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How to Write a Conclusion for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

February 14, 2022 by Beth Hall

Wondering how to write a conclusion for a rhetorical analysis essay? When writing the AP® Lang rhetorical analysis essay, there can feel like a lot of pressure! Time is extremely limited, and you may try to make cuts where possible. So, do you really need a conclusion for a rhetorical analysis essay?

Is a conclusion required?

The short answer: no. The AP® Lang rubric does not state that a conclusion is required for the rhetorical analysis essay. However, a conclusion can be beneficial for your essay.

Ultimately, if you are deciding between writing a conclusion or developing your body paragraphs, I would choose the latter. The bulk of your score will come from the body paragraphs, so having well-developed body paragraphs is key to scoring well on the exam.

If you have time, and you feel confident in your body paragraphs, it definitely won’t hurt to give the conclusion the attention it deserves, as it can help you produce a more well-rounded essay.


Tips for Writing a Conclusion

Tip #1: don’t just restate your thesis. .

When students first start learning to write essays, they are told to restate their thesis in the conclusion. This isn’t a bad practice, but you don’t want to copy the same thesis word for word – especially if you are worried your thesis is not defensible. Rewrite your thesis in new words, but make sure you still keep the same idea and write a defensible thesis.

Not sure how to write a defensible thesis? Read this blog post for more information.

While it is okay to restate your thesis in your conclusion, try to not recap your whole essay. Since timed essays are relatively short, recapping the essay seems redundant and lacks nuance.

Keep reading for more tips about what to do instead.

Tip #2: Dig deeper into the call to action.

This will not apply to every text, but for some texts, there is a strong call to action. For this type of conclusion, you want to ask yourself, “What happens if the audience heeds the call to action and what happens if they don’t?”

With this type of conclusion, you want to examine the different actions an audience can take and the impact said actions will have. This can also demonstrate the impact of a text or speech. For example, in his Pearl Harbor speech, FDR called Congress to declare war on the Empire of Japan. We know that his call to action worked; the US entered WWII. In thinking about FDR’s call to action, we can also situate the issue in a broader context by examining the historical impact of the speech.

Tip #3: Reflect on the message of the passage.

Think about abstract concepts from the passage, such as unity or resilience. In the conclusion, reflect upon what conclusions, messages, or lessons can be learned from these abstract concepts in the passage.

Ask yourself “how is the message still relevant today?” Doing so helps you situate the issue in a broader context.

For instance, Madeleine Albright gave a speech about perseverance to Mount Holyoke College in 1997. The theme of perseverance, especially for women, is still relevant today, so you can look at the broader implications of this message in today’s world.

Tip #4: Stay away from “In Conclusion.”

Instead of using the tired “in conclusion” to begin your final paragraph, try a different sentence stem. I like to use the following: When considering X and Y, it becomes apparent that…  

Final Thoughts about Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Conclusion

Writing conclusion paragraphs require that you “zoom out” and look at the broader implications of the passage. Doing so adds a deeper analysis and perspective to your rhetorical analysis essay, which can boost your overall score, captivate your reader, and create a more well-rounded AP® Lang essay.

For more tips about how to write a conclusion for a rhetorical analysis essay, check out this video here. 

AP® Lang Teachers

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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay–Examples & Template

how to conclude rhetorical essay

What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

A rhetorical analysis essay is, as the name suggests, an analysis of someone else’s writing (or speech, or advert, or even cartoon) and how they use not only words but also rhetorical techniques to influence their audience in a certain way. A rhetorical analysis is less interested in what the author is saying and more in how they present it, what effect this has on their readers, whether they achieve their goals, and what approach they use to get there. 

Its structure is similar to that of most essays: An Introduction presents your thesis, a Body analyzes the text you have chosen, breaks it down into sections and explains how arguments have been constructed and how each part persuades, informs, or entertains the reader, and a Conclusion section sums up your evaluation. 

Note that your personal opinion on the matter is not relevant for your analysis and that you don’t state anywhere in your essay whether you agree or disagree with the stance the author takes.

In the following, we will define the key rhetorical concepts you need to write a good rhetorical analysis and give you some practical tips on where to start.

Key Rhetorical Concepts

Your goal when writing a rhetorical analysis is to think about and then carefully describe how the author has designed their text so that it has the intended effect on their audience. To do that, you need to consider a number of key rhetorical strategies: Rhetorical appeals (“Ethos”, “Logos”, and “Pathos”), context, as well as claims, supports, and warrants.

Ethos, Logos, and Pathos were introduced by Aristotle, way back in the 4th century BC, as the main ways in which language can be used to persuade an audience. They still represent the basis of any rhetorical analysis and are often referred to as the “rhetorical triangle”. 

These and other rhetorical techniques can all be combined to create the intended effect, and your job as the one analyzing a text is to break the writer’s arguments down and identify the concepts they are based on.

Rhetorical Appeals

Rhetorical appeal #1: ethos.

Ethos refers to the reputation or authority of the writer regarding the topic of their essay or speech and to how they use this to appeal to their audience. Just like we are more likely to buy a product from a brand or vendor we have confidence in than one we don’t know or have reason to distrust, Ethos-driven texts or speeches rely on the reputation of the author to persuade the reader or listener. When you analyze an essay, you should therefore look at how the writer establishes Ethos through rhetorical devices.

Does the author present themselves as an authority on their subject? If so, how? 

Do they highlight how impeccable their own behavior is to make a moral argument? 

Do they present themselves as an expert by listing their qualifications or experience to convince the reader of their opinion on something?

Rhetorical appeal #2: Pathos

The purpose of Pathos-driven rhetoric is to appeal to the reader’s emotions. A common example of pathos as a rhetorical means is adverts by charities that try to make you donate money to a “good cause”. To evoke the intended emotions in the reader, an author may use passionate language, tell personal stories, and employ vivid imagery so that the reader can imagine themselves in a certain situation and feel empathy with or anger towards others.

Rhetorical appeal #3: Logos

Logos, the “logical” appeal, uses reason to persuade. Reason and logic, supported by data, evidence, clearly defined methodology, and well-constructed arguments, are what most academic writing is based on. Emotions, those of the researcher/writer as well as those of the reader, should stay out of such academic texts, as should anyone’s reputation, beliefs, or personal opinions. 

Text and Context

To analyze a piece of writing, a speech, an advertisement, or even a satirical drawing, you need to look beyond the piece of communication and take the context in which it was created and/or published into account. 

Who is the person who wrote the text/drew the cartoon/designed the ad..? What audience are they trying to reach? Where was the piece published and what was happening there around that time? 

A political speech, for example, can be powerful even when read decades later, but the historical context surrounding it is an important aspect of the effect it was intended to have. 

Claims, Supports, and Warrants

To make any kind of argument, a writer needs to put forward specific claims, support them with data or evidence or even a moral or emotional appeal, and connect the dots logically so that the reader can follow along and agree with the points made.

The connections between statements, so-called “warrants”, follow logical reasoning but are not always clearly stated—the author simply assumes the reader understands the underlying logic, whether they present it “explicitly” or “implicitly”. Implicit warrants are commonly used in advertisements where seemingly happy people use certain products, wear certain clothes, accessories, or perfumes, or live certain lifestyles – with the connotation that, first, the product/perfume/lifestyle is what makes that person happy and, second, the reader wants to be as happy as the person in the ad. Some warrants are never clearly stated, and your job when writing a rhetorical analysis essay is therefore to identify them and bring them to light, to evaluate their validity, their effect on the reader, and the use of such means by the writer/creator. 

bust of plato the philosopher, rhetorical analysis essay

What are the Five Rhetorical Situations?

A “rhetorical situation” refers to the circumstance behind a text or other piece of communication that arises from a given context. It explains why a rhetorical piece was created, what its purpose is, and how it was constructed to achieve its aims.

Rhetorical situations can be classified into the following five categories:

Asking such questions when you analyze a text will help you identify all the aspects that play a role in the effect it has on its audience, and will allow you to evaluate whether it achieved its aims or where it may have failed to do so.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Analyzing someone else’s work can seem like a big task, but as with every assignment or writing endeavor, you can break it down into smaller, well-defined steps that give you a practical structure to follow. 

To give you an example of how the different parts of your text may look when it’s finished, we will provide you with some excerpts from this rhetorical analysis essay example (which even includes helpful comments) published on the Online Writing Lab website of Excelsior University in Albany, NY. The text that this essay analyzes is this article on why one should or shouldn’t buy an Ipad. If you want more examples so that you can build your own rhetorical analysis template, have a look at this essay on Nabokov’s Lolita and the one provided here about the “Shitty First Drafts” chapter of Anne Lamott’s writing instruction book “Bird by Bird”.

Analyzing the Text

When writing a rhetorical analysis, you don’t choose the concepts or key points you think are relevant or want to address. Rather, you carefully read the text several times asking yourself questions like those listed in the last section on rhetorical situations to identify how the text “works” and how it was written to achieve that effect.

Start with focusing on the author : What do you think was their purpose for writing the text? Do they make one principal claim and then elaborate on that? Or do they discuss different topics? 

Then look at what audience they are talking to: Do they want to make a group of people take some action? Vote for someone? Donate money to a good cause? Who are these people? Is the text reaching this specific audience? Why or why not?

What tone is the author using to address their audience? Are they trying to evoke sympathy? Stir up anger? Are they writing from a personal perspective? Are they painting themselves as an authority on the topic? Are they using academic or informal language?

How does the author support their claims ? What kind of evidence are they presenting? Are they providing explicit or implicit warrants? Are these warrants valid or problematic? Is the provided evidence convincing?  

Asking yourself such questions will help you identify what rhetorical devices a text uses and how well they are put together to achieve a certain aim. Remember, your own opinion and whether you agree with the author are not the point of a rhetorical analysis essay – your task is simply to take the text apart and evaluate it.

