaction, not only for the customers but also for the company as well.

Background of the Study

Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs have been operating for more than twenty eight (28) years in 19 th St., Lacson, Bacolod City.  It is owned and managed by Mr. Joemarie Georfo.The business lasted for more than a decade because of the quality of the products and services where the clients are expected to have. The business have been accepting reservations and orders manually.The orders and reservations are only recorded in a log book to keep track of the dates of when will the reservation and exact date that the items will be picked up by the customers or to be delivered.

Objectives of the Study

          The main objective of this study is to provide Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs a system for online-based ordering and transactions.

  • This study will design and develop an Online Ordering System for Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs that will:
  • provide an online ordering system for registered users;
  • manage party reservation and orders;
  • provide payment facility through payment gateway;
  • assess the acceptability of the entire system to the end-users in terms of; (a) effectiveness, (b) efficiency, (c) quality, (d) timeliness;
  • make a website for easier purchasing process and reservations;
  • part of the service is the tracking system to monitor their orders for delivery.

2 Evaluate the system using 9126 standard.

Conceptual Framework

Scope and delimitation of the study.

The study covers the online ordering and reservation process of Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs. People are now busy to visit the stores and shop for their party needs like balloons, tarpaulin, table and chairs for visitors, foods, goodies, give away, invitations, souvenirs to complete their party bash.  The company will provide service to make customers shop convenient at their own time anytime, anywhere.  The customers can choose from the wide variety of items for the party. The item details, availability of the items is posted in the web page of Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs.  The customers can purchase right away by online banking debit or money transfer to secure their orders and deliver the items in 1-2 days.  The customers can also check the status of their orders and delivery by visiting the website and log in on their account.


The company will not allow customer to request for a refund if the items were delivered in good condition.

The items posted on the web page do not include the delivery cost.

The system will limit ordering internationally and outside the Bacolod city.

Significance of the Study

This system will be beneficial to the following identified groups:

For the company

  • Manage Admin and User accounts
  • To help the company to increase more customers
  • Maintain shop reports
  • To make the procedure of ordering online much easier

For the Customer

  • They can easily to visit and see the product using the internet
  • Easy to register to the website
  • Provide an easy access of customers in getting their orders
  • Easy to pay by using online payment process

Future Researchers. This study will be effective tool to serve as a reference to the future researcher and they can also use this study to widen and enlighten them for the research.

Definition of Terms

World Wide Web

  • Conceptually, the term is basically a system of internet servers that support specially formatted documents.  The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. Operationally, World Wide Web is a major factor in operating an online reservation and purchases of Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs.  This study of upgrading the system of the business to go online is with the help of World Wide Web.

Online Shopping

  • The term is conceptually used in this work to refer to the action or activity of buying goods or services via the Internet. Operationally, refers of making shopping easier by using internet access anytime, anywhere without any hassle.
  • The term means a location connected to the Internet that maintains one or more pages on the World Wide Web. As used in the study, “website” is where the customers of Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs do their reservation and to confirm orders and to monitor or trace the delivery.  The order is basically done with the help of internet access.

Online Payment

  • Conceptually, allowing money transfer to be made only through internet.  It functions as a fast and secure electronic alternatives to traditional methods as cheque, money orders or bank transfers. The term is operationally use to this research as the system to perform the payment processing not only for the business but between their customers.  The process helps a faster payment method for the business.

Money Transfer

  • The act of transferring money from one place to another place. This may occur electronically or physically. Operationally, the term “money transfer” refers to one of the payment options of the customers who will do the online reservation for their party needs.  After the items have been confirmed, the customer needs to process the payment through money transfer.  They can send money thru online banking or to the companies facilitate money transfer like Western Union and many other local money transfer companies.

Credit Card

  • The term conceptually means is a small plastic card issued by a bank, business, etc., allowing the holder to purchase goods or services on credit. This study used the term to define one of payment options to confirm the purchase, by using the credit card.  Once the customers have decided to purchase the items, they can use their credit card to process the payment.  The bank is in-charge of posting the customers payment online and charge it automatically the amount to customers account.  This method of payment is one of much easier and faster.
  • A social gathering especially for pleasure or amusement or a group of people who have gathered to celebrate. Operationally, the term is used to this study as the main purpose of the business.  The business provides materials needed to prepare a party.  The host is basically look for materials to design a venue to make the party more colorful and fun.
  • Conceptually, it is a transaction of buying or selling online. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce , electronic funds transfer , supply chain management , Internet marketing , online transaction processing , electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems , and automated data collection Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction’s life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.

Review of Related Literature

This chapter discusses concepts and conducted studies related to the phenomenon of online shopping.  The literature reviewed here provided the researcher insights into the subject matter of the present study.  It also provided the researcher information and materials needed in the formulation and development of the data-gathering instrument. This review consists of books, articles, documents that focus on the same subject matter or other concepts of the study.

 Local Studies

Geancyfood Online Reservation System

Geancyfood Online Reservation System is an online web-based system wherein clients can make catering reservations through online. The system can help the catering administration manage their filter, monitor, and store and secure of all the reservations records. The system will help the administration in making their work easy and fast such as updating, adding new menu, and printing of records since all the files will be stored in the database. It is more secure in an automated online system and it is more reliable in processing reports and records of the reservation than using manual based. The system allows clients to check their reservations and availability whenever they are online and can make catering reservations right away. Only the authorized personnel can access the system with the use of its username and password for the security purposes.

Author: Nico A. Brigula. (October 2016)

BR Chua Enterprises Inc. Online Shopping Cart

Shopping is very important in our daily life, especially to those who love to shop some furniture, Whenever we need, we usually move to shopping complex. Day by day, a large amount of consumers increased in shopping area. As a result, to provide a better consumer services and satisfaction. Thus, consumers are not required to physically visits to shops to make a purchase including spend to find out specific products, wait for a long queue for payment.The purpose of this research is to design an interactive online shopping system that can satisfy consumers to buy products and which system will save cost, fewer employees, reduce administration work and less time.The system online shopping cart made for BR Chua Enterprises Inc. was one way of enhancing the business competitively. Though the only problem was their usage of manual inventory system, it was decided to make a system that can really help it compete globally. Since BR Chua Enterprises Inc. produces high quality and low-price kind of made-to-order furniture. It helps customers to shop conveniently and accessibly. It helps customers to choose items they desire to buy. It could also generate bills and update records automatically. It was also capable of maintaining various records and storing all day-to-day transactions.

Author: Julie O. Baritos (March 2012)

Foreign Studies

 Online Shopping

According to Naresh Prajapati,(March 22, 2012) An online shopping system that permits a customer to submit online orders for items and/or services from a store that serves both walk-in customers and online customers. The online shopping system presents an online display of an order cut off time and an associated delivery window for items selected by the customer. The system accepts the customer’s submission of a purchase order for the item in response to a time of submission being before the order cut off time. The online shopping system does not settle with a credit supplier of the customer until the item selected by the customer is picked from inventory but before it is delivered. Therefore, the customer can go online and make changes to the order. In addition, available service windows are presented to the customer as a function of customer selected order and service types and further, the order picking is assigned in accordance with a picker’s preference. When ordering goods, many shopping systems provide a virtual shopping cart for holding items selected for purchase. Successive items selected for purchase are placed into the virtual shopping cart until a customer completes their shopping trip. Virtual shopping carts may be examined at any time, and their contents can be edited or deleted at the option of the customer. Once the customer decides to submit a purchase order, the customer may print the contents of the virtual shopping basket in order to obtain a hard copy record of the transaction.

Online Ordering System of LIDO Enterprise

Online Ordering System of LIDO Enterprise is an web-based system that helps LIDO Enterprise to manage their business digitally, and allow customer to make order online. As a fast growing company, online enterprise system becoming a need compared to manual method. Therefore, this system has been developed to helps LIDO Enterprise to manage their sales and services online .It is a better approach to optimize the relationship between LIDO Enterprise and customers. There are two target users in this system, admin staff and the customers of LIDO Enterprise. The system consists of ten modules: login and registration, customize stock specification, manage order and profile, search product, manage stock and specification, approve order, advisory administration for admin side function and Live Chat. Rapid Application Development (RAD) model has been used in this project. The four phases are requirements planning, user design, construction and cutover. The implementation of interface and coding to each module in the system has been completed. The testing shows that the acceptance criteria of the system has achieve the objectives of this project.

Author: Shamsor Masra Othman(Mar 03, 2015)

Table 1: Related System

The system we are making has many similarities to the ones on the local and foreign studies.. Both local and foreign has many features similar to our system because all the system that we include in this synthesis aims to help save lives. The same practice is is being observed by both Local and Foreign studies. Compared to manual processing of transactions and records of online ordering can be a hassle and time consuming.

