research papers for financial accounting

Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting

Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting deals with research involving the interaction of finance with accounting, economics and quantitative methods, focused on finance and accounting. The papers published present useful theoretical and methodological results with the support of interesting empirical applications. Purely theoretical and methodological research with the potential for important applications is also published. Besides the traditional high-quality, theoretical and empirical research in finance, the journal also publishes papers dealing with interdisciplinary topics.

Subjects of interest may include, but are not limited to:

  • Financial accounting which uses financial and economic theory and/or methodology;
  • Managerial accounting and auditing which use financial and economic theory and/or methodology to deal with internal accounting data and decision making;
  • Macro-economics which uses finance theory and/or methodology to analyze fiscal and/or monetary policies;
  • Managerial economics which uses financial theory and/or methodology to analyze the decisions of a firm.

Officially cited as: Rev Quant Finance Account

  • Cheng-Few Lee

research papers for financial accounting

Latest issue

Volume 62, Issue 3

Latest articles

Reduced disclosure and default risk: analysis of smaller reporting companies.

research papers for financial accounting

Regulatory and contextual factors influencing earnings and capital management decisions: evidence from the European banking sector

  • Raffaela Casciello
  • Marco Maffei
  • David A. Ziebart

research papers for financial accounting

The scorching temperatures shock effect on firms’ performance: a global perspective

  • Chai Liang Huang
  • Lai Ferry Sugianto

research papers for financial accounting

  • Tasawar Nawaz

research papers for financial accounting

Bank intervention and firms’ earnings management: evidence from debt covenant violations

  • Yichu Huang
  • Frank Hong Liu

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research papers for financial accounting

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Financial Accounting Research, Practice, and Financial Accountability

Financial accounting is essential to financial accountability, which is essential to a prosperous society. There are many examples of how improvements to financial accounting, supported by research, have enhanced financial accountability. Such research requires a strong relation between accounting academics and practice; this relation has ebbed and flowed during the life of Abacus. The relation seems to ebb when accounting academics embrace related fields and flows when the relevance to accounting practice emerges. Economics and finance have provided new perspectives and meaningful insights about the information investors need to make informed decisions. Regardless, there are many intriguing and open questions awaiting accounting research that can provide insights into how financial accounting—and thus financial accountability—can be improved. The future is bright for financial accounting researchers who do research relevant to accounting practice and want to contribute to a prosperous society.

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research papers for financial accounting

  • 23 Jan 2024

More Than Memes: NFTs Could Be the Next Gen Deed for a Digital World

Non-fungible tokens might seem like a fad approach to selling memes, but the concept could help companies open new markets and build communities. Scott Duke Kominers and Steve Kaczynski go beyond the NFT hype in their book, The Everything Token.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 12 Sep 2023
  • Research & Ideas

How Can Financial Advisors Thrive in Shifting Markets? Diversify, Diversify, Diversify

Financial planners must find new ways to market to tech-savvy millennials and gen Z investors or risk irrelevancy. Research by Marco Di Maggio probes the generational challenges that advisory firms face as baby boomers retire. What will it take to compete in a fintech and crypto world?

research papers for financial accounting

  • 17 Aug 2023

‘Not a Bunch of Weirdos’: Why Mainstream Investors Buy Crypto

Bitcoin might seem like the preferred tender of conspiracy theorists and criminals, but everyday investors are increasingly embracing crypto. A study of 59 million consumers by Marco Di Maggio and colleagues paints a shockingly ordinary picture of today's cryptocurrency buyer. What do they stand to gain?

research papers for financial accounting

  • 17 Jul 2023

Money Isn’t Everything: The Dos and Don’ts of Motivating Employees

Dangling bonuses to checked-out employees might only be a Band-Aid solution. Brian Hall shares four research-based incentive strategies—and three perils to avoid—for leaders trying to engage the post-pandemic workforce.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 20 Jun 2023
  • Cold Call Podcast

Elon Musk’s Twitter Takeover: Lessons in Strategic Change

In late October 2022, Elon Musk officially took Twitter private and became the company’s majority shareholder, finally ending a months-long acquisition saga. He appointed himself CEO and brought in his own team to clean house. Musk needed to take decisive steps to succeed against the major opposition to his leadership from both inside and outside the company. Twitter employees circulated an open letter protesting expected layoffs, advertising agencies advised their clients to pause spending on Twitter, and EU officials considered a broader Twitter ban. What short-term actions should Musk take to stabilize the situation, and how should he approach long-term strategy to turn around Twitter? Harvard Business School assistant professor Andy Wu and co-author Goran Calic, associate professor at McMaster University’s DeGroote School of Business, discuss Twitter as a microcosm for the future of media and information in their case, “Twitter Turnaround and Elon Musk.”