If you are still confused about how to write a rhetorical analysis essay, just follow the steps outlined below to write the different parts of your rhetorical analysis: As every other essay, it consists of an Introduction , a Body (the actual analysis), and a Conclusion .

Rhetorical Analysis Introduction

The Introduction section briefly presents the topic of the essay you are analyzing, the author, their main claims, a short summary of the work by you, and your thesis statement . 

Tell the reader what the text you are going to analyze represents (e.g., historically) or why it is relevant (e.g., because it has become some kind of reference for how something is done). Describe what the author claims, asserts, or implies and what techniques they use to make their argument and persuade their audience. Finish off with your thesis statement that prepares the reader for what you are going to present in the next section – do you think that the author’s assumptions/claims/arguments were presented in a logical/appealing/powerful way and reached their audience as intended?

Have a look at an excerpt from the sample essay linked above to see what a rhetorical analysis introduction can look like. See how it introduces the author and article , the context in which it originally appeared , the main claims the author makes , and how this first paragraph ends in a clear thesis statement that the essay will then elaborate on in the following Body section:

Cory Doctorow ’s article on BoingBoing is an older review of the iPad , one of Apple’s most famous products. At the time of this article, however, the iPad was simply the latest Apple product to hit the market and was not yet so popular. Doctorow’s entire career has been entrenched in and around technology. He got his start as a CD-ROM programmer and is now a successful blogger and author. He is currently the co-editor of the BoingBoing blog on which this article was posted. One of his main points in this article comes from Doctorow’s passionate advocacy of free digital media sharing. He argues that the iPad is just another way for established technology companies to control our technological freedom and creativity . In “ Why I Won’t Buy an iPad (and Think You Shouldn’t, Either) ” published on Boing Boing in April of 2010, Cory Doctorow successfully uses his experience with technology, facts about the company Apple, and appeals to consumer needs to convince potential iPad buyers that Apple and its products, specifically the iPad, limit the digital rights of those who use them by controlling and mainstreaming the content that can be used and created on the device . 

Doing the Rhetorical Analysis

The main part of your analysis is the Body , where you dissect the text in detail. Explain what methods the author uses to inform, entertain, and/or persuade the audience. Use Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle and the other key concepts we introduced above. Use quotations from the essay to demonstrate what you mean. Work out why the writer used a certain approach and evaluate (and again, demonstrate using the text itself) how successful they were. Evaluate the effect of each rhetorical technique you identify on the audience and judge whether the effect is in line with the author’s intentions.

To make it easy for the reader to follow your thought process, divide this part of your essay into paragraphs that each focus on one strategy or one concept , and make sure they are all necessary and contribute to the development of your argument(s).

One paragraph of this section of your essay could, for example, look like this:

One example of Doctorow’s position is his comparison of Apple’s iStore to Wal-Mart. This is an appeal to the consumer’s logic—or an appeal to logos. Doctorow wants the reader to take his comparison and consider how an all-powerful corporation like the iStore will affect them. An iPad will only allow for apps and programs purchased through the iStore to be run on it; therefore, a customer must not only purchase an iPad but also any programs he or she wishes to use. Customers cannot create their own programs or modify the hardware in any way. 

As you can see, the author of this sample essay identifies and then explains to the reader how Doctorow uses the concept of Logos to appeal to his readers – not just by pointing out that he does it but by dissecting how it is done.

Rhetorical Analysis Conclusion

The conclusion section of your analysis should restate your main arguments and emphasize once more whether you think the author achieved their goal. Note that this is not the place to introduce new information—only rely on the points you have discussed in the body of your essay. End with a statement that sums up the impact the text has on its audience and maybe society as a whole:

Overall, Doctorow makes a good argument about why there are potentially many better things to drop a great deal of money on instead of the iPad. He gives some valuable information and facts that consumers should take into consideration before going out to purchase the new device. He clearly uses rhetorical tools to help make his case, and, overall, he is effective as a writer, even if, ultimately, he was ineffective in convincing the world not to buy an iPad . 

Frequently Asked Questions about Rhetorical Analysis Essays 

What is a rhetorical analysis essay.

A rhetorical analysis dissects a text or another piece of communication to work out and explain how it impacts its audience, how successfully it achieves its aims, and what rhetorical devices it uses to do that. 

While argumentative essays usually take a stance on a certain topic and argue for it, a rhetorical analysis identifies how someone else constructs their arguments and supports their claims.

What is the correct rhetorical analysis essay format?

Like most other essays, a rhetorical analysis contains an Introduction that presents the thesis statement, a Body that analyzes the piece of communication, explains how arguments have been constructed, and illustrates how each part persuades, informs, or entertains the reader, and a Conclusion section that summarizes the results of the analysis. 

What is the “rhetorical triangle”?

The rhetorical triangle was introduced by Aristotle as the main ways in which language can be used to persuade an audience: Logos appeals to the audience’s reason, Ethos to the writer’s status or authority, and Pathos to the reader’s emotions. Logos, Ethos, and Pathos can all be combined to create the intended effect, and your job as the one analyzing a text is to break the writer’s arguments down and identify what specific concepts each is based on.

Let Wordvice help you write a flawless rhetorical analysis essay! 

Whether you have to write a rhetorical analysis essay as an assignment or whether it is part of an application, our professional proofreading services feature professional editors are trained subject experts that make sure your text is in line with the required format, as well as help you improve the flow and expression of your writing. Let them be your second pair of eyes so that after receiving paper editing services or essay editing services from Wordvice, you can submit your manuscript or apply to the school of your dreams with confidence.

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How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay (With Example)

November 27, 2023

Feeling intimidated by the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay? We’re here to help demystify. Whether you’re cramming for the AP Lang exam right now or planning to take the test down the road, we’ve got crucial rubric information, helpful tips, and an essay example to prepare you for the big day. This post will cover 1) What is the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay? 2) AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Rubric 3) AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis: Sample Prompt 4) AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example 5)AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example: Why It Works

What is the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

The AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay is one of three essays included in the written portion of the AP English Exam. The full AP English Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long, with the first 60 minutes dedicated to multiple-choice questions. Once you complete the multiple-choice section, you move on to three equally weighted essays that ask you to synthesize, analyze, and interpret texts and develop well-reasoned arguments. The three essays include:

Synthesis essay: You’ll review various pieces of evidence and then write an essay that synthesizes (aka combines and interprets) the evidence and presents a clear argument. Read our write up on How to Write the AP Lang Synthesis Essay here.

Argumentative essay: You’ll take a stance on a specific topic and argue your case.

Rhetorical essay: You’ll read a provided passage, then analyze the author’s rhetorical choices and develop an argument that explains why the author made those rhetorical choices.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Rubric

The AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay is graded on just 3 rubric categories: Thesis, Evidence and Commentary, and Sophistication . At a glance, the rubric categories may seem vague, but AP exam graders are actually looking for very particular things in each category. We’ll break it down with dos and don’ts for each rubric category:

Thesis (0-1 point)

There’s nothing nebulous when it comes to grading AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay thesis. You either have one or you don’t. Including a thesis gets you one point closer to a high score and leaving it out means you miss out on one crucial point. So, what makes a thesis that counts?

  • Make sure your thesis argues something about the author’s rhetorical choices. Making an argument means taking a risk and offering your own interpretation of the provided text. This is an argument that someone else might disagree with.
  • A good test to see if you have a thesis that makes an argument. In your head, add the phrase “I think that…” to the beginning of your thesis. If what follows doesn’t logically flow after that phrase (aka if what follows isn’t something you and only you think), it’s likely you’re not making an argument.
  • Avoid a thesis that merely restates the prompt.
  • Avoid a thesis that summarizes the text but does not make an argument.

Evidence and Commentary (0-4 points)

This rubric category is graded on a scale of 0-4 where 4 is the highest grade. Per the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis rubric, to get a 4, you’ll want to:

  • Include lots of specific evidence from the text. There is no set golden number of quotes to include, but you’ll want to make sure you’re incorporating more than a couple pieces of evidence that support your argument about the author’s rhetorical choices.
  • Make sure you include more than one type of evidence, too. Let’s say you’re working on your essay and have gathered examples of alliteration to include as supporting evidence. That’s just one type of rhetorical choice, and it’s hard to make a credible argument if you’re only looking at one type of evidence. To fix that issue, reread the text again looking for patterns in word choice and syntax, meaningful figurative language and imagery, literary devices, and other rhetorical choices, looking for additional types of evidence to support your argument.
  • After you include evidence, offer your own interpretation and explain how this evidence proves the point you make in your thesis.
  • Don’t summarize or speak generally about the author and the text. Everything you write must be backed up with evidence.
  • Don’t let quotes speak for themselves. After every piece of evidence you include, make sure to explain your interpretation. Also, connect the evidence to your overarching argument.

Sophistication (0-1 point)

In this case, sophistication isn’t about how many fancy vocabulary words or how many semicolons you use. According to College Board , one point can be awarded to AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis essays that “demonstrate sophistication of thought and/or a complex understanding of the rhetorical situation” in any of these three ways:

  • Explaining the significance or relevance of the writer’s rhetorical choices.
  • Explaining the purpose or function of the passage’s complexities or tensions.
  • Employing a style that is consistently vivid and persuasive.

Note that you don’t have to achieve all three to earn your sophistication point. A good way to think of this rubric category is to consider it a bonus point that you can earn for going above and beyond in depth of analysis or by writing an especially persuasive, clear, and well-structured essay. In order to earn this point, you’ll need to first do a good job with your thesis, evidence, and commentary.