In connection to the proposed system, the system will be used by the Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs System. This related system will be the basis of the proponents to develop this Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs System.


This chapter explains the methods and procedures being followed in the research project.  This chapter reviews the research approach used to carry out the study, the research respondents, and the research methods to be used for conducting the study.  It also includes an overview of how to treat research data gathered by the researchers.

SDLC Planning Phase

SDLC Planning Phase

Research Design

This research study aims to determine the online reservation for party needs and a hassle-free ordering and reservation of party needs for customers; the online ordering system will save customer’s time and faster shopping of the items needed for the party; actual picture and details of items without visiting the store; to help customers choose the right items they wanted because of wide variety of products on the website; to help customers through suggestions of related theme they wanted for the party; to increase productivity of the business through visiting the website because  of easier purchasing process and reservations; to make the business available anytime, anywhere for customers even holidays and weekends; part of the service is the tracking system to monitor their orders for delivery; and for easy payment process of the customers. The market research method is used for this study.

Market research is used to identify potential markets, the needs and wants of each, how those needs and wants can be met, how products and services could be packaged to be most accessible to customers and clients, the best pricing for those products and services, who the competitors are and how best to compete against each,potential collaborators and how to collaborate with each — and many other applications of research. Organizations can conduct this research without having to have advanced skills. This topic aims to explain the most important practices in research that provide the most useful results.

Planning Phase


This phase requires study and analysis culminating in the full project management plan and that may lead to system development activities.  This is where the business starts, planning is to aim the target of the business which is the online ordering system of  party needs.  The system includes the hassle-free shopping, to provide wide variety of items for customers and to increase productivity and profit to the business. In the planning phase, sufficient requirement detail is required to support development of the project’s management plan and permit outside validation of this deliverable.

Analysis Phase


The Analysis Phase is where the project lifecycle begins. The Analysis Phase is where the company break down the deliverable in the high-level Project Charter into the more detailed business requirements. The Analysis Phase is also the part of the project where it will identify the overall direction that the project will take through the creation of the project strategy documents. Gathering requirements is the main attraction of the Analysis Phase. The process of gathering requirements is usually more than simply asking the users what they need and writing their answers down. Depending on the complexity of the application, the process for gathering requirements has a clearly defined process of its own. This process consists of a group of repeatable processes that utilize certain techniques to capture, document, communicate, and manage requirements.

Design Phase


The Design phase is when it will build the plan for how you will take your project through the rest of the SDL process—from implementation, to verification, to release. During the Design phase it will establish best practices to follow for this phase by way of functional and design specifications, and it will perform risk analysis to identify threats and vulnerabilities in your software.

Development Phase



During the development phase, the system developer take the detailed logical information documented in the previous phase and transforms it into machine- executable form, and ensures that all of the individual components of the automated system/application function correctly and interface properly with other components within the system/application.

Testing Phase


Testing is a vital part of software development, and it is important to start it as early as possible, and to make testing a part of the process of deciding requirements. To get the most useful perspective on your development project, it is worthwhile devoting some thought to the entire lifecycle including how feedback from users will influence the future of the application.

Implementation Phase

The Implementation Phase has one key activity: deploying the new system in its target environment. Supporting actions include training end-users and preparing to turn the system over to maintenance personnel. After this phase, the system enters the Operations and Maintenance Phase for the remainder of the system’s operational life. Multiple-release projects require multiple iterations of the Implementation Phase – one for each release.

Maintenance Phase

During the Operations and Maintenance Phase, the information system’s availability and performance in executing the work for which it was designed is maintained. The State realizes the largest value for the system during this phase. System operations continue until the system’s termination date, when the next phase, Disposition, begins.

User’s Acceptance Survey

The most common descriptive methodology is the survey, as when researchers summarize the characteristics (abilities, preferences, behaviors, and so on) of customers.

This online ordering system is created for the benefit of the company also the possible customers, as this system will also serve as a promotion for them because of its easy access in the web.

Operational Feasibility

The researchers will use PHP as the front-end and MySQL as the back-end because they run on any platform, are open source, and free to download. The proponents will enhance and upgrade the current manual system of the company.

Program Environment

CSS  is the language for describing the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout, and fonts. It allows one to adapt the presentation to different types of devices, such as large screens, small screens, or printers. CSS is independent of HTML and can be used with any XML-based markup language. The separation of HTML from CSS makes it easier to maintain sites, share style sheets across pages, and tailor pages to different environments. This is referred to as the  separation if structure (or: content) from presentation.

HTML  is the language for describing the structure of Web pages. HTML gives authors the means to:

  • Publish online documents with headings, text, tables , lists, photos, etc.
  • Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button.
  • Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc.
  • Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other applications directly in their documents.

Back End                                                                        

MySQL is an open source relational database management system. Information in a MySQL  database is stored in the form of related tables. MySQL  databases are typically used for web application development.

PHP is a script language and interpreter that is a freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers. PHP, originally derived from Personal Home Page Tools, now stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, which the PHP FAQ describes as a “recursive acronym”.


The proponents decided to use the following hardware for they meet the requirements for the Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs Online Ordering System.

  • Seagate 500GB 7200rpm SATA
  • SONY DRU-870/880S 22X SATA
  • KINGSTON 2GB 1333 DDR3
  • Inno3d G210 1GB DDR3 64bit
  • Intel Dual Core E6600 3.06Ghz 2MB 1066Mhz
  • 6″Orion L156NW Led Monitor
  • Keyboard and Mouse
  • HP Officejet 3608 All-in-One

The proponents decided to use the following software for they met the requirements for the Wrinkles Balloons and Party Needs Online Ordering System.

  • Windows 7 Starter Edition 32 bit (OEM)

Cost Benefit Analysis

Development Cost

Total = Php 44,990

This table shows the developmental cost of the researched system. The developmental cost includes the programmer’s salary and the total expenditures in developing the system.

Operational Cost

Total =Php 23,148

The tables show the operational cost of the researched system. The operational cost covers the maintenance cost and expenditures in implementing the researched system.

The table shows the total expenditures of the development and operation of the proposed system.

The Benefit shows the probable amount that the company may achieve if the system is going to be implemented. The proponents have researched on what are the presumed amounts or value of each item that will benefit the ordering administration over it`s traditional method per year.


Data Flow Diagram



Use Case Diagram

Use Case Diagram

Activity Diagram

Activity Diagram

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presents the tabular results of the User’s Survey and the corresponding interpretations conducted for the system.

Figure 8 shows the result from the user’s acceptance survey where in thirty respondents have been tested. Each of the categories was computed. Each computed arranged were created tables below precisely showcase each categories mean.

Respondents Survey

Respondents Survey

Table 18: Survey Result – Effectiveness

Table 18 shows that the survey result for the effectiveness of the system’s gathered with a total mean of 4.22 which is interpreted that the user were very satisfied with the system’s, effectiveness after testing it.

Table 19: Survey Result – Efficiency

Table 19 shows that the user survey result for the system’s gathered a total mean of 4.32 which is interpreted that the user was very satisfied with the system’s efficiency after testing it.

Table 20: Survey Result – Quality

Table 20 shows that the user survey result for the system gathered a total mean of 4.283 which is interpreted that the user was very satisfied with the system’s quality after testing it.

Table 21: Survey Result – Timeliness

Table 21 shows that the user survey result for the system gathered a total mean of 4.22 which is interpreted that the user was very satisfied with the system’s timeliness after testing it.

Table 22: Survey Result – Productivity

Table 22 shows that the user survey result for the system gathered a total mean of 4.32 which is interpreted that the user was very satisfied with the system’s productivity after testing it.

The overall system acceptance result, gathering a mean score of 4.31, it suggest that the users were very highly satisfied with its performance in all its aspects.

Summary of the Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter presents the summary of the research work undertaken, the conclusions and recommendation

Summary of the Findings

Wrinkles balloons and party needs online ordering system is developed to provide solution to concern the shop. The person who manage or runs the system should have the idea or knowledge about the system. the employees should also have an idea about the system and how it works. The wrinkles balloons and party needs online ordering system needs a browser, xampp application to run the system. The system also needs Internet connection.

The system is very useful to the company and employees. It provides efficiency of generating and updating sales report. It will lessen the employees manual works.


The system, must have a reservation list, and must have packages for the customers who wants to buy package like birthday celebrations, and the most important, the system must have a paypal in order to secure the payment of the customer.

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Online food shopping: a conceptual analysis for research propositions.