research papers for financial accounting

  • 06 Jun 2023

The Opioid Crisis, CEO Pay, and Shareholder Activism

In 2020, AmerisourceBergen Corporation, a Fortune 50 company in the drug distribution industry, agreed to settle thousands of lawsuits filed nationwide against the company for its opioid distribution practices, which critics alleged had contributed to the opioid crisis in the US. The $6.6 billion global settlement caused a net loss larger than the cumulative net income earned during the tenure of the company’s CEO, which began in 2011. In addition, AmerisourceBergen’s legal and financial troubles were accompanied by shareholder demands aimed at driving corporate governance changes in companies in the opioid supply chain. Determined to hold the company’s leadership accountable, the shareholders launched a campaign in early 2021 to reject the pay packages of executives. Should the board reduce the executives’ pay, as of means of improving accountability? Or does punishing the AmerisourceBergen executives for paying the settlement ignore the larger issue of a business’s responsibility to society? Harvard Business School professor Suraj Srinivasan discusses executive compensation and shareholder activism in the context of the US opioid crisis in his case, “The Opioid Settlement and Controversy Over CEO Pay at AmerisourceBergen.”

research papers for financial accounting

  • 16 May 2023
  • In Practice

After Silicon Valley Bank's Flameout, What's Next for Entrepreneurs?

Silicon Valley Bank's failure in the face of rising interest rates shook founders and funders across the country. Julia Austin, Jeffrey Bussgang, and Rembrand Koning share key insights for rattled entrepreneurs trying to make sense of the financing landscape.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 27 Apr 2023

Equity Bank CEO James Mwangi: Transforming Lives with Access to Credit

James Mwangi, CEO of Equity Bank, has transformed lives and livelihoods throughout East and Central Africa by giving impoverished people access to banking accounts and micro loans. He’s been so successful that in 2020 Forbes coined the term “the Mwangi Model.” But can we really have both purpose and profit in a firm? Harvard Business School professor Caroline Elkins, who has spent decades studying Africa, explores how this model has become one that business leaders are seeking to replicate throughout the world in her case, “A Marshall Plan for Africa': James Mwangi and Equity Group Holdings.” As part of a new first-year MBA course at Harvard Business School, this case examines the central question: what is the social purpose of the firm?

research papers for financial accounting

  • 25 Apr 2023

Using Design Thinking to Invent a Low-Cost Prosthesis for Land Mine Victims

Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti (BMVSS) is an Indian nonprofit famous for creating low-cost prosthetics, like the Jaipur Foot and the Stanford-Jaipur Knee. Known for its patient-centric culture and its focus on innovation, BMVSS has assisted more than one million people, including many land mine survivors. How can founder D.R. Mehta devise a strategy that will ensure the financial sustainability of BMVSS while sustaining its human impact well into the future? Harvard Business School Dean Srikant Datar discusses the importance of design thinking in ensuring a culture of innovation in his case, “BMVSS: Changing Lives, One Jaipur Limb at a Time.”

research papers for financial accounting

  • 18 Apr 2023

What Happens When Banks Ditch Coal: The Impact Is 'More Than Anyone Thought'

Bank divestment policies that target coal reduced carbon dioxide emissions, says research by Boris Vallée and Daniel Green. Could the finance industry do even more to confront climate change?

research papers for financial accounting

The Best Person to Lead Your Company Doesn't Work There—Yet

Recruiting new executive talent to revive portfolio companies has helped private equity funds outperform major stock indexes, says research by Paul Gompers. Why don't more public companies go beyond their senior executives when looking for top leaders?

research papers for financial accounting

  • 11 Apr 2023

A Rose by Any Other Name: Supply Chains and Carbon Emissions in the Flower Industry

Headquartered in Kitengela, Kenya, Sian Flowers exports roses to Europe. Because cut flowers have a limited shelf life and consumers want them to retain their appearance for as long as possible, Sian and its distributors used international air cargo to transport them to Amsterdam, where they were sold at auction and trucked to markets across Europe. But when the Covid-19 pandemic caused huge increases in shipping costs, Sian launched experiments to ship roses by ocean using refrigerated containers. The company reduced its costs and cut its carbon emissions, but is a flower that travels halfway around the world truly a “low-carbon rose”? Harvard Business School professors Willy Shih and Mike Toffel debate these questions and more in their case, “Sian Flowers: Fresher by Sea?”

research papers for financial accounting

Is Amazon a Retailer, a Tech Firm, or a Media Company? How AI Can Help Investors Decide

More companies are bringing seemingly unrelated businesses together in new ways, challenging traditional stock categories. MarcAntonio Awada and Suraj Srinivasan discuss how applying machine learning to regulatory data could reveal new opportunities for investors.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 07 Apr 2023

When Celebrity ‘Crypto-Influencers’ Rake in Cash, Investors Lose Big

Kim Kardashian, Lindsay Lohan, and other entertainers have been accused of promoting crypto products on social media without disclosing conflicts. Research by Joseph Pacelli shows what can happen to eager investors who follow them.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 31 Mar 2023

Can a ‘Basic Bundle’ of Health Insurance Cure Coverage Gaps and Spur Innovation?