  • Focus on nailing an argumentative thesis and multiple types of evidence. Getting these fundamentals of your essay right will set you up for achieving depth of analysis.
  • Explain how each piece of evidence connects to your thesis.
  • Spend a minute outlining your essay before you begin to ensure your essay flows in a clear and cohesive way.
  • Steer clear of generalizations about the author or text.
  • Don’t include arguments you can’t prove with evidence from the text.
  • Avoid complex sentences and fancy vocabulary words unless you use them often. Long, clunky sentences with imprecisely used words are hard to follow.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis: Sample Prompt

The sample prompt below is published online by College Board and is a real example from the 2021 AP Exam. The prompt provides background context, essay instructions, and the text you need to analyze. For sake of space, we’ve included the text as an image you can click to read. After the prompt, we provide a sample high scoring essay and then explain why this AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis essay example works.

Suggested time—40 minutes.

(This question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.)

On February 27, 2013, while in office, former president Barack Obama delivered the following address dedicating the Rosa Parks statue in the National Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol building. Rosa Parks was an African American civil rights activist who was arrested in 1955 for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Read the passage carefully. Write an essay that analyzes the rhetorical choices Obama makes to convey his message.

In your response you should do the following:

  • Respond to the prompt with a thesis that analyzes the writer’s rhetorical choices.
  • Select and use evidence to support your line of reasoning.
  • Explain how the evidence supports your line of reasoning.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the rhetorical situation.
  • Use appropriate grammar and punctuation in communicating your argument.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

In his speech delivered in 2013 at the dedication of Rosa Park’s statue, President Barack Obama acknowledges everything that Parks’ activism made possible in the United States. Telling the story of Parks’ life and achievements, Obama highlights the fact that Parks was a regular person whose actions accomplished enormous change during the civil rights era. Through the use of diction that portrays Parks as quiet and demure, long lists that emphasize the extent of her impacts, and Biblical references, Obama suggests that all of us are capable of achieving greater good, just as Parks did.

Although it might be a surprising way to start to his dedication, Obama begins his speech by telling us who Parks was not: “Rosa Parks held no elected office. She possessed no fortune” he explains in lines 1-2. Later, when he tells the story of the bus driver who threatened to have Parks arrested when she refused to get off the bus, he explains that Parks “simply replied, ‘You may do that’” (lines 22-23). Right away, he establishes that Parks was a regular person who did not hold a seat of power. Her protest on the bus was not part of a larger plan, it was a simple response. By emphasizing that Parks was not powerful, wealthy, or loud spoken, he implies that Parks’ style of activism is an everyday practice that all of us can aspire to.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example (Continued)

Even though Obama portrays Parks as a demure person whose protest came “simply” and naturally, he shows the importance of her activism through long lists of ripple effects. When Parks challenged her arrest, Obama explains, Martin Luther King, Jr. stood with her and “so did thousands of Montgomery, Alabama commuters” (lines 27-28). They began a boycott that included “teachers and laborers, clergy and domestics, through rain and cold and sweltering heat, day after day, week after week, month after month, walking miles if they had to…” (lines 28-31). In this section of the speech, Obama’s sentences grow longer and he uses lists to show that Parks’ small action impacted and inspired many others to fight for change. Further, listing out how many days, weeks, and months the boycott lasted shows how Parks’ single act of protest sparked a much longer push for change.

To further illustrate Parks’ impact, Obama incorporates Biblical references that emphasize the importance of “that single moment on the bus” (lines 57-58). In lines 33-35, Obama explains that Parks and the other protestors are “driven by a solemn determination to affirm their God-given dignity” and he also compares their victory to the fall the “ancient walls of Jericho” (line 43). By of including these Biblical references, Obama suggests that Parks’ action on the bus did more than correct personal or political wrongs; it also corrected moral and spiritual wrongs. Although Parks had no political power or fortune, she was able to restore a moral balance in our world.

Toward the end of the speech, Obama states that change happens “not mainly through the exploits of the famous and the powerful, but through the countless acts of often anonymous courage and kindness” (lines 78-81). Through carefully chosen diction that portrays her as a quiet, regular person and through lists and Biblical references that highlight the huge impacts of her action, Obama illustrates exactly this point. He wants us to see that, just like Parks, the small and meek can change the world for the better.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example: Why It Works

We would give the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis essay above a score of 6 out of 6 because it fully satisfies the essay’s 3 rubric categories: Thesis, Evidence and Commentary, and Sophistication . Let’s break down what this student did:

The thesis of this essay appears in the last line of the first paragraph:

“ Through the use of diction that portrays Parks as quiet and demure, long lists that emphasize the extent of her impacts, and Biblical references, Obama suggests that all of us are capable of achieving greater good, just as Parks did .”

This student’s thesis works because they make a clear argument about Obama’s rhetorical choices. They 1) list the rhetorical choices that will be analyzed in the rest of the essay (the italicized text above) and 2) include an argument someone else might disagree with (the bolded text above).

Evidence and Commentary:

This student includes substantial evidence and commentary. Things they do right, per the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis rubric:

  • They include lots of specific evidence from the text in the form of quotes.
  • They incorporate 3 different types of evidence (diction, long lists, Biblical references).
  • After including evidence, they offer an interpretation of what the evidence means and explain how the evidence contributes to their overarching argument (aka their thesis).


This essay achieves sophistication according to the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis essay rubric in a few key ways:

  • This student provides an introduction that flows naturally into the topic their essay will discuss. Before they get to their thesis, they tell us that Obama portrays Parks as a “regular person” setting up their main argument: Obama wants all regular people to aspire to do good in the world just as Rosa Parks did.
  • They organize evidence and commentary in a clear and cohesive way. Each body paragraph focuses on just one type of evidence.
  • They explain how their evidence is significant. In the final sentence of each body paragraph, they draw a connection back to the overarching argument presented in the thesis.
  • All their evidence supports the argument presented in their thesis. There is no extraneous evidence or misleading detail.
  • They consider nuances in the text. Rather than taking the text at face value, they consider what Obama’s rhetorical choices imply and offer their own unique interpretation of those implications.
  • In their final paragraph, they come full circle, reiterate their thesis, and explain what Obama’s rhetorical choices communicate to readers.
  • Their sentences are clear and easy to read. There are no grammar errors or misused words.

AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay—More Resources

Looking for more tips to help your master your AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay? Brush up on 20 Rhetorical Devices High School Students Should Know and read our Tips for Improving Reading Comprehension . If you’re ready to start studying for another part of the AP English Exam, find more expert tips in our How to Write the AP Lang Synthesis blog post.

Considering what other AP classes to take? Read up on the Hardest AP Classes .

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Christina Wood

Christina Wood holds a BA in Literature & Writing from UC San Diego, an MFA in Creative Writing from Washington University in St. Louis, and is currently a Doctoral Candidate in English at the University of Georgia, where she teaches creative writing and first-year composition courses. Christina has published fiction and nonfiction in numerous publications, including The Paris Review , McSweeney’s , Granta , Virginia Quarterly Review , The Sewanee Review , Mississippi Review , and Puerto del Sol , among others. Her story “The Astronaut” won the 2018 Shirley Jackson Award for short fiction and received a “Distinguished Stories” mention in the 2019 Best American Short Stories anthology.

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What Is a Rhetorical Analysis and How to Write a Great One

Helly Douglas

Helly Douglas

Cover image for article

Do you have to write a rhetorical analysis essay? Fear not! We’re here to explain exactly what rhetorical analysis means, how you should structure your essay, and give you some essential “dos and don’ts.”

What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

How do you write a rhetorical analysis, what are the three rhetorical strategies, what are the five rhetorical situations, how to plan a rhetorical analysis essay, creating a rhetorical analysis essay, examples of great rhetorical analysis essays, final thoughts.

A rhetorical analysis essay studies how writers and speakers have used words to influence their audience. Think less about the words the author has used and more about the techniques they employ, their goals, and the effect this has on the audience.

Image showing definitions

In your analysis essay, you break a piece of text (including cartoons, adverts, and speeches) into sections and explain how each part works to persuade, inform, or entertain. You’ll explore the effectiveness of the techniques used, how the argument has been constructed, and give examples from the text.

A strong rhetorical analysis evaluates a text rather than just describes the techniques used. You don’t include whether you personally agree or disagree with the argument.

Structure a rhetorical analysis in the same way as most other types of academic essays . You’ll have an introduction to present your thesis, a main body where you analyze the text, which then leads to a conclusion.

Think about how the writer (also known as a rhetor) considers the situation that frames their communication:

  • Topic: the overall purpose of the rhetoric
  • Audience: this includes primary, secondary, and tertiary audiences
  • Purpose: there are often more than one to consider
  • Context and culture: the wider situation within which the rhetoric is placed

Back in the 4th century BC, Aristotle was talking about how language can be used as a means of persuasion. He described three principal forms —Ethos, Logos, and Pathos—often referred to as the Rhetorical Triangle . These persuasive techniques are still used today.

Image showing rhetorical strategies

Rhetorical Strategy 1: Ethos

Are you more likely to buy a car from an established company that’s been an important part of your community for 50 years, or someone new who just started their business?

Reputation matters. Ethos explores how the character, disposition, and fundamental values of the author create appeal, along with their expertise and knowledge in the subject area.

Aristotle breaks ethos down into three further categories:

  • Phronesis: skills and practical wisdom
  • Arete: virtue
  • Eunoia: goodwill towards the audience

Ethos-driven speeches and text rely on the reputation of the author. In your analysis, you can look at how the writer establishes ethos through both direct and indirect means.

Rhetorical Strategy 2: Pathos

Pathos-driven rhetoric hooks into our emotions. You’ll often see it used in advertisements, particularly by charities wanting you to donate money towards an appeal.