\r\nChi-Fang Liu*

  • Department of Business Administration, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Shopping foods online is different from shopping other things online. To stimulate more thinking and enrich potential future research imagination, this paper reviews for online food shopping features, offers a commentary, and proposes future research directions. The propositions include the following: (1) The design and implementation of online food shopping (eco)systems should engage the consumers and other stakeholders to co-create collective and social values; (2) A better fit between technologies’ and food businesses’ natures could generate better applications for online food shopping; (3) A business model with sound finance systems becomes the core of a healthy online food ecosystem; (4) The interaction and transformation between online (virtual) and offline (virtual) food businesses determines the dynamic development of future food shopping.


Most studies on online shopping focus on the implications and benefits of e-commerce. This focus is expected to increase as more people are pushed toward shopping online in a bid to avoid crowded shopping malls for fear of contracting the dreaded COVID-19 virus. A gap in the literature, however, is that while the topic is rife with studies detailing how online shopping works, there is limited research on shopping foods online, which is inherently with very different characteristics from buying other kinds of commodities via the World Wide Web. Nonetheless, food is one of the most common products for the mankind, and so are with great impact for human’s online shopping life. A critical analysis for in-depth understanding of the special attributes that online food shopping has can facilitate the construction of a precise (for stakeholders’ needs) and high-quality (for stakeholders’ safety and satisfactions) online food shopping ecosystem. This paper presents a conceptual analysis aimed at explicating the significant themes within the current literature. The review will conduct critical propositions reflected from these studies to propose future research directions. The academic review is significant to both researchers and online food stores as people across the world start embracing online shopping more than ever before.

Background Descriptions

Before beginning the conceptual analysis with literature review, a broader background discussion is needed. Practically, the broader background constitutes: e-commerce platforms, consumer preferences and attitudes, marketing approaches, and packaging and delivery considerations.

E-Commerce Platforms

Silva et al. (2017) define e-commerce platforms as the set of technologies designed to help online businesses to manage their marketing, sales, and operations. Wei’s et al. (2018) study sought to examine the purchase intention of fruits among online shoppers. The authors argue that the past few years have seen the emergence of online purchase platforms for fruits, a trend that has significantly advanced e-commerce development and improved the quality of human life. Although their study sought to investigate consumers’ purchase intention, the results reveal that compared to other products, the e-commerce platforms for fruits did not play a major role in influencing a buyers’ purchase decision. On the contrary, the success of fashion products and electronics is dependent on how online customers perceive their e-commerce platforms ( Huete-Alcocer, 2017 ). For example, customers are less likely to purchase luxury fashion products from a poorly designed website ( Kang et al., 2020 ) and ( Buckley, 2016 ). Thus, while there are limited studies on the differences between buying food and other products online, at least the current studies evidence that e-commerce platforms do not play a significant role in influencing buyers’ purchase decisions.

Consumer Preferences and Attitudes

Kim Dang et al. (2018) study on consumer preference and attitudes regarding online food products examines how the Internet has changed people’s food-buying behaviors. The study is significant because it establishes the underlying consumers’ concerns with regards to food safety information, especially for online food products. Compared to other products, consumer preferences and attitudes toward buying food online differs in that the perceived risks and information quality do not play major roles in influencing their buying behavior ( Li and Bautista, 2019 ; Sanchez-Sabate and Sabaté, 2019 ; Zieliñska et al., 2020 ). Kim Dang et al. (2018) study relies on a cross-sectional study conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam. The findings are reliable as they are based on responses gathered from over 1736 customers through face-to-face interviews. While the preferences and attitudes toward buying food online differ from buying other commodities, Kim Dang et al. (2018) note that the laws governing e-commerce in Vietnam are the same. As such, the findings provide practical advice to online food retailers and the Vietnam government on how to implement appropriate legislation with regards to trading online food products.

Martínez-Ruiz and Gómez-Cantó’s (2016) study emphasizes that using the Internet to seek food service information has now become a common practice among people today. More people than ever before have positive attitudes toward finding information about food online ( Martínez-Ruiz and Gómez-Cantó, 2016 ; Maison et al., 2018 ). Also, people are more likely to search information about food on the Internet than any other product or service ( Hidalgo-Baz et al., 2017 ; Whiley et al., 2017 ; Wong et al., 2018 ). However, Kim Dang et al. (2018) study found that a significant number of consumers were unconcerned about the accuracy of the evidence regarding food safety they found online in selecting food products on the Internet. The conclusions drawn from the current article review produces practical pieces of advice to consumers buying food online as well as the food retailers selling food over the Internet.

Marketing Approaches

Rummo et al. (2020) examine the relationship between youth-targeted food marketing expenditures and the demographics of social media followers. The authors sought to establish the extent to which teenagers follow food brands on Twitter and Instagram by examining the relationships between brands’ youth-targeted marketing practices and the overall percentages of adolescent followers. The study provides evidence showing that unhealthy food brands, especially fast food and sugary drink have more adolescent followers on social media ( Rummo et al., 2020 ). These study results are consistent with Salinas et al. (2014) findings which show that unhealthy food products enjoy a higher market base than the healthy ones. The high percentage of teenage followers is concerning among health experts mainly because most of the advertisements from these companies are biased and do not highlight the unhealthy consequences associated with eating these foods. Compared to other products, food companies are often not required by regulations to highlight their negative consequences ( Salinas et al., 2014 ). For example, cigarette and alcohol companies are mandated to disclose their effects of use on all marketing materials ( Gravely et al., 2014 ). Consequently, with the ubiquitous use of social media by teenagers, young people are more exposed to food and beverage advertising which occurs across multiple digital channels.

The failure to address digital advertising when formulating policies makes it harder to governed youth-targeted food marketing. Food products are often marketed using the general techniques and approaches applied in other products and services. Juaneda-Ayensa et al. (2016) note that food marketing topics such as market segmentation, strategic positioning, test marketing, branding, consumer research, targeting, and market entry strategy are highly relevant. Moreover, food marketing is affected by the major challenges that affect conventional markets such as dealing with perishable products whose availability and quality varies as a function of the current harvest conditions ( Hongyan and Zhankui, 2017 ). However, Topolinski et al. (2015) note that the value chain in food marketing is particularly important because it highlights the extent to which sequential parties within the marketing channel add value to the final product. According to Linder et al. (2018) processing new distribution options often provides additional opportunities available to food marketers to provide the final consumer with convenience. However, when overhead costs such as marketing and processing are added they result in significantly higher costs ( Lou and Kim, 2019 ).

Demographics play an essential role in food marketing almost more than any other product. According to Qobadi and Payton (2017) , food companies must utilize statistical demographics to understand the inherent characteristics of a population. For food marketing purposes, such knowledge can help firms develop a better understanding of the current market place as well as predict future trends ( Isselmann DiSantis et al., 2017 ). For example, with regards to the current market, food companies interested in entering a new market with sports drinks might first study the overall number of people between the ages of 15 and 35, who would constitute a particularly significant market. In such cases, most food companies often prefer shifting their resources toward products consumed by a growing population. As such, the success of the marketing strategy employed by a food company is contingent on how good it studies the demographical makeup of its target market.

Packaging and Delivery Consideration

One of the primary consideration food consumers take into account when making a purchase decision online involves packaging and delivery. According to Chen et al. (2019) , the modern consumer is more interested in food products that utilize sustainable packaging and delivery systems. Hu et al. (2019) add that most customers today are more focused on recyclable packaging systems. Grace (2015) further notes that sustainability is one of the primary sustainability attributes online shoppers look for. For example, over 33% of online consumers believe that packaging and recyclability are more important to them when ordering food items online ( Gutberlet et al., 2013 ). Additionally, 13% of online shoppers cite a lack of packaging information available online, which suggests that there is an existing opportunity for e-retailers to increase their sustainability information ( Quartey et al., 2015 ).

As the world continue grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic, online purchases for fresh food is gradually becoming the norm across the world. As such, food producers must be able to adapt accordingly to take advantage of the emerging market. However, the majority of consumers are still concerned about freshness and food waste ( Yu et al., 2020 ). Unlike in a brick-and-mortar store where shoppers can visibly check the freshness of their produce, this is more difficult with home delivery ( Song et al., 2016 ). Thus, brands must try and opt for packaging that can keep food safe and fresh during transit and displays its freshness to re-assure customers. Moreover, to meet sustainability goals, fresh food brands need to balance the use of more sustainable, recyclable materials, with packaging that continues to extend shelf life and avoid food waste.

Conceptual Analysis for Future Research Propositions

The article review shows that sufficient studies have been conducted on online food shopping. As more people start shopping online, the number of articles on online food shopping is expected to increase. However, despite studies on online food shopping and business models remain rife, there are key gaps in research. These gaps are a result of the majorities of the researchers’ focus on highlighting their perspectives and largely ignore those of the consumers and businesses. Moreover, these studies do not consider crisis (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic) when making these future predictions. The forecasts made about future help in developing a better understanding of the various implications of ordering via mobile apps. Also, it provides a background for examining the emerging technologies in online food ordering. As such, the critical propositions reflected in the literature review propose the following four future research directions.