One in 10 people in America lack health insurance, resulting in $40 billion of care that goes unpaid each year. Amitabh Chandra and colleagues say ensuring basic coverage for all residents, as other wealthy nations do, could address the most acute needs and unlock efficiency.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 23 Mar 2023

As Climate Fears Mount, More Investors Turn to 'ESG' Funds Despite Few Rules

Regulations and ratings remain murky, but that's not deterring climate-conscious investors from paying more for funds with an ESG label. Research by Mark Egan and Malcolm Baker sizes up the premium these funds command. Is it time for more standards in impact investing?

research papers for financial accounting

  • 14 Mar 2023

What Does the Failure of Silicon Valley Bank Say About the State of Finance?

Silicon Valley Bank wasn't ready for the Fed's interest rate hikes, but that's only part of the story. Victoria Ivashina and Erik Stafford probe the complex factors that led to the second-biggest bank failure ever.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 13 Mar 2023

What Would It Take to Unlock Microfinance's Full Potential?

Microfinance has been seen as a vehicle for economic mobility in developing countries, but the results have been mixed. Research by Natalia Rigol and Ben Roth probes how different lending approaches might serve entrepreneurs better.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 16 Feb 2023

ESG Activists Met the Moment at ExxonMobil, But Did They Succeed?

Engine No. 1, a small hedge fund on a mission to confront climate change, managed to do the impossible: Get dissident members on ExxonMobil's board. But lasting social impact has proved more elusive. Case studies by Mark Kramer, Shawn Cole, and Vikram Gandhi look at the complexities of shareholder activism.

research papers for financial accounting

  • 07 Feb 2023

Supervisor of Sandwiches? More Companies Inflate Titles to Avoid Extra Pay

What does an assistant manager of bingo actually manage? Increasingly, companies are falsely classifying hourly workers as managers to avoid paying an estimated $4 billion a year in overtime, says research by Lauren Cohen.

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Analytical study of financial accounting and management trends based on the internet era.

College of Accountancy, Shanxi Technology and Business College, Taiyuan 030000, Shanxi, China

Associated Data

The experimental data used to support the findings of this study are available from the author upon request.

With the development of Internet technology and computer technology, the network has provided convenience to enterprises while putting forward new requirements for the development of the accounting industry. The combination of traditional financial accounting methods and computerized information technology enables accurate and rapid transmission of financial data. At the same time, the application of network technology optimizes the financial accounting process of enterprises and greatly improves the efficiency of accounting work and accountants can devote more time and energy to the analysis of enterprise financial information. However, with the application of Internet technology, the change in financial accounting has also generated new problems. The article focuses on the topic of financial accounting; first, it briefly introduces the development history of financial accounting and the Internet; second, it discusses the changes in accounting work mode and its characteristics under the network environment and analyzes the advantages and problems of combining network technology and financial accounting; and finally, it puts forward the countermeasures to solve the “Internet+” era financial accounting work for the current situation. Finally, the countermeasures to solve the financial accounting work in the era of “Internet+” are proposed to improve the professional ability of financial personnel.

1. Introduction

Compared with the previous enterprise financial management work, financial management in the Internet era has distinct advantages, which effectively expands the scope of enterprise financial management and allows comprehensive supervision of the entire financial management work [ 1 ]. In the Internet era, corporate financial management generates more information and requires rapid transmission of information in a short period of time [ 2 ]. If they want to meet the development needs of the times, enterprises need to have a clear understanding and awareness of the importance of financial and accounting management work to innovate the working model ( Figure 1 ). At the same time, enterprises also need to improve the dissemination of financial information and manage financial accounting information in a diversified way, which can not only effectively improve the efficiency of enterprise financial management, but also optimize the working environment comprehensively [ 3 ]. In the Internet era, intelligence has become the main direction of enterprise financial management work, which is an important basis for enterprise financial management in the Internet era and an inevitable trend of the market economy, which can not only effectively improve the market competitiveness of enterprises, but also facilitate the implementation of scientific management by relevant financial and accounting departments and lay a solid foundation for the efficient development of financial accounting [ 4 ]. Therefore, in the Internet era, enterprises need to pay more attention to the informationization and intelligence of financial accounting management, fully meet the development trend of the times, and actively promote the development of enterprises [ 5 ].

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New model of financial accounting.