Common use of pathos includes:

  • Vivid description so the reader can imagine themselves in the situation
  • Personal stories to create feelings of empathy
  • Emotional vocabulary that evokes a response

By using pathos to make the audience feel a particular emotion, the author can persuade them that the argument they’re making is compelling.

Rhetorical Strategy 3: Logos

Logos uses logic or reason. It’s commonly used in academic writing when arguments are created using evidence and reasoning rather than an emotional response. It’s constructed in a step-by-step approach that builds methodically to create a powerful effect upon the reader.

Rhetoric can use any one of these three techniques, but effective arguments often appeal to all three elements.

The rhetorical situation explains the circumstances behind and around a piece of rhetoric. It helps you think about why a text exists, its purpose, and how it’s carried out.

Image showing 5 rhetorical situations

The rhetorical situations are:

  • 1) Purpose: Why is this being written? (It could be trying to inform, persuade, instruct, or entertain.)
  • 2) Audience: Which groups or individuals will read and take action (or have done so in the past)?
  • 3) Genre: What type of writing is this?
  • 4) Stance: What is the tone of the text? What position are they taking?
  • 5) Media/Visuals: What means of communication are used?

Understanding and analyzing the rhetorical situation is essential for building a strong essay. Also think about any rhetoric restraints on the text, such as beliefs, attitudes, and traditions that could affect the author's decisions.

Before leaping into your essay, it’s worth taking time to explore the text at a deeper level and considering the rhetorical situations we looked at before. Throw away your assumptions and use these simple questions to help you unpick how and why the text is having an effect on the audience.

Image showing what to consider when planning a rhetorical essay

1: What is the Rhetorical Situation?

  • Why is there a need or opportunity for persuasion?
  • How do words and references help you identify the time and location?
  • What are the rhetoric restraints?
  • What historical occasions would lead to this text being created?

2: Who is the Author?

  • How do they position themselves as an expert worth listening to?
  • What is their ethos?
  • Do they have a reputation that gives them authority?
  • What is their intention?
  • What values or customs do they have?

3: Who is it Written For?

  • Who is the intended audience?
  • How is this appealing to this particular audience?
  • Who are the possible secondary and tertiary audiences?

4: What is the Central Idea?

  • Can you summarize the key point of this rhetoric?
  • What arguments are used?
  • How has it developed a line of reasoning?

5: How is it Structured?

  • What structure is used?
  • How is the content arranged within the structure?

6: What Form is Used?

  • Does this follow a specific literary genre?
  • What type of style and tone is used, and why is this?
  • Does the form used complement the content?
  • What effect could this form have on the audience?

7: Is the Rhetoric Effective?

  • Does the content fulfil the author’s intentions?
  • Does the message effectively fit the audience, location, and time period?

Once you’ve fully explored the text, you’ll have a better understanding of the impact it’s having on the audience and feel more confident about writing your essay outline.

A great essay starts with an interesting topic. Choose carefully so you’re personally invested in the subject and familiar with it rather than just following trending topics. There are lots of great ideas on this blog post by My Perfect Words if you need some inspiration. Take some time to do background research to ensure your topic offers good analysis opportunities.

Image showing considerations for a rhetorical analysis topic

Remember to check the information given to you by your professor so you follow their preferred style guidelines. This outline example gives you a general idea of a format to follow, but there will likely be specific requests about layout and content in your course handbook. It’s always worth asking your institution if you’re unsure.

Make notes for each section of your essay before you write. This makes it easy for you to write a well-structured text that flows naturally to a conclusion. You will develop each note into a paragraph. Look at this example by College Essay for useful ideas about the structure.

Image showing how to structure an essay

1: Introduction

This is a short, informative section that shows you understand the purpose of the text. It tempts the reader to find out more by mentioning what will come in the main body of your essay.

  • Name the author of the text and the title of their work followed by the date in parentheses
  • Use a verb to describe what the author does, e.g. “implies,” “asserts,” or “claims”
  • Briefly summarize the text in your own words
  • Mention the persuasive techniques used by the rhetor and its effect

Create a thesis statement to come at the end of your introduction.

After your introduction, move on to your critical analysis. This is the principal part of your essay.

  • Explain the methods used by the author to inform, entertain, and/or persuade the audience using Aristotle's rhetorical triangle
  • Use quotations to prove the statements you make
  • Explain why the writer used this approach and how successful it is
  • Consider how it makes the audience feel and react

Make each strategy a new paragraph rather than cramming them together, and always use proper citations. Check back to your course handbook if you’re unsure which citation style is preferred.

3: Conclusion

Your conclusion should summarize the points you’ve made in the main body of your essay. While you will draw the points together, this is not the place to introduce new information you’ve not previously mentioned.

Use your last sentence to share a powerful concluding statement that talks about the impact the text has on the audience(s) and wider society. How have its strategies helped to shape history?

Before You Submit

Poor spelling and grammatical errors ruin a great essay. Use ProWritingAid to check through your finished essay before you submit. It will pick up all the minor errors you’ve missed and help you give your essay a final polish. Look at this useful ProWritingAid webinar for further ideas to help you significantly improve your essays. Sign up for a free trial today and start editing your essays!

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You’ll find countless examples of rhetorical analysis online, but they range widely in quality. Your institution may have example essays they can share with you to show you exactly what they’re looking for.

The following links should give you a good starting point if you’re looking for ideas:

Pearson Canada has a range of good examples. Look at how embedded quotations are used to prove the points being made. The end questions help you unpick how successful each essay is.

Excelsior College has an excellent sample essay complete with useful comments highlighting the techniques used.

Brighton Online has a selection of interesting essays to look at. In this specific example, consider how wider reading has deepened the exploration of the text.

Image showing tips when reading a sample essay

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay can seem daunting, but spending significant time deeply analyzing the text before you write will make it far more achievable and result in a better-quality essay overall.

It can take some time to write a good essay. Aim to complete it well before the deadline so you don’t feel rushed. Use ProWritingAid’s comprehensive checks to find any errors and make changes to improve readability. Then you’ll be ready to submit your finished essay, knowing it’s as good as you can possibly make it.

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Helly Douglas is a UK writer and teacher, specialising in education, children, and parenting. She loves making the complex seem simple through blogs, articles, and curriculum content. You can check out her work at hellydouglas.com or connect on Twitter @hellydouglas. When she’s not writing, you will find her in a classroom, being a mum or battling against the wilderness of her garden—the garden is winning!

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  • Writing Tips

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

3-minute read

  • 22nd August 2023

A rhetorical analysis essay is a type of academic writing that analyzes how authors use language, persuasion techniques , and other rhetorical strategies to communicate with their audience. In this post, we’ll review how to write a rhetorical analysis essay, including:

  • Understanding the assignment guidelines
  • Introducing your essay topic
  • Examining the rhetorical strategies
  • Summarizing your main points

Keep reading for a step-by-step guide to rhetorical analysis.

What Is a Rhetorical Strategy?

A rhetorical strategy is a deliberate approach or technique a writer uses to convey a message and/or persuade the audience. A rhetorical strategy typically involves using language, sentence structure, and tone/style to influence the audience to think a certain way or understand a specific point of view. Rhetorical strategies are especially common in advertisements, speeches, and political writing, but you can also find them in many other types of literature.

1.   Understanding the Assignment Guidelines

Before you begin your rhetorical analysis essay, make sure you understand the assignment and guidelines. Typically, when writing a rhetorical analysis, you should approach the text objectively, focusing on the techniques the author uses rather than expressing your own opinions about the topic or summarizing the content. Thus, it’s essential to discuss the rhetorical methods used and then back up your analysis with evidence and quotations from the text.

2.   Introducing Your Essay Topic

Introduce your essay by providing some context about the text you’re analyzing. Give a brief overview of the author, intended audience, and purpose of the writing. You should also clearly state your thesis , which is your main point or argument about how and why the author uses rhetorical strategies. Try to avoid going into detail on any points or diving into specific examples – the introduction should be concise, and you’ll be providing a much more in-depth analysis later in the text.

3.   Examining the Rhetorical Strategies

In the body paragraphs, analyze the rhetorical strategies the author uses. Here are some common rhetorical strategies to include in your discussion:

●  Ethos : Establishing trust between the writer and the audience by appealing to credibility and ethics

●  Pathos : Appealing to the audience’s emotions and values

●  Logos : Employing logic, reason, and evidence to appeal to the reader

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●  Diction : Deliberately choosing specific language and vocabulary

●  Syntax : Structuring and arranging sentences in certain ways

●  Tone : Conveying attitude or mood in certain ways

●  Literary Devices : Using metaphors, similes, analogies , repetition, etc.

Keep in mind that for a rhetorical analysis essay, you’re not usually required to find examples of all of the above rhetorical strategies. But for each one you do analyze, consider how it contributes to the author’s purpose, how it influences the audience, and what emotions or thoughts it could evoke in the reader.

4.   Summarizing Your Main Points

In your conclusion , sum up the main points of your analysis and restate your thesis. Without introducing any new points (such as topics or ideas you haven’t already covered in the main body of your essay), summarize the overall impact that the author’s rhetorical strategies likely had on their intended audience.

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How to write a rhetorical analysis

Rhetorical analysis illustration

What is a rhetorical analysis?

What are the key concepts of a rhetorical analysis, rhetorical situation, claims, supports, and warrants.

  • Step 1: Plan and prepare
  • Step 2: Write your introduction
  • Step 3: Write the body
  • Step 4: Write your conclusion

Frequently Asked Questions about rhetorical analysis

Related articles.

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion and aims to study writers’ or speakers' techniques to inform, persuade, or motivate their audience. Thus, a rhetorical analysis aims to explore the goals and motivations of an author, the techniques they’ve used to reach their audience, and how successful these techniques were.