Value Co-creation With Stakeholders

From a business perspective, getting partners and investors on board is not easy and most restaurants tend to stay away from technology. Thus, the preposition made involves conducting research aimed at developing a better understanding of the customer and business’ perspectives. According to Chen et al. (2018) , setting the commission rates with restaurants is a major problem within the online food industry. Moreover, the majority of startups are depended on restaurants to deliver food at the customer’s doorstep ( Onyeneho and Hedberg, 2013 ). Hwang et al. (2020) argue that relying on technology is not the main focus of a restaurant because preparing food is its main core business. As such, even if an investor trusts a food startup, integrating technology within its business process will always be perceived as a high risk. The lack of sufficient evidence on the business’ perspective toward technology and online platforms make it more difficult for rescuers to tailor their studies to generate crucial insights that help in making better business decisions.

One of the problems identified from the consumer’s perspective is that most of the things mentioned in the online food menus are often not available. Instead, they act as click baits designed to entice online users to continue interacting with their platform and marketing content ( Lara-Navarra et al., 2020 ). In rare cases, some clickbait links often forward online users to pages that require them to make payments, register, or even fill in their payment details. Consequently, a significant communication gap exists between consumers and restaurants while shopping on phone and online. While numerous studies examine the purchase intention of food among online shoppers, few highlight the inherent challenges experienced by consumers as they go about their day.

While it is crucial to investigate both perspectives, more studies need to be conducted on the customer ones. This is because most online businesses often find it difficult to deal with customers, but Ho et al. (2014) note that this is usually because they do not see things from the buyers’ point of view. The authors, however, refutes the popular phrase that “customer is always right” and notes that even when they are completely wrong, they can always win. For example, customers can criticize a business online or even refuse to pay their bills. As such, failing to grasp a customer’s perspective can result in a meltdown with them which is always bad business. It is also essential for future businesses to take into consideration the fact that work is much more enjoyable and profitable when people work alongside the customer rather than against them. Thus, conducting more studies aimed at understanding customers can help develop the necessary recommendations to help businesses see things from their point of view.

One of the ways future studies can explore to better understand the customer’s perspective involves exploring the issues related to empathy. Charles et al. (2018) note that empathy does note naturally to most people but it reinforces one’s ability to understand and share the feelings of a customer by placing themselves in their shoes. Future studies should highlight how online businesses can ask questions about how their current and potential customers would feel in different circumstances. Also, future studies must examine how well online businesses can listen to their customers. Afshar Jahanshahi and Brem (2018) notes that the first step in customer relations involves actively listen to them. Finally, future studies must be able to provide recommendations on how online food businesses can grow trust and show respect to their customers. The prepositions made with regards to the business and customers’ perspective provides the background information for future studies. Also, bridging the current research gaps will help business adopt a more effective online model that maximizes customer satisfaction when purchasing foods. Based on the discussions above, this article suggests the following proposition to both identify the gap in the literature and the corresponding future research directions.

Proposition 1: the design and implementation of online food shopping (eco)systems should engage the consumers and other stakeholders to co-create collective and social values.

Technological Nature

Although smartphone apps provide an efficient way to replace the conventional methods of ordering food through a phone call, there lacks sufficient evidence on the implications of placing orders through them. A partial but potentially important reason is the lack of in-depth and broader understanding of the technology per se . Mobile ordering apps have caused a significant change in food delivery and pickup business ( Onyeneho and Hedberg, 2013 ). With more and more retailers and restaurants adopting these technologies, the modern consumer is willing to place fewer delivery and pickup orders through their phones. Instead, they are now opting to utilize mobile apps. Studies aimed at exploring the implications of food delivery apps help in establishing whether it is hurting or assisting the business. Thus, as a restaurant owner, one has to be careful with regards to utilizing third-party services to do business. For instance, apps such as Uber Eats have endless possibilities as they make delivery faster, for both the customers and the business. However, future studies must examine the potential disadvantages to using such third-party services. Firstly, the added cost of a food delivery app may be prohibitive to most customers. For example, the cost of using services like Uber Eats changes how businesses price their meals. In the end, customers are likely to end up paying more. Thus, future studies have to consider this fact when developing recommendations on how businesses can use food delivery apps without undermining their financial positions. Also, these studies will help show how customers are likely to react to a price surges.

Subsequent studies on the implications of ordering food through mobile apps should also focus on the issues relating to control and accountability. Cecchi and Cavinato (2019) note that some customers have complained about being unable to control the food ordering process. For example, once the customer’s food is in the possession of the Uber driver, there is little left for them to do, which is perceived as a bad thing. Also, Isoni Auad et al. (2018) note that customers lack control over how their drivers handle their food. One of the consequences of being unable to control the process is that when a customer’s food is mishandled or ends up late, the restaurant is the one that is held accountable. Finally, with regards to the implications, future studies must monitor their third party service to safeguard their brand’s reputation. As such, subsequent studies need to ensure that they highlight the importance of maintaining an effective brand image. Mao et al. (2018) recommend online food businesses to monitor how long it takes their delivery people to transport their customers’ food to establish whether it is being handled with the necessary care it deserves. However, more studies are required to highlight the customer’s grievance which can easily fall on the businesses when the delivery issues are ignored.

Despite the various implications of using mobile apps to order food online, there are numerous benefits associated with online models. As such, as the growth of online applications continues, the subsequent studies need to add to the existing literature on the benefits businesses are likely to accrue from adopting such technologies. According to Li et al. (2020) , this trend is a result of the numerous benefits associated with using the apps compared to the conventional methods of shopping over the phone or waiting in line. These benefits are 2-fold, they include benefits to the consumer and the restaurants. Firstly, there are numerous consumer benefits of using mobile ordering apps to purchase food.

Consumers across the world are downloading mobile ordering apps at lightning speed. For example, When Chick-fil-A, one of the largest American fast food restaurant chains, released its first official app, it reached first place in the app store in only 3 days after it was launched. Mayordomo-Martínez et al. (2019) note that these apps are popular for four main reasons. Firstly, customers feel that no one is waiting in line or getting put on hold. Secondly, customers can pick up food on the go. Thirdly, customers get the whole menu right at their fingertips, including items they may not have known existed. Finally, most restaurants award patrons’ loyalty reward points. In most cases, these points are easy to track directly through applications and lead to big savings if the customer order frequently.

The restaurant benefits from the mobile ordering apps too. While these apps may be created for the customer, they achieve some important objectives that can greatly help out the restaurant or retail store as well ( Ferguson and Solo-Gabriele, 2016 ). For example, they can handle more orders as is the case with Chipotle, an American chain of fast-casual restaurants, which claims that it is capable of processing six additional orders every hour when placed through a mobile app ( Ferguson and Solo-Gabriele, 2016 ). Moreover, customers are more likely to spend more through an ordering app than in person because they have more time to decide since the entire menu is in front of them and they typically want to score more reward points. Based on the discussion above, this article made the propositions as follow.

Proposition 2: A better fit between technologies’ and food businesses’ natures could generate better applications for online food shopping.

New Business Models and Finance Systems

Although numerous studies have highlighted the various emerging trends in buying food online, most were conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, future studies need to capture how the pandemic has affected the online ordering industry. Such studies will provide the insights necessary to help the business withstand emerging competition as well as keep up with the ever-changing customer demands and the latest trends and technological advancements. Wang et al. (2020) note that the various responses to the COVID-19 global pandemic will shape the online food delivery industry in 2020 and beyond. Thus, future studies need to identify and critically examine the top online food shopping trends that customers and businesses must remain aware of.

For the better part of the year 2020, global cities have become deserted and shopping malls closed. The restaurant sector is one of the most affected as people are recommended to maintain social distancing and remain at home. As the Coronavirus continue spreading across the world, the pandemic is projected to have more economic implications than undermine global health. Thus, future studies must offer people a glimpse of how lockdowns will affect the online food industry, which is hailed as the future in the restaurant sector. However, even at the current stage of the Covid-19 pandemic lifecycle, several lessons are already emerging from China with regards to how people can cope with the commercial and social disruptions. For example, the pandemic is a key driver for digital technologies.