Nowadays, China has entered the Internet era, and the vigorous development of the Internet has directly changed the financial accounting management work, significantly improved the management quality of financial accounting, and the content involved in financial accounting has become more extensive [ 6 ]. For this reason, relevant personnel must deeply analyze the financial accounting management trends in the Internet era in order to do their jobs well.

1.1. Expanded Scope of Financial Management

In the Internet era, the management efficiency of enterprises has been significantly improved, and the financial accounting management mode has been changed [ 7 ]. The most significant change is that it extends the scope of financial management and enriches the work of financial management. For example, the use of the Internet not only enables direct procurement and management but also the ability to discipline suppliers and later sales to ensure the integrity of management [ 8 ].

1.2. Improving the Timeliness of Financial Management

Real-time and timeliness are the most significant advantages of Internet technology, so for financial accounting management work, it is also necessary to improve the speed of information transmission to help users get accurate information [ 9 ]. Financial and accounting management pays more attention to the timeliness of information, and the existence of Internet technology helps meet this need effectively [ 10 ]. The use of Internet technology enables financial management to be more timely and changes the method of communication, increasing communication and exchange between personnel [ 11 ]. For example, the use of the Internet makes it possible to lay out the relevant work content and to monitor the implementation of the work; the use of the Internet also makes it possible to give feedback to the company on specific work situations, significantly improving efficiency [ 12 ].

1.3. Orderly Operation within the Enterprise

Financial accounting management work in the Internet era can deliver financial information in a timely manner and make financial management work more flexible and orderly [ 13 ]. Financial accounting management work is the focus of enterprise management. In enterprise financial accounting management, it is difficult to achieve obvious management effects if we still rely on the older way to implement management. At this time, the use of Internet technology can manage the financial and business work scientifically and ensure the orderliness of the internal operation of the enterprise.

At present, China is in the era of intensified economic globalization and extremely rapid transmission of information, and the competition among enterprises is increasingly fierce. In the face of the increasingly competitive market environment, leaders need to conduct enterprise management not only to consider the traditional factors of competition between enterprises, but also to start from the management level, relying on strong and excellent financial management to help managers to make appropriate corporate decisions [ 14 ]. Therefore, real-time and comprehensive financial management information plays a pivotal role for managers to make decisions.

2. Related Work

Financial accounting is a branch of business accounting that, together with management accounting, forms the two main areas of business accounting, known as “traditional accounting” because it follows traditional manual accounting records, and therefore also known as “external reporting accounting” because it focuses on the business external stakeholders' decision-making needs and financial reporting outside the enterprise [ 15 ]. Financial accounting is an economic management activity that is carried out through comprehensive and systematic accounting and monitoring of the financial flows carried out by the enterprise, with the main purpose of providing economic information about the financial position and profitability of the enterprise to external investors, creditors and relevant government agencies that have an economic interest in the enterprise (refer to Figure 2 ).

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Traditional financial accounting.

Financial accounting plays a pivotal role in enterprise management and can provide useful information to decision-makers through various accounting procedures, actively participate in the management decisions of the enterprise, improve the efficiency of production and operation activities of the enterprise, and promote the healthy and normal development of the market economy. Therefore, financial accounting is crucial and indispensable in the course of the development of enterprises [ 16 ].

The Internet was born in the 1960s and 1970s as a large global network consisting of a series of common protocols [ 17 ]. As the economy grew, the development of the Internet accelerated, and by the 1980s and 1990s, it had matured, become more sophisticated, and gradually began to spread around the world [ 18 ]. Throughout the early development of the Internet, fundamental changes occurred almost every decade [ 19 ]. In China, the adoption of the Internet began around 1994 [ 20 ].

With the increasing popularity of mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data, and other technologies, human beings have stepped into the Internet era. Whether it is attendance records and online shopping, daily commuting to and from work, or software used in daily work, Internet technology is necessary [ 21 ]. It can be seen that technology has a decisive influence on the development of society, and the development of network technology will continue to push human society into a new era.

By applying Internet technology to financial accounting and management, the transport linkage of computer data and automatic calculation of data are realized, which in turn improves the accuracy of financial data in a comprehensive manner [ 22 ]. In addition, with the support of Internet technology, workers effectively enhance the degree of information sharing in daily financial accounting or management and create good conditions for the smooth implementation of financial supervision [ 23 ]. For example, in daily work, when workers need relevant financial information, they can quickly obtain the required information with the help of information sharing. Although Internet technology has improved the efficiency and quality of financial accounting and management work, the content of financial accounting and management work in the new era is gradually diversified and complicated [ 24 ].

With the gradual diversification of financial management content, the financial management staff of institutions can fully understand the importance of this work and continuously improve their Internet technology and financial management knowledge and skills to better meet the needs of the real work, and then give full play to the maximum value of financial management work [ 25 ].

3. Methodology

3.1. basic model.