This will generally involve analyzing a specific text and considering the following aspects to connect the rhetorical situation to the text:

  • Does the author successfully support the thesis or claims made in the text? Here, you’ll analyze whether the author holds to their argument consistently throughout the text or whether they wander off-topic at some point.
  • Does the author use evidence effectively considering the text’s intended audience? Here, you’ll consider the evidence used by the author to support their claims and whether the evidence resonates with the intended audience.
  • What rhetorical strategies the author uses to achieve their goals. Here, you’ll consider the word choices by the author and whether these word choices align with their agenda for the text.
  • The tone of the piece. Here, you’ll consider the tone used by the author in writing the piece by looking at specific words and aspects that set the tone.
  • Whether the author is objective or trying to convince the audience of a particular viewpoint. When it comes to objectivity, you’ll consider whether the author is objective or holds a particular viewpoint they want to convince the audience of. If they are, you’ll also consider whether their persuasion interferes with how the text is read and understood.
  • Does the author correctly identify the intended audience? It’s important to consider whether the author correctly writes the text for the intended audience and what assumptions the author makes about the audience.
  • Does the text make sense? Here, you’ll consider whether the author effectively reasons, based on the evidence, to arrive at the text’s conclusion.
  • Does the author try to appeal to the audience’s emotions? You’ll need to consider whether the author uses any words, ideas, or techniques to appeal to the audience’s emotions.
  • Can the author be believed? Finally, you’ll consider whether the audience will accept the arguments and ideas of the author and why.

Summing up, unlike summaries that focus on what an author said, a rhetorical analysis focuses on how it’s said, and it doesn’t rely on an analysis of whether the author was right or wrong but rather how they made their case to arrive at their conclusions.

Although rhetorical analysis is most used by academics as part of scholarly work, it can be used to analyze any text including speeches, novels, television shows or films, advertisements, or cartoons.

Now that we’ve seen what rhetorical analysis is, let’s consider some of its key concepts .

Any rhetorical analysis starts with the rhetorical situation which identifies the relationships between the different elements of the text. These elements include the audience, author or writer, the author’s purpose, the delivery method or medium, and the content:

  • Audience: The audience is simply the readers of a specific piece of text or content or printed material. For speeches or other mediums like film and video, the audience would be the listeners or viewers. Depending on the specific piece of text or the author’s perception, the audience might be real, imagined, or invoked. With a real audience, the author writes to the people actually reading or listening to the content while, for an imaginary audience, the author writes to an audience they imagine would read the content. Similarly, for an invoked audience, the author writes explicitly to a specific audience.
  • Author or writer: The author or writer, also commonly referred to as the rhetor in the context of rhetorical analysis, is the person or the group of persons who authored the text or content.
  • The author’s purpose: The author’s purpose is the author’s reason for communicating to the audience. In other words, the author’s purpose encompasses what the author expects or intends to achieve with the text or content.
  • Alphabetic text includes essays, editorials, articles, speeches, and other written pieces.
  • Imaging includes website and magazine advertisements, TV commercials, and the like.
  • Audio includes speeches, website advertisements, radio or tv commercials, or podcasts.
  • Context: The context of the text or content considers the time, place, and circumstances surrounding the delivery of the text to its audience. With respect to context, it might often also be helpful to analyze the text in a different context to determine its impact on a different audience and in different circumstances.

An author will use claims, supports, and warrants to build the case around their argument, irrespective of whether the argument is logical and clearly defined or needs to be inferred by the audience:

  • Claim: The claim is the main idea or opinion of an argument that the author must prove to the intended audience. In other words, the claim is the fact or facts the author wants to convince the audience of. Claims are usually explicitly stated but can, depending on the specific piece of content or text, be implied from the content. Although these claims could be anything and an argument may be based on a single or several claims, the key is that these claims should be debatable.
  • Support: The supports are used by the author to back up the claims they make in their argument. These supports can include anything from fact-based, objective evidence to subjective emotional appeals and personal experiences used by the author to convince the audience of a specific claim. Either way, the stronger and more reliable the supports, the more likely the audience will be to accept the claim.
  • Warrant: The warrants are the logic and assumptions that connect the supports to the claims. In other words, they’re the assumptions that make the initial claim possible. The warrant is often unstated, and the author assumes that the audience will be able to understand the connection between the claims and supports. In turn, this is based on the author’s assumption that they share a set of values and beliefs with the audience that will make them understand the connection mentioned above. Conversely, if the audience doesn’t share these beliefs and values with the author, the argument will not be that effective.

Appeals are used by authors to convince their audience and, as such, are an integral part of the rhetoric and are often referred to as the rhetorical triangle. As a result, an author may combine all three appeals to convince their audience:

  • Ethos: Ethos represents the authority or credibility of the author. To be successful, the author needs to convince the audience of their authority or credibility through the language and delivery techniques they use. This will, for example, be the case where an author writing on a technical subject positions themselves as an expert or authority by referring to their qualifications or experience.
  • Logos: Logos refers to the reasoned argument the author uses to persuade their audience. In other words, it refers to the reasons or evidence the author proffers in substantiation of their claims and can include facts, statistics, and other forms of evidence. For this reason, logos is also the dominant approach in academic writing where authors present and build up arguments using reasoning and evidence.
  • Pathos: Through pathos, also referred to as the pathetic appeal, the author attempts to evoke the audience’s emotions through the use of, for instance, passionate language, vivid imagery, anger, sympathy, or any other emotional response.

To write a rhetorical analysis, you need to follow the steps below:

With a rhetorical analysis, you don’t choose concepts in advance and apply them to a specific text or piece of content. Rather, you’ll have to analyze the text to identify the separate components and plan and prepare your analysis accordingly.

Here, it might be helpful to use the SOAPSTone technique to identify the components of the work. SOAPSTone is a common acronym in analysis and represents the:

  • Speaker . Here, you’ll identify the author or the narrator delivering the content to the audience.
  • Occasion . With the occasion, you’ll identify when and where the story takes place and what the surrounding context is.
  • Audience . Here, you’ll identify who the audience or intended audience is.
  • Purpose . With the purpose, you’ll need to identify the reason behind the text or what the author wants to achieve with their writing.
  • Subject . You’ll also need to identify the subject matter or topic of the text.
  • Tone . The tone identifies the author’s feelings towards the subject matter or topic.

Apart from gathering the information and analyzing the components mentioned above, you’ll also need to examine the appeals the author uses in writing the text and attempting to persuade the audience of their argument. Moreover, you’ll need to identify elements like word choice, word order, repetition, analogies, and imagery the writer uses to get a reaction from the audience.

Once you’ve gathered the information and examined the appeals and strategies used by the author as mentioned above, you’ll need to answer some questions relating to the information you’ve collected from the text. The answers to these questions will help you determine the reasons for the choices the author made and how well these choices support the overall argument.

Here, some of the questions you’ll ask include:

  • What was the author’s intention?
  • Who was the intended audience?
  • What is the author’s argument?
  • What strategies does the author use to build their argument and why do they use those strategies?
  • What appeals the author uses to convince and persuade the audience?
  • What effect the text has on the audience?

Keep in mind that these are just some of the questions you’ll ask, and depending on the specific text, there might be others.

Once you’ve done your preparation, you can start writing the rhetorical analysis. It will start off with an introduction which is a clear and concise paragraph that shows you understand the purpose of the text and gives more information about the author and the relevance of the text.

The introduction also summarizes the text and the main ideas you’ll discuss in your analysis. Most importantly, however, is your thesis statement . This statement should be one sentence at the end of the introduction that summarizes your argument and tempts your audience to read on and find out more about it.

After your introduction, you can proceed with the body of your analysis. Here, you’ll write at least three paragraphs that explain the strategies and techniques used by the author to convince and persuade the audience, the reasons why the writer used this approach, and why it’s either successful or unsuccessful.

You can structure the body of your analysis in several ways. For example, you can deal with every strategy the author uses in a new paragraph, but you can also structure the body around the specific appeals the author used or chronologically.

No matter how you structure the body and your paragraphs, it’s important to remember that you support each one of your arguments with facts, data, examples, or quotes and that, at the end of every paragraph, you tie the topic back to your original thesis.

Finally, you’ll write the conclusion of your rhetorical analysis. Here, you’ll repeat your thesis statement and summarize the points you’ve made in the body of your analysis. Ultimately, the goal of the conclusion is to pull the points of your analysis together so you should be careful to not raise any new issues in your conclusion.

After you’ve finished your conclusion, you’ll end your analysis with a powerful concluding statement of why your argument matters and an invitation to conduct more research if needed.

A rhetorical analysis aims to explore the goals and motivations of an author, the techniques they’ve used to reach their audience, and how successful these techniques were. Although rhetorical analysis is most used by academics as part of scholarly work, it can be used to analyze any text including speeches, novels, television shows or films, advertisements, or cartoons.

The steps to write a rhetorical analysis include:

Your rhetorical analysis introduction is a clear and concise paragraph that shows you understand the purpose of the text and gives more information about the author and the relevance of the text. The introduction also summarizes the text and the main ideas you’ll discuss in your analysis.

Ethos represents the authority or credibility of the author. To be successful, the author needs to convince the audience of their authority or credibility through the language and delivery techniques they use. This will, for example, be the case where an author writing on a technical subject positions themselves as an expert or authority by referring to their qualifications or experience.

Appeals are used by authors to convince their audience and, as such, are an integral part of the rhetoric and are often referred to as the rhetorical triangle. The 3 types of appeals are ethos, logos, and pathos.

how to conclude rhetorical essay

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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis

Last Updated: April 2, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,378,693 times.

A rhetorical analysis can be written about other texts, television shows, films, collections of artwork, or a variety of other communicative mediums that attempt to make a statement to an intended audience. In order to write a rhetorical analysis, you need to be able to determine how the creator of the original work attempts to make his or her argument. You can also include information about whether or not that argument is successful. To learn more about the right way to write a rhetorical analysis, continue reading.