There are three areas that future studies need to focus on. They include the emergence of digitally enabled delivery systems and consumer comfort with the online food sector. Firstly, the prevalence of digitally enabled delivery systems is expected to grow in the coming years. As such, studies are needed to develop a better understanding of how these online delivery systems will affect the food industry. For example, since the COVID-19 pandemic began, more people than ever before purchase their groceries and other food items online ( Hua and Shaw, 2020 ; Zhang and Ma, 2020 ). This is mainly a result of the growing deployment of digital technologies across the country in an attempt to limit interactions among people and mitigate the spread of the virus. Secondly, subsequent studies must examine the factors affecting consumer comfort within the online world. It is projected that in the next decade, online platforms will transform people’s purchasing behaviors, especially with regards to acquiring food items. Thus, studies are needed to help businesses identify the existing opportunities and mitigate the main threats likely to undermine growth within the online food ordering business. Last but not least, more detailed academic investigation and practical development of payment mechanisms are needed. By its nature, payment mechanisms deal with technological development of payment methods and techniques that constantly try to improve user convenience and experiences of payments. Hence, existing discussions/examinations relied heavily on technical aspects of payment mechanisms (or schemes). However, technologies in business world can generate implications beyond technical dimension, but also in the social, cultural, psychological, and/or even political dimensions (e.g., Yang et al., 2012 ; Koenig-Lewis et al., 2015 ; Nelms et al., 2017 ; Verhoef et al., 2019 ). Hence, interdisciplinary works, either conceptual or empirical, can contribute to the literature for analyzing on more complex dynamics of online payment – not just about the technology/system per se , but also about the ecosystem composed of human, system, and knowledge in it. In sum, the discussions in this section emphasize the importance of business models with high-quality finance (e.g., payment) systems. This article makes the following proposition.

Proposition 3: A business model with sound finance systems becomes the core of a healthy online food ecosystem.

Online-Offline Interactions and Transformations

Shopping food online is viewed by most researchers as one of the biggest disruptions in the supermarket and grocery business models. From smaller stores to fewer discounts and more service and robots, these are just a few of the changes brought about by online platforms ( Kuss and Griffiths, 2011 ). The problem is that few studies are examining whether new disruptions will continue emerging or whether the online food sector has reached maturity. Such studies are necessary because they will help manufacturers and retailers react accordingly. These studies can focus on trying to understand how consumers can purchase food in the future, which can be online or in physical stores or from larger or smaller stores. Some of the research questions can focus on establishing whether future customers will continue buying to take dine at home or consume right on the spot.

Despite the numerous uncertainties, with regards to brick-and-mortar stores, Burgoine et al. (2017) note that they may survive even with the growth and prevalence of online businesses. As such, future studies must explore how changes in e-commerce will affect shoppers and online businesses. Such studies are essential because the current findings on consumer behavior seem to suggest that customers prefer interacting at a physical store by seeing, smelling, and even touching products they find there. Moreover, there is an immediate satisfaction when a customer picks up something. The insights generated from such studies can help retailers establish the inherent need to focus their attention on emotional elements as well as create unique experiences.

Studies focused on making future forecasting will help in understanding how online food platforms can achieve the social roles enjoyed by supermarkets. Otten et al. (2017) note that supermarkets increasingly place their shopper firsts and tap into their individual needs in an attempt to mitigate the rising competition from online shopping. As such, studies must thoroughly analyze the existing demographic data to make future predictions on whether the online food ordering platforms can ever enjoy the same social roles which are currently the precincts of supermarkets. Finally, a sufficient number of studies have predicted that artificial intelligence and robots are likely to take over the responsibilities of human beings within the online food sector. However, while most of these studies make future predictions, they do not take into account how automation and artificial intelligence will help online supermarkets to become more efficient. Thus, subsequent studies should establish a balance between human interaction and automation. This article makes the following proposition according to the discussions here.

Proposition 4: The interaction and transformation between online (virtual) and offline (virtual) food businesses determines the dynamic development of future food shopping.

The majority of studies examining online food shopping have provided sufficient evidence highlighting both the implications and benefits of e-commerce. However, most of these studies generalize all forms of online shopping and ignore the fact that shopping foods online is inherently different from buying other commodities. As such, the comprehensive academic review conducted helps at explicating the significant themes within the current literature. Hence, the critical propositions that reflected from these studies help in proposing the following four future research directions. They include conducting studies to highlight the customer and business’ perspectives, making future predictions, understanding the implications of ordering via mobile apps, and examining the emerging technologies in online food ordering. The academic review and prepositions made are significant to both researchers and online food stores as people across the world start embracing online shopping more than ever before.

Theoretical Implications

To generate theoretical implications in a more holistic and comprehensive level, this article focuses on the inter-relationships between the four propositions derived after our conceptual analysis. To recall, the four propositions are inherently about: engaging stakeholders to co-create values, in-depth understanding of technological natures, well-designed business models and finance systems, and online-offline dynamics. One suggestion for future research directions is to develop a holistic-view, often qualitative investigation of a online food shopping ecosystem that composes of interested stakeholders operating with diverse technological sets embedded in well-designed business models that simultaneously incorporate concerns of both online and offline developments of food shopping. Complexity is a point to be explored but is often oversimplified if we could not take a eco-systematic perspective and analyze for both qualitative-quantitative data sources. For a better theoretical development and practical design, the complexity of a food shopping ecosystem can help identify research questions, sketch phenomenon structures and elements, as well as specify heterogeneous interests for policy making. Following this point, another suggestion for future research directions is to address established issues/research questions through cross-disciplinary explorations. As has been discussed, complexity characterizes modern food shopping system, especially the online one. To explore in-depth knowledge of complexity, single disciplinary system of thoughts might limit the imaginations one can create. A cross-discipline approach for studies on online food shopping can both offer fresh explanations for unanswered questions or that in tension, and also help identifying unnoticed phenomenon for further exploration.

Practical Implications

For online retailers, conceptual analyses and the four resulting propositions can generate practical implications too. First, when designing a online food shopping business/system, practitioners need to adopt an ecosystem viewpoint to prevent incomplete thinking and ignorance of any stakeholder’s opinion. Second, practitioners need to take care of the interfaces between the virtual and physical sub-systems even if it is an online food shopping ecosystem. By considering the interfaces between the sub-systems, not just connection and coordination works would be cared about, but also transformation work should be articulated. For example, the transformation of values in the process flows between material (e.g., food products), informational/technological (safety labels; blockchain applications in supply chain communications; human-machines interface in online purchase procedures, etc.), financial (budgeting; pricing; payment, etc.), human (i.e., stakeholders), and other sub-systems should be implemented with a fully consistent and engaging logic.


In nature, a conceptual analysis is done without empirical and original data collection. However, this article has tried to avoid such inherent limitation by conducting the conceptual analysis with as many practical examples as possible. Additionally, our analysis focuses on the online shopping for foods only. Future studies can also take a similar approach but discuss other characterized industries, such as online shopping for precious metals, intangible services, and so on. Also, our focus on food is limited to foods in general. Future studies can be more detailed, by characterizing more for different food categories (e.g., organic vs. non-organic foods).

Author Contributions

C-FL was the major author of this article. C-HL reviewed and revised the manuscript. Both authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Keywords : online food shopping, conceptual analysis, future research, propositions, theory and practice

Citation: Liu C-F and Lin C-H (2020) Online Food Shopping: A Conceptual Analysis for Research Propositions. Front. Psychol. 11:583768. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.583768

Received: 15 July 2020; Accepted: 26 August 2020; Published: 16 September 2020.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2020 Liu and Lin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Chi-Fang Liu, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


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Fact Sheet: Presidential Proclamation to Suspend and Limit Entry and Joint DHS-DOJ Interim Final Rule to Restrict Asylum During High Encounters at the Southern Border

Today, the Biden-Harris Administration took decisive new action to strengthen border security, announcing a series of measures that restrict asylum eligibility, and significantly increase the consequences for those who enter without authorization across the southern border. These extraordinary steps, which will be in effect during times when high levels of encounters exceed our ability to deliver timely consequences, will make noncitizens who enter across the southern border ineligible for asylum with certain exceptions, raise the standard that is used to screen for certain protection claims, and speed up our ability to quickly remove those who do not qualify for protection.

These actions follow a series of steps that the Administration has taken over the past three years as it prepared for the end of the Title 42 public health Order, and since it was lifted last year, including surging personnel, infrastructure, and technology to the border, issuing the Circumvention of Lawful Pathways Rule, and referring record numbers of noncitizens into expedited removal. Over the past year, we have removed or returned more than three quarters of a million people, more than in any fiscal year since 2010. Despite these efforts, our outdated and broken immigration and asylum system, coupled with a lack of sufficient funding, make it impossible to quickly impose consequences on all noncitizens who cross irregularly and without a legal basis to remain in the United States.