An accounting information system (AIS) is a system that incorporates all accounting information. AIS is an important application of computer technology in the field of accounting; the generation of AIS brings accounting from the original era of manual bookkeeping to the era of machine bookkeeping, realizing computerization of accounting is an important reform in accounting practice. Its essence is the use of computers for an accounting information system.

The mechanism of its role is that the accounting information system first collects some of the data produced by the front-end business process that meet the definition of accounting, then carries out corresponding accounting processing according to these accounting data, completes accounting, generates accounting information, and finally, managers use this accounting information to make business decisions. Analysis and organization of the role mechanism of AIS is shown in Figure 3 .

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Mechanism of accounting information system.

In this article, “whether the accounting information system can realize the sharing of business and financial data” is taken as the mark of the division between traditional and financial integration accounting information systems; from this perspective, the traditional accounting information system has gone through five rounds of evolution, as shown in Figure 4 .

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Evolution of traditional AIS.

Although the accounting information system in the first 4 stages could also record some business information, the content of the recording was very limited, and business information still needed to be transferred between business and finance departments through paper-based original vouchers. Compared with the first 4 stages, the most significant feature of this stage is that the front-end business module is incorporated into the AIS, which helps the AIS record not only the business data conforming to the accounting definition, but also other types of business data so that the AIS system provides managers with richer data and enables managers to see the original business picture more intuitively through the system.

Through the above 5 stages of development of an accounting information system, we can see that the traditional accounting information system mainly solves 2 problems: first, for the paperless bookkeeping vouchers, accounting personnel use computers instead of manual bookkeeping; second, recognizing that business data play a very important role in enterprise management, business department data and financial data are integrated into the accounting information system, so that the accounting information system can further play its efficient management role.

Through the above development history of traditional accounting information system, it can be seen that traditional AIS provides accounting information to managers and then provides services for their management decisions, although the MIS (management information system) stage can already provide business information to managers, but because business and financial information cannot be shared resulting in a lower degree of this information used by managers, so by organizing the traditional AIS functions as shown in Figure 5 .

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Traditional AIS function diagram.

Industry financial integration AIS means an accounting information system that can realize business financial integration, which is an effective platform and tool for enterprises to realize business financial integration by using various modern computer technologies, advancing the financial work of enterprises to the business end, through which enterprises can not only obtain management information in terms of financial analysis, but also obtain management-related information directly from business data, and managers can use this business-side information for more in-depth analysis, realizing the integration of information flow and data flow.

The accounting information system of the combination of production and finance realizes the information sharing of business and financial data, breaks through the limitation that traditional accounting information systems basically can only use accounting information to participate in management, improves the utilization of business information, and promotes a deeper combination of accounting and management; the combination of accounting and management makes accounting a powerful assistant of enterprise management. The functions of financial accounting and management accounting are therefore mutually reinforcing and inseparable, as shown in Figure 6 .

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Functional diagram of AIS for business finance integration.

3.2. Improvement Model

Based on the aforementioned problems of rigid accounting, rigid management, and rigid business processes in the application process, the design goal of the flexible financial integration AIS is to make the financial integration AIS flexible, improve the self-adaptability and scalability of the system itself to changes in external requirements, and then shorten the system redevelopment cycle and reduce the cost of redevelopment, specifically including flexible input and data structure, flexible data flow, flexible business process, and flexible data output.

3.2.1. Flexible Input and Data Structure Design

Traditional industry and finance integration AIS for the development of data structure design is usually only specific database tables and fields, that is, the premise that the default later database table structure does not change, the data table in the data items does not change. This rigid system does not take into account the possible adjustment of the data structure in the subsequent use of the enterprise during the initial design, and of course, there is no input space reserved for the user to configure the data structure at the front end, so the developed system lacks self-adaptability for the user to a certain extent in terms of input and data structure.

Two important concepts in the database related to the input and data structure design of the flexible industry financial integration AIS are triggers and stored procedures. The trigger mechanism ensures that the trigger action is executed only when the trigger event occurs and the trigger limits are met. Each table in the database can set a trigger, and the role is to establish the connection of multiple tables in the database to achieve the linkage of data in multiple tables. A stored procedure is a set of statements to complete a specific function, through the parameters set so that when the user performs similar operations on the database, there is no need to repeat the compilation, so the use of stored procedures can improve the efficiency of the database operation.

The design of the data structure in the flexible financial integration AIS is not only the specific database tables and fields, but also the “data dictionary,” which stores not the general specific user data, but the structural data of various data items, and establishes the connection between the data dictionary and the entity database tables through triggers and stored procedures, so that when the structural data in the data dictionary changes, the corresponding entity table structure will also change accordingly.