Gathering Information

Step 1 Identify the SOAPSTone.

  • The speaker refers to the first and last name of the writer. If the writer has any credentials that lend to his or her authority on the matter at hand, you should also briefly consider those. Note that if the narrator is different from the writer, though, it could also refer to the narrator.
  • The occasion mostly refers to the type of text and the context under which the text was written. For instance, there is a big difference between an essay written for a scholarly conference and a letter written to an associate in the field.
  • The audience is who the text was written for. This is related to the occasion, since the occasion can include details about the audience. In the example above, the audience would be a conference of scholars versus an associate in the field.
  • The purpose refers to what the writer wants to accomplish in the text. It usually includes selling a product or point of view.
  • The subject is simply the topic the writer discusses in the text.

Step 2 Examine the appeals.

  • Ethos, or ethical appeals, rely on the writer's credibility and character in the garnering of approval. Mentions of a writer's character or qualifications usually qualify as ethos. For instance, if a family therapist with 20 years of practice writes an article on improving familial relations, mention of that experience would be using ethos. Despite their name, these appeals don't have anything to do with "ethics" as we usually think of them.
  • Logos, or logical appeals, use reason to make an argument. Most academic discourse should make heavy use of logos. A writer who supports an argument with evidence, data, and undeniable facts uses logos.
  • Pathos, or pathetic appeals, seek to evoke emotion in order to gain approval. These emotions can include anything from sympathy and anger to the desire for love. If an article about violent crime provides personal, human details about victims of violent crime, the writer is likely using pathos.

Step 3 Note style details.

  • Analogies and figurative language, including metaphors and similes, demonstrate an idea through comparison.
  • Repetition of a certain point or idea is used to make that point seem more memorable.
  • Imagery often affects pathos. The image of a starving child in a low income country can be a powerful way of evoking compassion or anger.
  • Diction refers to word choice. Emotionally-charged words have greater impact, and rhythmic word patterns can establish a theme more effectively.
  • Tone essentially means mood or attitude. A sarcastic essay is vastly different from a scientific one, but depending on the situation, either tone could be effective.
  • Addressing the opposition demonstrates that the writer is not afraid of the opposing viewpoint. It also allows the writer to strengthen his or her own argument by cutting down the opposing one. This is especially powerful when the author contrasts a strong viewpoint he or she holds with a weak viewpoint on the opposing side.

Step 4 Form an analysis.

  • Ask yourself how the rhetorical strategies of appeals and style help the author achieve his or her purpose. Determine if any of these strategies fail and hurt the author instead of helping.
  • Speculate on why the author may have chosen those rhetorical strategies for that audience and that occasion. Determine if the choice of strategies may have differed for a different audience or occasion.
  • Remember that in a rhetorical analysis, you do not need to agree with the argument being presented. Your task is to analyze how well the author uses the appeals to present her or his argument.

Writing the Introduction

Step 1 Identify your own purpose.

  • By letting the reader know that your paper is a rhetorical analysis, you let him or her know exactly what to expect. If you do not let the reader know this information beforehand, he or she may expect to read an evaluative argument instead.
  • Do not simply state, "This paper is a rhetorical analysis." Weave the information into the introduction as naturally as possible.
  • Note that this may not be necessary if you are writing a rhetorical analysis for an assignment that specifically calls for a rhetorical analysis.

Step 2 State the text being analyzed.

  • The introduction is a good place to give a quick summary of the document. Keep it quick, though. Save the majority of the details for your body paragraphs, since most of the details will be used in defending your analysis.

Step 3 Briefly mention the SOAPS.

  • You do not necessarily need to mention these details in this order. Include the details in a matter that makes sense and flows naturally within your introductory paragraph.

Step 4 Specify a thesis statement.

  • Try stating which rhetorical techniques the writer uses in order to move people toward his or her desired purpose. Analyze how well these techniques accomplish this goal.
  • Consider narrowing the focus of your essay. Choose one or two design aspects that are complex enough to spend an entire essay analyzing.
  • Think about making an original argument. If your analysis leads you to make a certain argument about the text, focus your thesis and essay around that argument and provide support for it throughout the body of your paper.
  • Try to focus on using words such as "effective" or "ineffective" when composing your thesis, rather than "good" or "bad." You want to avoid seeming like you are passing value judgments.

Writing the Body

Step 1 Organize your body paragraphs by rhetorical appeals.

  • The order of logos, ethos, and pathos is not necessarily set in stone. If you intend to focus on one more than the other two, you could briefly cover the two lesser appeals in the first two sections before elaborating on the third in greater detail toward the middle and end of the paper.
  • For logos, identify at least one major claim and evaluate the document's use of objective evidence.
  • For ethos, analyze how the writer or speaker uses his or her status as an "expert" to enhance credibility.
  • For pathos, analyze any details that alter the way that the viewer or reader may feel about the subject at hand. Also analyze any imagery used to appeal to aesthetic senses, and determine how effective these elements are.
  • Wrap things up by discussing the consequences and overall impact of these three appeals.

Step 2 Write your analysis in chronological order, instead.

  • Start from the beginning of the document and work your way through to the end. Present details about the document and your analysis of those details in the order the original document presents them in.
  • The writer of the original document likely organized the information carefully and purposefully. By addressing the document in this order, your analysis is more likely to make more coherent sense by the end of your paper.

Step 3 Provide plenty of evidence and support.

  • Evidence often include a great deal of direct quotation and paraphrasing.
  • Point to spots in which the author mentioned his or her credentials to explain ethos. Identify emotional images or words with strong emotional connotations as ways of supporting claims to pathos. Mention specific data and facts used in analysis involving logos.

Step 4 Maintain an objective tone.

  • Avoid use of the first-person words "I" and "we." Stick to the more objective third-person.

Writing the Conclusion

Step 1 Restate your thesis.

  • When restating your thesis, you should be able to quickly analyze how the original author's purpose comes together.
  • When restating your thesis, try to bring more sophistication or depth to it than you had in the beginning. What can the audience now understand about your thesis that they would not have without reading your analysis?

Step 2 Restate your main ideas.

  • Keep this information brief. You spent an entire essay supporting your thesis, so these restatements of your main ideas should only serve as summaries of your support.

Step 3 Specify if further research needs to be done.

  • Indicate what that research must entail and how it would help.
  • Also state why the subject matter is important enough to continue researching and how it has significance to the real world.

Writing Help

how to conclude rhetorical essay

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Community Answer

  • Avoid the use of "In conclusion..." While many writers may be taught to end conclusion paragraphs with this phrase as they first learn to write essays, you should never include this phrase in an essay written at a higher academic level. This phrase and the information that usually follows it is empty information that only serves to clutter up your final paragraph. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Do not introduce any new information in your conclusion. Summarize the important details of the essay. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Do not argue in an analysis. Focus on the "how" they made their point, not if it's good or not. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how to conclude rhetorical essay

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  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/academic_writing/establishing_arguments/rhetorical_strategies.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.tamu.edu/Students/Writing-Speaking-Guides/Alphabetical-List-of-Guides/Academic-Writing/Analysis/Rhetorical-Analysis
  • ↑ https://courses.lumenlearning.com/englishcomp1/chapter/text-an-overview-of-the-rhetorical-modes/
  • ↑ https://oer.pressbooks.pub/informedarguments/chapter/rhetorical-modes-of-writing/
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/visual_rhetoric/analyzing_visual_documents/organizing_your_analysis.html
  • ↑ https://www.pfw.edu/offices/learning-support/documents/WriteARhetoricalAnalysis.pdf

About This Article

Megan Morgan, PhD

To write a rhetorical analysis, start by determining what the author of the work you're analyzing is trying to argue. Then, ask yourself if they succeeded in making their argument. Whether you think they did or didn't, include quotes and specific examples in your analysis to back up your opinion. When you're writing your analysis, use the third-person to appear objective as opposed to using "I" or "we." Also, make sure you include the author's name, profession, and purpose for writing the text at the beginning of your analysis to give reader's some context. To learn different ways to structure your rhetorical analysis from our English Ph.D. co-author, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Your chance of acceptance, your chancing factors, extracurriculars, tips for writing a rhetorical analysis essay.

In my English class, we have to write a rhetorical analysis essay and I've never done one before. Can anyone give me some advice on how to break down the text and write a solid essay? I'd really appreciate any help you guys can provide!

First and foremost, it's essential to understand the basic structure of a rhetorical analysis essay and what the purpose is. Rhetorical analysis essays focus on examining how authors use rhetorical strategies (such as ethos, pathos, and logos) to create an argument or persuade the audience. Here is a step-by-step guide to help you write an effective rhetorical analysis essay:

1. Carefully read the text: Begin by reading the text multiple times to ensure that you thoroughly understand the arguments presented. Note down significant points, arguments, and claims made by the author.

2. Identify rhetorical strategies: After understanding the text, identify the rhetorical strategies the author uses, such as ethos (credibility), pathos (emotional appeal), and logos (logical appeal). Keep in mind that authors may also utilize rhetorical devices like analogy, juxtaposition, or irony to enrich their arguments.

3. Analyze the effectiveness of rhetorical strategies: Examine how the rhetorical strategies contribute to the author's purpose and message. Assess the effectiveness of each strategy and how they work in tandem to persuade the audience.

4. Develop a thesis statement: Craft a concise and clear thesis statement that outlines your essay's focus. The thesis should articulate the author's purpose, the rhetorical strategies used, and your analysis of their effectiveness.

5. Outline your essay: Create an outline that includes the introduction, main points supporting your thesis, and a conclusion. This will help you organize your thoughts and ensure a coherent flow throughout the essay.