The Administration has repeatedly called on Congress to provide the resources and legal authorities needed to secure our border. The measures announced today will better enable the Department to quickly remove individuals without a legal basis to remain in the United States, strengthening enforcement and change the calculus for those considering crossing our border irregularly. However, they are no substitute for Congressional action. We continue to call on Congress to provide the new tools and resources we have asked for to support the men and women on the frontlines.

President Biden issued a Presidential Proclamation to temporarily suspend the entry of noncitizens across the southern border. The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Attorney General also jointly issued an interim final rule that, consistent with the Proclamation, generally restricts asylum eligibility for those who irregularly enter across the southern border – including the Southwest land and the southern coastal borders. The rule also limits fear screenings to those who manifest a fear or express a desire to file for protection and heightens the screening standard for statutory withholding and claims under the Convention Against Torture. Taken together, these measures will significantly increase the speed and scope of consequences for those who cross our borders irregularly or who attempt to present themselves at Ports of Entry without authorization, allowing the Departments to more quickly remove individuals who do not establish a legal basis to remain in the United States. The restriction on asylum eligibility will be discontinued when encounters fall below certain levels but will come back into effect if encounters rise again.

The rule makes three key changes to current processing under Title 8 immigration authorities during periods of high border encounters:

  • First, noncitizens who cross the southern border unlawfully or without authorization will generally be ineligible for asylum, absent exceptionally compelling circumstances and unless they are excepted by the Proclamation.
  • Second, noncitizens who cross the southern border and are processed for expedited removal while the limitation is in effect will only be referred for a credible fear screening with an Asylum Officer if they manifest or express a fear of return to their country or country of removal, a fear of persecution or torture, or an intention to apply for asylum.  
  • Third, the U.S. will continue to adhere to its international obligations and commitments by screening individuals who manifest a fear as noted above and do not qualify for an exception to the Rule for withholding of removal and Convention Against Torture protections at a reasonable probability of persecution or torture standard – a new, substantially higher standard than is currently applied under the Circumvention of Lawful Pathways rule.  

Like the Proclamation, the rule provides for an end to these enhanced measures following a sustained reduction in southern border encounters. Specifically, these measures are in effect until 14 calendar days after there has been a 7-consecutive-calendar-day average of less than 1,500 encounters between the ports of entry. The measures would again go into effect, or continue, as appropriate, when there has been a 7-consecutive-calendar-day average of 2,500 encounters or more.

During periods of high encounters, the Proclamation will apply across the southern border. Lawful permanent residents, unaccompanied children, victims of a severe form of trafficking, and other noncitizens with a valid visa or other lawful permission to enter the United States are excepted from the Proclamation.

In addition, the suspension and limitation on entry and rule will not apply to noncitizens who use a Secretary-approved process—such as the CBP One mobile app—to enter the United States at a port of entry in a safe and orderly manner or pursue another lawful pathway.

Noncitizens who cross the southern border and who are not excepted from the Proclamation will be ineligible for asylum unless exceptionally compelling circumstances exist, including if the noncitizen demonstrates that they or a member of their family with whom they are traveling:

  • faced an acute medical emergency;
  • faced an imminent and extreme threat to life or safety, such as an imminent threat of rape, kidnapping, torture, or murder; or
  • satisfied the definition of “victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons” currently provided in 8 CFR 214.11.


Noncitizens who are subject to the rule’s limitation on asylum eligibility and who manifest or express a fear of return to their country or country of removal, express a fear of persecution or torture or an intention to apply for asylum, but do not establish a reasonable probability of persecution or torture in the country of removal will be promptly removed.

Those ordered removed will be subject to at least a five-year bar to reentry and potential criminal prosecution.

The Proclamation and rule will significantly enhance the security of our border by increasing the Departments’ ability to impose swift consequences for individuals who cross the southern border irregularly and do not establish a legal basis to remain in the United States.  Together, the Proclamation and rule make critical changes to how the Departments operate during times when encounters are at historically high levels—levels that, in the absence of these changes, undermine the government’s ability to process individuals through the expedited removal process. These changes will enable the Departments to quickly return those without a lawful basis to stay in the United States and thereby free up the asylum system for those with legitimate claims.

These extraordinary measures are a stop gap. Even with these measures in place, the Departments continue to lack the authorities and resources needed to adequately support the men and women on the frontlines. The Administration again calls on Congress to take up and pass the bipartisan reforms proposed in the Senate, which provide the new authorities, personnel, and resources that are needed to address the historic global migration that is impacting countries throughout the world, including our own. Until Congress does its part, we will continue to take any actions needed under current law and within existing resources to secure the border.

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Canada’s Extremist Attack on Free Speech

A bill making its way through the Canadian Parliament would impose draconian criminal penalties on hate speech and curtail people’s liberty in order to stop crimes they haven’t yet committed.

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In 1984 , George Orwell coined the term thoughtcrime . In the short story “The Minority Report,” the science-fiction author Philip K. Dick gave us the concept of “precrime,” describing a society where would-be criminals were arrested before they could act. Now Canada is combining the concepts in a work of dystopian nonfiction: A bill making its way through Parliament would impose draconian criminal penalties on hate speech and curtail people’s liberty in order to stop future crimes they haven’t yet committed.

The Online Harms Act states that any person who advocates for or promotes genocide is “liable to imprisonment for life.” It defines lesser “hate crimes” as including online speech that is “likely to foment detestation or vilification” on the basis of race, religion, gender, or other protected categories. And if someone “fears” they may become a victim of a hate crime, they can go before a judge, who may summon the preemptively accused for a sort of precrime trial. If the judge finds “reasonable grounds” for the fear, the defendant must enter into “a recognizance.”

A recognizance is no mere promise to refrain from committing hate crimes. The judge may put the defendant under house arrest or electronic surveillance and order them to abstain from alcohol and drugs. Refusal to “enter the recognizance” for one year results in 12 months in prison.

This is madness.

The proposed law, the result of efforts that began in 2019 after a terrorist attack in New Zealand, does many other things too. One section concerns the obligations of online platforms to police content. Another bears on the worthy goal of protecting children from viewing pornography and stopping the distribution of child-sexual-abuse material, raising the odds that the bill will pass with too little attention to its worst provisions. (In February, it passed its first reading in the House of Commons. Becoming law would require a second and third reading in that body, where amendments can be proposed; passage in the national Senate; and approval by the governor general .)

Even the bill’s most Orwellian sections have powerful supporters. Justin Trudeau’s government brought the bill before Parliament. Arif Virani , Canada’s minister of justice and attorney general, is championing it. “We need the ability to stop an anticipated hate crime from occurring,” he declared last week. “The Conservatives need to get on board. Now.” According to The New York Times , some version of the bill is likely to pass, because “Trudeau’s Liberal Party has an agreement with an opposition party to support government legislation.”

Ali Breland: The MAGA internet calls for war

Just countries do not punish mere speech with imprisonment, let alone life imprisonment. Just countries do not order people who have not committed and are not even accused of a crime to be confined to their home or tracked with an ankle bracelet. I have reasonable grounds to fear that the Trudeau government is going to trample on the civil rights of Canadians. That is hardly sufficient to secure the house arrest of its officials.

Earlier this year, the Canadian Civil Liberties Association urged substantial amendments to the legislation. “The broad criminal prohibitions on speech in the bill risk stifling public discourse and criminalizing political activism,” it warned. “The bill imposes draconian penalties for certain types of expression, including life imprisonment for a very broad and vaguely defined offence of ‘incitement to genocide,’ and 5 years of jail time for other broadly defined speech acts. This not only chills free speech but also undermines the principles of proportionality and fairness in our legal system.”

But amendments would not go far enough. No one who favors allowing the state to imprison people for mere speech, or severely constraining a person’s liberty in anticipation of alleged hate speech they have yet to utter , is fit for leadership in a liberal democracy. Every elected official who has supported the unamended bill should be ousted at the next opportunity by voters who grasp the fraught, authoritarian folly of this extremist proposal.

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The best rosés and white wines to order online this fall.

We've rounded up the best vino — the majority from California’s own Napa, Santa Ynez and Santa Maria Valleys — to try this season, plus chic wine accessories to keep the sips flowing.

By Elycia Rubin

Elycia Rubin

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“Rosé All Day” may be the quintessential summer mantra, but fall is just as good a time to indulge in a glass of liquid sunshine. As we move past a record-breaking season of soaring temperatures and into autumn (where the heat often continues through October in Los Angeles), some of the best wines prove that vino is a year-round indulgence.

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The best online wine clubs let you order your favorite best-sellers or try new bottles from rising wineries (assuming you’re 21 and up). Among them are , the Wall Street Journal ‘s WSJWine (get 12 bottles and two stemless glasses for $70), Bright Cellars (your first six bottles are only $55) and Wine Access (offerings include wine selections from Michelin-starred restaurants). Brick-and-mortar retailers and on-demand delivery services such as Total Wine and GoPuff (which delivers from BevMo) will also bring bottles (or boxes) of vino straight to your door — allowing you to focus on crafting that cheese board or prepping for guests.