The design of input in the flexible business financial integration AIS is to present the data dictionary stored in the database on the page to the user by setting up the data dictionary function card interface, reserving the input space for the user to configure the data structure. Using this function, the following two kinds of operations can be performed: first, you can create new original documents and enter the specific data items related to the content; second, you can modify the original documents in the data items (such as special enterprises in financial accounting or managerial decision-making needs may add some special data items on business documents, which you can add or modify in the original database forms) and thus meet the changing needs of enterprises for the data structure.

The “data dictionary” is a “warehouse” that can be used to store a variety of structural data. It should include the following two tables: one is the detail table (to store the content of the data items of each table of the database, including field names and field types), and the table structure as shown in Table 1 .

Table of contents.

The flexible implementation process of input and data structure is shown in Figure 7 . The data update linkage between the business and finance fusion AIS and the corresponding entity tables in the database is done through triggers and stored procedures. When the user performs the operation of adding, deleting, or changing in the data dictionary function card of the AIS, the corresponding database is called using the database interface; the corresponding data changes are recorded in the detail table; the operation of adding, deleting, or changing then triggers the trigger embedded in the detail table; the data modified by the user in the front-end page is recorded in the temporary table; the corresponding stored procedure is executed; and then, the corresponding entity table is modified. The modification of the entity table will be presented on the interface of the AIS in real-time, so that the user can realize the change in the data structure of the corresponding form in the database through the data dictionary function card on the AIS, which realizes the flexibility of the input and data structure.

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Design diagram of input and data structure flexibility.

3.2.2. Flexible Data Flow Design

Since the data structure in the traditional AIS is fixed, the flow of data items between them is also fixed. Although the flow of data items between documents, between documents and vouchers, and between documents/vouchers and reports is possible in the traditional rigid AIS, this flow is solidified and does not allow users to configure themselves, for example, some data grievances exist only in upstream documents and not in downstream documents, but managers need to add these data items that exist only in upstream documents to downstream for management purposes The administrator also needs to add these data items that exist only in the upstream documents to the downstream documents for management purposes. If the new data items do not exist in the upstream and downstream documents, it is difficult to configure the process of these extended data items in the system.

The design of the data flow in the flexible financial integration AIS focuses on the establishment of visualized document conversion rules between upstream and downstream documents, between various documents and vouchers, and between documents and reports, which can be configured by users. The specific design diagram is shown in Figure 8 .

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Data flow flexible design diagram.

Document conversion rules: Document conversion rules are designed to make the data conversion between documents more convenient, and through the method of parameter configuration, the conversion rules are no longer rigid and unchangeable but can be flexibly deployed. With the rules to achieve data filtering, grouping, and merging, calculation and other configurations meet the business needs of the document conversion process. Document conversion rules are broadly divided into single-head conversion rules, entry conversion rules, auxiliary configuration, etc. The parameter configuration through the single-header conversion rules can establish the association of each data item between documents, and the parameter setting in the journal entry conversion rules can realize the reconfiguration of generated vouchers.

3.2.3. Flexible Business Process Design

In the traditional rigid business finance system, due to the fixed setting of business processes, business users cannot adjust business processes according to their actual needs, and the integration of business and financial processes can only set up financial indicators according to business needs, and cannot optimize business processes according to the financial indicators of enterprises, and the setting of business processes can only realize the one-way business process of A-B-C one-way business process. With the large number of business needs of enterprises, the traditional rigid business process structure can no longer meet the needs of the complexity of enterprises today.

The core of business process design in flexible AIS is that users themselves can realize business process customization. Business process customization means that the system provides a common business process model in advance to support users to personalize the operation according to their needs, allowing users to realize the dynamic combination of processes or dynamic definitions without changing the source code, increasing the flexibility of business processes in the financial system. The flexible AIS provides users with the function of freely configuring business processes, and realizes the close connection between business process management and the AIS of financial integration.

The flexibility of business process customization is reflected in the following aspects, and the overall process of its operation is shown in Figure 9 .

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Business process flexibility design diagram.

3.2.4. Flexible Data Output Design

The traditional financial integration system is relatively fixed in the final output report format and content, for example, the format of the four commonly used financial statement templates are relatively fixed, and the content is relatively fixed, so if the project name or data source inside the template report changes, the enterprise cannot change and adjust in time by itself, so the rigid financial integration AIS has caused the limitation of management analysis to a certain extent.

The design of flexible data output in the flexible industry financial integration AIS focuses on the user's ability to configure the content and format of information output, as mentioned above, for the final financial accounting reports and management accounting reports, the manager can choose the output content and format at will, and if the items in the reports defined in the system template do not meet the actual needs, the user can customize the report format and content to meet the personalized needs of managers. Flexible AIS supports customizable report function, which allows users to design the report format, report items, sources, calculation, and processing methods by using the visualized pages provided and combining them with the actual situation of the unit and the department. The system will automatically generate the reports that the user wants according to his or her definition. Once the user's needs change, the user can modify the original report design or design a new report to meet his or her needs without modifying the accounting information system itself. That is, the core of the design of data output flexibility lies in the implementation of the custom report function, the specific design process of which is shown in Figure 10 .