6. Write the introduction: In the introduction, provide some background on the text and author, as well as a brief summary of the main arguments. Your thesis statement should be placed at the end of the introduction.

7. Develop body paragraphs: Each body paragraph should focus on one rhetorical strategy, starting with a topic sentence that connects to your thesis statement. Then, provide evidence from the text to illustrate the strategy's use and effectiveness. Finally, analyze how the strategy contributes to the author's overall message and purpose.

8. Write the conclusion: Summarize your analysis, restate your thesis, and discuss the implications or significance of your findings. Avoid introducing new ideas in this section.

9. Revise and edit: Make sure to proofread your essay and revise any errors in grammar, syntax, or punctuation. Also, check for clarity, coherence, and cohesion throughout the essay.

By following these steps and maintaining a clear focus on the author's rhetorical strategies, you'll be well on your way to crafting a strong rhetorical analysis essay. Good luck!

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Rhetorical Analysis Essay

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Nova A.

Crafting an Effective Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline - Free Samples!

10 min read

rhetorical analysis essay outline

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Rhetorical Analysis Essay - A Complete Guide With Examples

320+ Best Rhetorical Analysis Essay Topics

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example - Free Samples

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos - Structure, Usage & Examples

Have you ever stared at a blank page, wondering how to begin your rhetorical analysis essay?

You're not alone. Many students find the first step, creating an outline, to be a challenge. 

The truth is - tackling a rhetorical analysis without a well-structured outline can lead to confusion and disorganization. But fear not because there's a solution.

In this blog, we will show you how you can create a rhetorical analysis essay outline. By the end, you’ll have a thorough understanding of what your outline should look like. 

So, keep reading to find out how you can beat the blank pages!

Arrow Down

  • 1. What Is Rhetorical Analysis Essay?
  • 2. Why Create a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline?
  • 3. Components of a Rhetorical Analysis Outline
  • 4. Steps to Create a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline
  • 5. Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline Examples

What Is Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

A rhetorical analysis essay is a type of analytical essay that examines how an author uses language and persuasion to get their message across.

It involves analyzing speeches or essays to understand how authors use strategies within the rhetorical triangle to influence their intended audience. These techniques usually involve logical appeal, moral argument, and vivid imagery that appeals to the listener. 

Key Elements to Analyze

In a rhetorical analysis essay, you would be analyzing the text keeping these key rhetorical concepts in mind:

  • Ethos: This concerns the credibility of the author or speaker.
  • Logos: This focuses on the logical aspects of the argument.
  • Pathos: Pathos explores the emotional appeal of the discourse.
  • Style and Tone: This involves analyzing the author's writing style and the overall tone of the text.

These elements provide a structured approach to rhetorical analysis, revealing how effective communication is achieved.

Why Create a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline?

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay requires a writer to draft a structured piece of writing. This essay type is one of the most challenging tasks students are assigned to do for their academics. 

Apart from conducting a strong analysis, a rhetorical analysis essay depends on how perfectly the essay outline is drafted. 

An outline organizes the raw information and makes it understandable for the readers. It serves as your compass, ensuring you stay on course throughout the rhetoric essay. It helps you structure your ideas and arguments, adding clarity to your essay writing process. 

Moreover, an outline works as a checklist for your essay. It assures you that nothing important is missed in the content.

Components of a Rhetorical Analysis Outline

Now that we've explored why creating an essay outline is essential, it's important to explore the different components of a rhetorical analysis outline. 

Here’s a detailed rhetorical analysis essay outline:

Each element plays a crucial role in crafting a well-structured and persuasive analysis, so let's explore them in detail:


The introduction of your rhetorical analysis essay serves as the gateway to your analysis. It's where you captivate your reader's interest, provide essential background information, and present your thesis statement. 

Here are the elements typically included in an introduction paragraph:

  • Hook The " hook " is a sentence or two designed to grab the reader's attention. It could be a thought-provoking quote, a surprising fact, or a compelling question. The purpose is to make your reader interested in what you're about to discuss—how an author uses rhetorical devices.
  • Background Information After the hook, provide some context. Here, you briefly introduce the text you're analyzing, the author or speaker, and the overall topic. It's like giving your reader a map to navigate through your analysis.
  • Thesis Statement The thesis statement is the main argument, your "claim." This concise sentence outlines what you'll be analyzing and what your main points will be. Your thesis should tell the reader what to expect in your analysis.

The body of your essay is where you dissect the author's persuasive techniques and reveal their impact on the audience. It contains sections dedicated to each rhetorical strategy you're examining. 

In these sections, you'll explain the strategies, provide evidence from the text, and offer your insightful analysis of their effectiveness. 

Section for Each Rhetorical Strategy

In the body paragraphs, you'll have sections dedicated to each rhetorical strategy you're analyzing. These sections each will focus on a different aspect of the text. For each strategy, you'll do three things:

  • Explanation of the Strategy Start by explaining what the rhetorical technique is. Define it clearly for your reader. This is like providing a dictionary definition.
  • Examples from the Text Next, provide examples from the text you're analyzing. These are specific quotes or passages where the author or speaker uses the strategy you're discussing. It's like showing your reader the evidence.
  • Analysis of the Effectiveness Finally, analyze how effective the strategy is. This is where you dive deep into the text and explain how and why the strategy persuades the audience. 

The conclusion should leave your readers with a sense of closure and a clear understanding of your analysis. 

You don't introduce new information or arguments in this section; instead, you tie everything together. Here are the three essential elements of an impactful essay conclusion:

  • Restate Thesis Start by restating your thesis to remind readers of your main argument. Repeating your main argument clearly helps the reader tie in all they have read in your essay.
  • Summarize Main Points Summarize the main points from each section of your analysis. This serves as a reminder of the highlights of your arguments made throughout the essay.
  • Final Thoughts Conclude by sharing your thoughts on how the author's strategies affect the audience and the text's broader importance. Encourage readers to consider these strategies' impact and the text's relevance.

This structure in your rhetorical analysis outline ensures that your analysis is clear, well-organized, and persuasive. Each component plays a crucial role in guiding your reader through your analysis.

Steps to Create a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Creating an essay outline is a crucial step in organizing your thoughts and effectively analyzing a piece of rhetoric. Here are the steps to craft an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay:

Step 1 - Choose the Text

Select the piece of rhetoric that you will be analyzing. It could be a speech, a written essay, an advertisement, a political campaign, or any other form of communication.

Step 2 - Identify Rhetorical Devices and Rhetorical Appeals

Look for rhetorical devices such as metaphor, simile, analogy, hyperbole, and alliteration. Analyze how these devices contribute to the message. Identify any repetition, parallelism, or rhetorical questions used in the text.

Moreover, look for common rhetorical appeals i,e., ethos, pathos, and logos.

Step 3 -  Analyze Appeals and Strategies in Each Section

For each argument, dedicate a body paragraph that will analyze how the author/speaker uses ethos, pathos, and logos.

Note the specific rhetorical devices used in each section and their impact.

Step 4 -  Consider the Effect on the Audience

While outlining the last body paragraph, add points that analyze how the appeals are intended to affect the audience.

Consider whether the author/speaker is trying to persuade, inform, entertain, or provoke a specific emotional response. Include specific examples and quotations from the text to support your analysis.

Step 5 -  Filter Out Extra Information

It's important to know what parts of the arguments should be included and which should be filtered out. 

After having a sketch of the introduction and body paragraphs, remove any information that might feel irrelevant.

Step 6 -  Conclude and Summarize

For the ending, make sure to restate your thesis statement. Include points that directly support your arguments and sum up your analysis.

These steps help you plan your essay for a well-structured, clear, and cohesive essay.

Here's a sample rhetorical analysis essay outline template that analyzes ethos, pathos and logos :

Here’s a practice outline:

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline Fill In The Blanks

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline Examples

Here are some rhetorical analysis essay outline pdf that you can use as reference outlines:

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline Ethos Pathos Logos

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline Ap Lang

Visual Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Comparative Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Introduction Outline

Need more help getting started? Check out these expert rhetorical analysis essay examples to get inspired!

In conclusion, you've got the tools and examples you need to ace your rhetorical analysis essay. The steps we've gone through provide a strong starting point for your academic journey into analyzing persuasive writing. 

But if you ever hit a wall or need help with tight deadlines, don't forget our experts are here to lend a helping hand. Our essay writing service for college has helped lots of students like you get top-notch essays.

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How to Write Rhetorical Analysis

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A rhetorical analysis is an essay where you break down a text into its components to examine how these parts work together to create an effect. You will look at elements like the author's use of logos, ethos, and pathos. The goal of a rhetorical analysis essay is not to say if the text is good or bad. Instead, it's about understanding how the author communicates and persuades their audience. You should explain why the author might have chosen specific strategies and whether they are powerful.

Many students reading this article may have never heard about rhetorical essays. It makes sense because usually, only AP English or college students receive such assignments. Still, knowing how to complete one is beneficial. With this guide from  StudyCrumb , you will learn what rhetorical analysis is and which appeals authors can use. You will  find out how to write a rhetorical analysis essay . Cheer yourself up, as after going through our recommendations, you will meet your professor's highest expectations!  

What Is a Rhetorical Analysis

Let's begin with a rhetorical analysis essay definition. It is crucial to understand the differences between various types of papers. As for rhetorical analysis –  it is an essay that focuses on the publication author's main ideas . In contrast to  literary analysis essay , we should be less concerned with what they say and notice how they sound instead. While reading a suggested or assigned piece, students should keep an eye on:  

  • What goals did the author pursue by writing their work?
  • What rhetorical devices did they use?
  • How do they appeal to the reader?

The primary task is breaking a non-fiction work (speech, advertisement, article) into parts. Then, one should define how they perform together to convince, educate or entertain an audience . You shouldn't write about whether you agree or disagree with the author. Alternatively, you aim at discussing how their argument is made and what tone they use. Evaluate their approach in terms of being successful.