Fortunately, some of the world’s most desirable wine destinations — Napa, Santa Ynez and Santa Maria Valleys are in California where coveted vintages co-mingle with sybaritic hotels evoking a sense of place and award-winning chef-lead restaurants. Keep reading for some of the best wines and chic wine accessories you can order online, plus the best wineries and tasting rooms to visit the next time you decide to pick up these bottles IRL.

The Best Wines and Wine Accessories to Order Online

Hampton water.

A collaboration between Jon Bon Jovi, Jesse Bongiovi, Ali Thomas, and acclaimed French winemaker Gérard Bertrand, Hampton Water is a blend of Grenache, Cinsault and Mourvèdre with strawberry and melon notes. Celebrating the joie de vivre of both the South of France and the Hamptons, expect a dry, mineral finish.

Flowers Sonoma Coast 2021 Chardonnay

Thanks to the estate’s proximity to the Pacific Ocean and a cool growing season, this expressive chardonnay from Flowers Vineyards & Winery is brimming with cool coastal influence. Intermingled flavors of pear, citrus, and layers of stone fruit, vanilla and herbs, along with vibrant minerality offer a delicious mouthfeel and decadent finish.

Coravin Timeless Three+ Wine Preservation System

If you’re going to splurge on a delicious bottle of vino, you might as well make it last with Coravin’s best-selling wine preservation system . One of Oprah’s Favorite Things in 2022 , Coravin’s wine aerator uses argon gas capsules to keep your wine fresh for weeks.

Zwiesel Glas Pure Tritan Crystal Stemware Collection Glassware

Brümate togosa wine chiller.

Keep your wine cold for 48 hours or more with Brümate’s leak-proof Togosa chiller and pitcher , which features a built-in strainer and fits most bottles.

Wölffer Estate Summer In A Bottle Côtes de Provence

From the beloved Sagaponack-based winery in Southampton with a cult-worthy following, lively floral notes dance with peach, tangerine, citrus and a saline acidity in Wölffer Estate’s soft mouthfeel blend . It also happens to be housed in one of the prettiest, statement-making bottles.

So Gay Rosé Zero Sugar Rosé

Yes, you read the name right — so what? So Gay Rosé’s zero sugar rosé has a light and crisp notes of citrus and floral balanced with tart grapefruit and berries.

Daou 2022 Discovery Rosé

Made from Grenache grapes, Daou’s delicate and juicy rosé , made in the classic Provençale style, has aromas of peach, apricot, watermelon, and nectarine accompanied by essences of strawberry and cherry.

Williams Sonoma Marble Wine Stoppers

Who says wine storage can’t be stylish? This trio of sculptural marble wine stoppers from Williams Sonoma is sure to impress your guests.

Sangiacomo 2022 Vin Gris of Pinot Noir Rosé

This utterly silky vintage is from the legendary Sangiacomo family who have been farming in Sonoma County since 1927. Their prized grapes come from vineyards that are 100 percent certified sustainable. Bountiful aromas of strawberry, raspberry and Meyer lemon dance on the palate. A classically dry yet generous wine.

Carter Estate 2021 Chardonnay

For those who appreciate a balance of fruit and oak, this chardonnay from the bustling Temecula Valley wine region was aged for 10 months in French oak barrels and offers vanilla and toasted nut characteristics along with aromatic notes of luscious tropical fruits and apple.

Newness in Napa Valley

Revered for some of the most desired vintages outside of France, this beloved wine region, just an hour north of San Francisco, oozes casual luxury. Whether strolling the impossibly quaint town of St. Helena, tasting at one of the over 400 wineries or dining at Michelin-starred restaurants, a Napa Valley getaway always mesmerizes — even if you’re not an oenophile

It’s the enchanting views that permeate every inch of this hillside haven. And, nowhere more so than at the “Main House” — home to Michelin-starred The Restaurant and The Bar , both of which have just unveiled a striking redesign putting natural light and those aforementioned views center stage. Dramatic floor-to-ceiling, steel-framed windows instantly treat visitors to the sun-drenched vistas the moment they step into the foyer. Even if you’re not staying on property, breakfast, dinner or cocktails on the terrace are a prerequisite for any Napa itinerary.

Memorable culinary experiences abound whether you engage in one of chef Robert Curry’s Mediterranean-inspired tasting menus at The Restaurant or indulge in more casual fare at The Bar with a platter of oysters, fries and an opulent glass of wine suggested by French-trained sommelier and assistant wine director, Myles Trapp.

The Bar is also where the property’s redesign offers the most enticing change — bathed in natural light, a masterful repositioning has opened up the entire interior space. Now facing out toward the outdoor terrace, you may sip bubbles or rosé while relishing those celebrated views. A nine-foot iron spiral chandelier serves at the centerpiece amidst a Cielo quartzite bar top with soothing shades of blue and green adjacent to floating, back-lit glass shelves. The Bar is an idyllic spot to while away an afternoon or evening of thoroughly majestic dining and imbibing.

The Best Napa Valley White and Rosé Wines

Robert mondavi 2018 napa valley chardonnay.

Establishing his eponymous winery in Napa in 1966, Robert Mondavi pioneered winemaking in Napa Valley and paved the way for the area to become one of the world’s leading winemaking regions. The 2018 Napa Valley chardonnay is richly textured with aromas of red apple, pear, lemon and marzipan. Mondavi continues to evolve and flourish with the opening of Arch & Tower (930 3rd St.), their new tasting room, housed in the historic Borreo Building in downtown Napa Valley where immersive wine and culinary experiences are plentiful.

Burgess Cellars 2021 Sauvignon Blanc

Founded by Tom Burgess in the 1970s, Burgess Cellars was sold to The Lawrence family, owners of Heitz Cellar, in 2020. With new ceo and master sommelier Carlton McCoy at the helm, Burgess continues to blaze a new path with a contemporary brand identity that pays homage to its heritage, including a dazzling new hospitality space on the Silverado Trail in the Oak Knoll District. Complete with an abundance of indoor and outdoor garden spaces designed for relishing their sophisticated wines, this historic estate immerses visitors in a warm, refined ambiance (the hidden speakeasy-inspired private tasting room is something to behold). Crafted by winemaker Meghan Zobeck, their 100 percent sauvignon blanc with bright acidity offers notes of lemongrass and grapefruit and is a delight to savor while lounging on the expansive veranda with views of the surrounding vineyard where regenerative farming takes center stage.

Ashes & Diamonds 2022 Rosé No. 8

With a striking midcentury modern Palm Springs aesthetic, Ashes & Diamonds reigns as the hippest winery in Napa. Not to be missed are their wine and cheese or food experiences prepared by their in-house chefs. From former music industry advertising executive Kashy Khaledi, son of Darioush Khaledi (owner of Darioush Winery), expect classic, single vineyard wines. This lovely rosé is made of cabernet franc from local vineyards with notes of lime, Meyer lemon and heaps of mineral expression.

Realm Cellars 2022 Fidelio Sauvignon Blanc

The only white wine in Realm’s portfolio, the Fidelio sauvignon blanc is referred to as “a white wine for red wine lovers.” Thanks to cool-climate grapes and aging in three separate vessels (neutral oak, concrete eggs and terracotta amphoras), this impressive sauvignon blanc is beautifully structured with medium body acidity, tropical fruits, and a silky mouthfeel — a wine certain to make any gathering even more memorable.

Another new and meaningful highlight is the community-driven Three Dreamers Farmstand selling locally grown fruits, vegetables, and indigenous goods by local artisans where a portion of the proceeds benefit Martha’s Farm Animal Sanctuary — a serene private refuge founded and lovingly operated by acclaimed television casting director Nikki Valko Patterson and husband John Patterson, providing a deeply caring, expansive home to dozens of neglected farm animals.

Discover two big bonuses just steps away — the fresh debut of Giorgio’s at The Lot is a two-minute stroll down the main road. Serving up salads, pizzas and sandwiches, visitors may enjoy chef Giorgio Curti’s light Italian fare, this being his second location in Santa Ynez, amidst a rustic and lively outdoor setting. And, further up from Giorgio’s, the Gleason Family Vineyards has unveiled an alluring new expansion of their circa 1900s Refugio Ranch tasting room including outdoor spaces for entertaining, a farm stand featuring organic goodies from their farm and an indoor marketplace with coffee, olive oils and bath and body products, many of which come from local artisans.

The Best Santa Ynez Valley White and Rosé Wines to Try

Margerum sybarite sauvignon blanc.