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Design of custom reports.

4. Case Study

A company is a large integrated modern enterprise group. With the gradual expansion of the group's scale, it became difficult to adapt the original financial and business model to the group's management needs, which to a certain extent hindered the group's development. To keep pace with the times, in the context of the Internet, it is imperative to make full use of new information technology tools for reform. We first show the degree of approval of different employees for the management upgrading of the financial accounting system in Figure 11 .

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Different employees' opinions on the management upgrading of the financial accounting system.

Before the implementation of financial sharing, the finance department of a company was mainly responsible for daily accounting, expense reimbursement, current account management, fundraising and operation, investment management, budget management, tax reporting, statement preparation and analysis, and other work, mainly centralized financial management. With the development of a company, the number of subsidiaries, overseas branches, and strategic business units gradually increased, the group reformed and adopted the organizational form of group customer divisions, and established financial divisions within each division; from a centralized financial management mode to a decentralized financial management mode, each divisional financial division is responsible for its own local business corresponding to the expense reimbursement accounting and other work. Then, each business unit regularly sends business-related data to the accounting staff of the business unit, and the accounting department of each business unit submits the processed financial and business analysis data to the headquarters group for data aggregation and analysis.

4.1. Analysis of the Main Problems of a Company before the Integration of Industry and Finance

  • High Labor Cost and Low Value Creation . A company's customer business units establish the same function as the finance department: repeatedly building a finance department is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and a large number of accounting staff increase the group's operating costs. The heavy accounting volume of each finance department takes up a lot of energy of accounting staff, making it difficult for them to withdraw business management and provide decision support for business strategy management.
  • Poor Information Communication . First of all, a company arranges accounting personnel with the same functions in different group customer divisions, and the financial information is first aggregated and analyzed by the divisional accounting personnel and then submitted to the group headquarters, which may lead to the redundancy of personnel and departments, resulting in the untimely collection of financial information from the group headquarters, operational errors and problems such as information asymmetry between online and offline. Second, there is no good communication mechanism between business information and financial information, and the core data cannot be unified and centralized in the same system for business analysis and management. The dual-track system of business and finance makes it impossible to allocate and apply enterprise resources efficiently. In addition, the value application and decision analysis of financial management cannot provide support for business development quickly and timely, and the efficiency of business execution is low.

4.2. Implementation of a Company's Financial Integration in the Internet Era

4.2.1. background and significance of implementation.

With the continuous development of computer technology, approaching the “Internet” and reshaping the accounting process to break the “information silo” are undoubtedly crucial to realize the integration of business and finance of enterprises. In the background of the group's increasing business and continuous expansion, reshaping the correlation between business and finance, through the integration of business and finance, is conducive to breaking the awkward situation of information isolation of various departments, so that finance can provide timely and true feedback on business facts, and provide efficient support to the group's internal decision-making and control, to achieve “business pulling finance, finance supporting business.” The key to the integration of business and finance lies in achieving the “two-wheel drive” of finance and business. The key to the integration of business and finance lies in how to reorganize the accounting process from the group business process reorganization. The following is an example of a company's implementation path, explaining how it uses the financial sharing platform to integrate business and finance and empower management.

4.2.2. Implementation Path

To realize the integration of business and finance for management empowerment, a company makes full use of the financial sharing platform. A company's financial sharing center is an integrated and unified accounting platform based on front-end business pull-through. All transactions, invoices, reconciliations, payments, and other processes in the front-end are collected as data collection points, and a large amount of data resources are collected and entered into the data platform in real-time to store the information, and the stored data are extracted, summarized, apportioned, offset and consolidated, and converted into caliber. The stored data are extracted, aggregated, apportioned, offset and consolidated, transformed, and then aggregated and displayed through the management dimension (see Figure 12 ).

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Variable conversion model of a company under the integration of industry and finance.

We further analyzed the changes in different links of financial accounting operations in Figure 13 .

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The distribution of different accounting operations.

Based on the report format and unified index system, the group establishes corresponding analysis models; creates a unified financial data and report platform; prepares financial statements; provides the group with standardized financial accounting, multi-dimensional cost and profitability analysis, and other services; and provides support for relevant information disclosure, group management, and decision-making (see Figure 14 ).

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The process of preparing a unified data report of a company.

Based on the group's financial sharing unified data platform, the shared finance center has also built a multi-dimensional indicator analysis system, establishing multi-dimensional accountability indicators and analysis systems corresponding to main business income; profit before tax; operating net cash flow; major quality issues at the operation level, management level, and decision-making level, respectively; and using the group's big data platform for analysis and display. In Figure 15 , we analyze the relationship between financial management and business management.

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The value of financial management with business management.

Based on the group's financial sharing unified data platform, the shared finance center has also built a multi-dimensional indicator analysis system, establishing multi-dimensional accountability indicators and analysis systems corresponding to main business income; profit before tax; operating net cash flow; major quality issues at the operation level, management level, and decision-making level, respectively; and using the group's big data platform for analysis and display.

After reshaping the financial process, a company's internal financial sharing center platform unified the entire process and buried information on key links, so that financial rules fully penetrate the whole process of related transactions, laying a solid data foundation for the group's later monthly reconciliation and data management analysis and improving the efficiency and timeliness of data provision. It also solves the problems of high labor cost and low enterprise value creation under the decentralized financial management model. The sharing center can also generate two sets of financial reports based on the corporate structure and management reports based on the management structure. After the integration of industry and finance, the operating budget execution report can be issued in real-time, allowing the group to monitor the specific implementation of the budget in real-time and providing strong support for group managers and decision-makers.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, for enterprises, financial accounting management is crucial, and it is the basis of enterprise development, especially in the Internet era; enterprises need to strengthen the innovation of the financial accounting management mode to help meet the development needs of the times. But at present, it is difficult to adapt some enterprises' financial accounting management work to the development of the network era, and the management concept has not been updated in time. Enterprises must pay more attention to this, take reasonable decisions to optimize it, and further expand the field of financial accounting management by strengthening the construction of information technology and clarifying the outstanding problems, so that enterprises can obtain new development and improve the level of financial accounting management comprehensively.

Data Availability

Conflicts of interest.

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding this work.

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    6. Conclusion. This essay provides a selective critical review of the financial accounting literature focusing primarily on three research topics: accounting valuation including implied costs of capital, empirical accounting proxies, and un-modeled frictions in accounting theory. In the opinion of this author, accounting research in these areas ...

  17. PDF Empirical Research in Financial Accounting I Stern School of Business

    1" " Empirical Research in Financial Accounting I Stern School of Business, New York University Stephen Ryan Fall 2011 READ THIS! Course Purpose: The goal of this course is to help you begin the process of becoming an empirical accounting researcher capable of identifying interesting, important, and researchable

  18. Research Papers / Publications

    Furthermore, foot-traffic increases with positive earnings for firms offering durable goods, suggesting consumers respond to news about firms' financial prospects. Consumer attention patterns generate feedback effects on advertising effectiveness and revenues, ultimately suggesting that financial reporting serves a marketing function.

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Accounting and Finance: Challenges and

    The rapid expansion of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies presents novel technical solutions to traditional accounting and finance problems. Despite this, scholars in accounting and finance frequently encounter difficulties navigating the extensive and intricate domain knowledge of AI and its continuously evolving literature. To address this gap, this paper conducts a qualitative survey ...

  20. (PDF) A study of Financial Accounting Practices of Small and Medium

    Research by Zotorvie (2017) [3] identified that a majority of SMEs struggle with accurate accounting record-keeping, making it challenging for managers to assess the current financial status of ...

  21. Analytical Study of Financial Accounting and Management Trends Based on

    Financial accounting is an economic management activity that is carried out through comprehensive and systematic ... and business information still needed to be transferred between business and finance departments through paper-based original vouchers. ... Journal of Islamic Accounting and Finance Research. 2021; 3 (1):91-112. doi: 10.21580 ...

  22. 2.2 (1 Major results of capital markets research into financial

    Accounting document from Griffith University, 7 pages, Major results of capital markets research into financial accounting and disclosure Part One Results of CMR—Ball and Brown (1968) study Investigated the usefulness of accounting earnings under a historical cost (HC) model - at this time many believed that

  23. PDF Empirical Research in Financial Accounting I Stern School of Business

    1" " Empirical Research in Financial Accounting I Stern School of Business, New York University Stephen Ryan Fall 2013 READ THIS! Course Purpose: The goal of this course is to help you begin the process of becoming an empirical accounting researcher capable of identifying interesting, important, and researchable

  24. Indian Accounting Association

    List of Research Paper Published in Indian Journal of Accounting ... Need for Revisiting the Conceptual Framework for Financial Accounting and Reporting . Dr. L.S. Porwal & Dr. H.K. Porwal . View . 3 . 30 . Jun-1999 . Issues in Environmental Accounting and Reporting . Dr. Ashok Banerjee . View . 4 . 30 .

  25. IMF Working Papers

    We review the literature on the effects of Artificial Intelligence (AI) adoption and the ongoing regulatory efforts concerning this technology. Economic research encompasses growth, employment, productivity, and income inequality effects, while regulation covers market competition, data privacy, copyright, national security, ethics concerns, and financial stability.