Doug Margerum has always been at the forefront of spectacular wine and food. From launching Santa Barbara’s Wine Cask restaurant in 1981 and establishing it as the region’s epicenter of culinary mastery while helping build global awareness for Central Coast winemakers, to the 2001 debut of Margerum Wine Company and a downtown Santa Barbara tasting room perched in the Funk Zone. This renowned sybarite’s latest venture is a second tasting room in Los Olivos where you can enjoy his appropriately branded Sybarite sauvignon blanc alongside oysters and/or a bento box with such delicacies as Buri sashimi yellowtail with yuzu kosho and Dungeness crab baked with vanilla bean sauce in what is one of the most exceptional wine pairing offerings in Santa Ynez Valley. Layered with characteristics of melon, slate, grapefruit, and pineapple with notes of lemongrass, this lush wine is a classic Loire-style sauvignon blanc certain to beguile any oenophile.

Kings Carey 2021 Sémillon

With a new tasting room in Solvang and continual praise for his lush yet straightforward wines, James Sparks, who is also the winemaker for Liquid Farm, has much to celebrate. A highly versatile yet lesser-known wine that ages beautifully, his formidable sémillon (with grapes sourced from Star Lane Vineyard), is zippy with notes of lemon and herbs and distinct minerality. A delight anytime, anywhere.

Donnachadh 2023 Estate Rosé of Syrah

Ernst Storm, who is best known for his extoled Storm Wines, is making noise as the resident winemaker at Donnachadh (pronounced donna-kuh). Organically farmed and family-owned by Drew and Laurie Duncan,  Donnachadh Vineyard is perched in the Santa Rita Hills where they grow pinot noir, chardonnay, syrah and gamay noir. This beautifully structured rosé from 100 percent cool-climate syrah bursts with intense flavors of watermelon and strawberry along with hints of citrus and a dash of sea salt.

Waylan Wine Co. 2021 Chenin Blanc

Part of the Saarloos + Sons family of farmers and winemakers now four generations in the making, Waylan Wine Co. was conceived by Brad and Greg Saarloos. Wine making is a true family affair here and includes the brothers’ incomparable cousin Zach, who lights up their aesthetically hip Los Olivos tasting room with his lively and gracious personality. This crisp chenin blanc exhibits a smooth texture with lemon-lime and stone fruit characteristics and a satisfyingly savory finish.

Carucci 2023 Rosé

Self-taught winemaker Eric Carucci crafts highly approachable, mainly single-varietal wines and pours them at his charming tasting room in Los Olivos. Acquired from cool-climate biodynamic, organic and sustainable vineyards in the Central Coast, Carucci’s bright 50/50 Mourvedre and Grenache rosé opens with strawberries and rose petals and is layered with hints of luscious tropical fruit and citrus. This is a pale pink pleaser with plenty of gravitas.

Four Brothers 2023 Rosé of Grenache

This boutique, family-owned wine company is from, you guessed it, four brothers. They also have a prime perch for their Los Olivos tasting room, including one of the most charming and spacious outdoor spaces for lounging and imbibing. Thanks to a beautifully soft texture, light minerality and notes of watermelon, strawberry and hints of cotton candy, this impeccably juicy rosé of Grenache is certain to illicit a high dose of “oohs and aahs.”

Burgeoning Santa Maria Valley

When visiting Santa Maria Valley, head straight to Old Town Orcutt . A historic town that was once an epicenter for trade and shipping, this burgeoning hub is brimming with an approachable hometown vibe along with an increasing number of breweries, tasting rooms, bakeries, mom and pop boutiques, and restaurants. There’s even a 12-room boutique hotel, Wine Stone Inn (255 W. Clark Ave., from $269 per night; more booking options at and ) with modern guestrooms and a buzzing scene at the lobby bar. Pizzeria Bello Forno (119 E. Clark Ave.) is also a quick stroll away where you can choose from an abundance of knockout pizzas, including pear and prosciutto, cooked up in their authentic wood fired oven. Not to be missed is traditional Santa Maria-style BBQ and you’ll discover some of the best at Far Western Tavern (300 E. Clark Ave.)

Santa Maria Valley White and Rosé Wines

Riverbench 2019 bedrock chardonnay.

With one of the most peaceful, tree-cloaked wine tasting settings in Santa Maria Valley, Riverbench (located on the famed Foxen Canyon Wine Trail ) showcases the purity of the Chardonnay grape in all its versatile glory with this no oak, stainless steel fermented gem. Crisp with notes of pear, white melon and a touch of cream, this harmonious chard never fails to captivate.

Bien Nacido Chardonnay

Not only does Bien Nacido, which is owned by the Miller family, produce their own robust collection of cherished estate wines, they also supply their coveted grapes to many other leading wineries including Au Bon Climat and Qupé. Located in a highly desirable, cool-climate region of Santa Maria AVA, Bien Nacido remains one of the most prolific and influential vineyards in the wine industry. Along with the original 1857 adobe that adorns the property, Bien Nacido is now officially open to the public with the debut of the aforementioned The Gatehouse . This is where visitors may now relish their vast collection of illustrious wines including this chardonnay that offers notes of lemon, fresh fruit and chamomile with beautiful richness and mineral character.

Presqu’ile 2023 Sauvignon Blanc

Rolling hills and vast vineyard views are the backdrop for the exceptionally sleek modern structure that is the Presqu’ile (press-keel) hospitality space, complete with a hilltop setting, cut stone walls and vaulted ceilings. Many wineries offer food and wine experiences , but Presqui’le’s is one of the most notable thanks to resident chef Julie Simon’s culinary prowess. Their mezze platter of five to six dishes (with many ingredients sourced from the on-site organic farm) is a spectacle. Inspired by the flavors and abundance of each season, it pairs perfectly with their elegant, cool-climate wines, including this vivacious, 100 percent estate fruit sauv blanc bursting with citrus fruit, green herbs, lime zest and mineral zing.

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ATLANTA (AP) — An appeals court has halted the Georgia election interference case against former President Donald Trump and others while it reviews the lower court judge’s ruling allowing Fulton County District Attorney Fani Willis to remain on the case.

The Georgia Court of Appeals’ order on Wednesday prevents Fulton County Superior Court Judge Scott McAfee from moving forward with pretrial motions as he had planned while the appeal is pending. While it was already unlikely that the case would go to trial before the November general election, when Trump is expected to be the Republican nominee for president, this makes that even more certain.

The appeals court on Monday docketed the appeals filed by Trump and eight others and said that “if oral argument is requested and granted” it is tentatively scheduled for Oct. 4. The court will then have until mid-March to rule, and the losing side will be able to appeal to the Georgia Supreme Court.

A spokesperson for Willis declined to comment on the appeals court ruling.

A Fulton County grand jury in August indicted Trump and 18 others, accusing them of participating in a sprawling scheme to illegally try to overturn the 2020 presidential election in Georgia. Four defendants have pleaded guilty after reaching deals with prosecutors, but Trump and the others have pleaded not guilty. It is one of four criminal cases against Trump .

Trump and eight other defendants had tried to get Willis and her office removed from the case, arguing that a romantic relationship she had with special prosecutor Nathan Wade created a conflict of interest. McAfee in March found that no conflict of interest existed that should force Willis off the case, but he granted a request from Trump and the other defendants to seek an appeal of his ruling from the state Court of Appeals.

McAfee wrote that “an odor of mendacity remains.” He said “reasonable questions” over whether Willis and Wade had testified truthfully about the timing of their relationship “further underpin the finding of an appearance of impropriety and the need to make proportional efforts to cure it.” He said Willis could remain on the case only if Wade left, and the special prosecutor submitted his resignation hours later.

The allegations that Willis had improperly benefited from her romance with Wade resulted in a tumultuous couple of months in the case as intimate details of Willis and Wade’s personal lives were aired in court in mid-February .

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  14. An Online Food Ordering System System Documentation

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    restaurant's online ordering s ystem is intended for independent and multi -location chains that. offer food to go, including eateries, fast food outlets, take-out, and other catering services ...

  26. The Best Wines to Order Online for Fall 2023: Rose, Chardonnay

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  29. Chapter 1: Scope and Limitations of an Online Ordering System

    Chapter 1: Scope and Limitations of an Online Ordering System The researchers aim to develop an electronic-based ordering for Ralen Trading since they are still using a manual system in their transactions, payments and even in generating reports. The system will consist of some significant modules in order to satisfy the company's needs as ...

  30. (PDF) A Study on Perception of Customers Towards Online ...

    246 (100%) The Number of Users of Online food delivery services among women are 93 (65.49%) and that of. Males are 72 (69.23%), the total being 165 Users. That means around 34.51% of Females and ...