Rhetorical Appeals

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay requires you to understand and distinguish rhetorical appeals. These persuasive techniques are used to convince readers and get their approval by calling to emotions, experience, and other characteristics of human nature. There are three main kinds of appeals:  ethos, pathos, and logos . In his book " Rhetoric ," Aristotle brought these concepts to life. Now, these rhetorical techniques are excellent strategies that authors use to persuade their audience. But what exactly do these terms mean? Let's make it clear:  

  • Ethos As an ethical appeal, this approach focuses on proving that your expertise in subject matter is superior. The primary goal of using this technique is to make readers believe you. Provide evidence of your qualification and achieve stunning impact.
  • Pathos This approach suggests you call upon audience's emotions. In this context, pathetic doesn't mean something negative. Effective use of this concept can conjure various feelings in one's mind. Sympathy, anger, compassion, sadness – all of these can be used to make your audience accept your argument and acquire endorsement.
  • Logos It is a logical appeal that uses interpretation and evidence to prove an issue. One can notice this type of technique in academic writing as well. Most academic audiences appreciate logos-driven methods because they help provide undeniable facts and data.

Summing it up, a good persuasive argument can include all of these appeals. So if you want to make a massive impact on your public in your writing, consider using all of them.

Main kinds of rhetorical appeals: ethos, pathos, and logos

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

By now, you might be wondering: "How to start a rhetorical analysis essay?" The answer is clear – start with text evaluation. In context of rhetorical analysis, it's not necessarily a written piece you should review. It could also be a commercial, debate, or illustration. In such cases, you should also mind imagery and sound aspects. While analyzing your text, consider applying the  SOAPS  action plan. Here, the first  S  stands for speaker,  O  – occasion,  A  – audience,  P  – purpose, and the last S is for subject. To put it into practice when you read the text, ask yourself these questions:  

  • Who is the author?
  • Why did they decide to write the article?
  • Who are the readers, and why is the author appealing to them?
  • What were the author's intentions while writing the piece?
  • What is the author's main argument?

Lastly, you should closely examine the text's main point. Find an explicitly stated claim, define presented evidence that supports it. After that, find the warrant – reasoning that connects supporting evidence with a claim. Also, look at rhetorical appeals the writer uses and outline them in your paper.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Introduction

Once you complete your analysis part, get ready to write a rhetorical essay introduction. It should give your readers a message of what your paper will be about. An appropriately crafted opening paragraph should include:

  • Hook Start your paper with a catchy sentence to grab your readers' attention. This way, you will stir up their interest to know what comes next in your written piece.
  • Background on the context Add some relevant information about your subject to let readers know what exactly you are analyzing. Some exclusive details that might expand the context can also be helpful for such purposes. Refer to the author and their publication title in this part.
  • Thesis statement Your thesis should be the fundamental argument you make regarding author's rhetorical techniques used throughout the text. It should be a clear statement that defines your approach to analyzing the publication. Also, you can create a statement by Rhetorical Analysis Thesis Statement Generator .

Rhetorical analysis essay introduction

Rhetorical Paper: Body Paragraphs

The main body of a rhetorical analysis paper is where you directly describe your findings of a text. It usually consists of 3 paragraphs. Sometimes you can focus on a single appeal in each section. Dedicate one for showing how pathos works, the other one for ethos, and the last one for logos. However, it's not always necessary to follow this structure. If the text's part you are analyzing includes specifics of two concepts at once, you can outline this in a single paragraph. Start each section with a topic sentence  that gives an overview of what this paragraph will be about. Include quotations from your text as evidence and cite them correctly to avoid plagiarism. Next, express your argument by analyzing how this piece of text functions in rhetoric using ethos, pathos, or logos concepts.  End each body paragraph with a brief concluding statement that shows the core of your analysis . And remember: your main body sections should directly relate to the thesis statement you have developed before.   

Rhetorical analysis essay body paragraphs

Rhetorical Analysis: Essay Conclusion

Last but not least, let's find out how to conclude a rhetorical analysis essay. This paragraph should draw the final line in your paper. There are a couple of simple recommendations that will help to answer the question, " How to write a good conclusion for an easy ?"

  • Begin with a brief synopsis of the claims you made in your essay.
  • Extend background by emphasizing relevance of analysis.
  • Conclude your investigation with a powerful, noteworthy statement leaving food for thought for your readers.

Rhetorical analysis essay Conclusion

After you've completed your essay, all that's left is editing and proofreading. Don't skip this process, and never overestimate your abilities. It's always better to double-check what you've done and ensure that your work is impeccable. You may need rhetorical analysis topics for your essay. Check them out in our blog.

Bottom Line

A rhetorical analysis essay can be a tricky task. Nevertheless, writing one following our tips will help you breeze through this assignment and get a high grade. As you've got all necessary tools, completing this task won't be a headache anymore.


If you still have questions or require writing help, feel free to contact us 24/7. Our team of professional writers will be delighted to assist you. If you need a rhetorical analysis paper, coursework, or any other type of work, we will do it for you. Expect a timely delivery and top-notch quality!  

Frequently Asked Questions

1. how many sources do i need in a rhetorical analysis essay.

As for the primary source – it will be the one you are analyzing. Secondary sources will help you find good evidence and data, as well as some relevant background information. So stick to 3-5 sources for first-rate outcome unless rubric given by your professor states otherwise.

2. How to write a visual rhetorical analysis?

The main idea is to choose good visuals – a photo, film scene, or youtube video. Then analyze it paying attention to selected visual choices, controversies, or elements that may seem irrelevant. After that, review popular media to see what other people think about your piece. Perhaps, you will determine that some of them feel exactly like you do. In the analysis part, mention your findings. Try to answer such questions:

  • Who cares about all this visual stuff?
  • What emotions does it bring?
  • How do chosen visual elements invoke these feelings?
  • Is there any allegory behind the visuals?


Daniel Howard is an Essay Writing guru. He helps students create essays that will strike a chord with the readers.


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Rhetorical Analysis Essay Conclusion Writing Guide

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By using our telepathic abilities, we discovered that you are struggling to write the conclusion of a rhetorical essay. First of all, take a deep breath and prepare yourself to learn the secrets of ending a rhetorical analysis perfectly. Buckle up and follow this  research paper writer  into the exclusive conclusion writing guide.

rhetorical analysis essay

Table of Contents

What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

As the name suggests, this type of essay aims to analyze someone’s rhetorical essay and detect how they used rhetorical techniques to engage and influence the audience in a particular way. Most rhetorical analytical essays use the following five-component approach to analyze a situation:

  • Qualitative Research Topic
  • Content 

5 Expert Tips For How to End A Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

Ending a rhetorical essay is very important because it is the crux of the entire essay. A conclusion summarizes all the ideas and arguments discussed in the essay, and it is going to help readers understand what key results they have achieved through the essay. It gives a proper closure to your essay ideas and main thesis statement. In the below section we have shared four expert tips that can help you write a perfect conclusion for your rhetorical analytical essay.

Stay Away From Restating Your Thesis Statement

Basically, the  process of writing thesis statements  in the conclusion by restating is an old practice that is functional but outdated. If you want your essay to become effective and comprehensive, try to rewrite your thesis statement in different words. To present the main idea of the essay in a different way makes your essay more defensible and credible.

Do Not Recap Your Essay In the End

What is the basic rule for ending a rhetorical analysis essay? You need to understand that the ending statement is not for recapping the entire essay and discussing the main arguments once again. If you recap the essay, the reader will not consider it a reading-worthy conclusion. You should briefly mention the main keywords of the arguments and focus more on what purpose your essay has served through research. You need to reveal what your essay has added to the knowledge of the readers.

Call To Action

Always make a call for action points in the closing statement of the essay. You need to tell the audience what ultimate result they can take from your essay. Giving a solid call to action explains how the reader will be affected by the main findings of the essay and how they can benefit from it. The conclusion with a call to action will demand attentiveness and interest from the reader and determine how the topic can impact different aspects of their lives.

Reflect On the Primary Purpose

You need to reflect on the primary purpose of the rhetorical analysis essay and the ultimate message of the essay. You need to tell your audience what the actual purpose of writing the essay is and what message you want to convey through your research. You need to extract the abstract concept that overviews and ties all the points of the essay together.

It looks over the bigger image and makes the reader think of how impactful the topic is in its respective domain. Make the message of your essay up-to-date and relevant to the trends and advancements of this day.

Avoid Obvious Cliche Phrases

How to end a rhetorical analysis essay? To make your essay effective, you need to stay away from cliche, overused, and obvious phrases like in conclusion, in summary, and to sum up. These phrases will lower the impact of what you wanted to convey and also risk the credibility of your essay. Impactful essays don’t need help from these obvious phrases since they look so overused that it makes the reader roll their eyes.

Instead, use some catching phrases that will hook the reader’s attention to the primary message of the essay. For this you should practice  how to write a hook  in this essay. You can start closing your statement by mentioning the key result first and then explaining its impact on the reader and on that specific area of study. You need to be clear about why your essay is important and worth reading.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay aims to analyze and interpret someone’s rhetorical work. Such essays will not be completed without a compelling conclusion. To write the best closing statement, writers need to refrain from restating the thesis statement, recapping the entire essay, putting a call to action, reflecting the primary message, and avoiding cliche phrases.

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how to conclude rhetorical essay

How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Essay

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  • AP Lang Rhetorical Essay Example

How Will AP Scores Affect College Chances?

The AP English Language Exam is one of the most common AP exams you can take. However, the average score on the exam in 2020 was a 2.96 out of 5. While this may seem a bit low, it is important to note that over 550,000 students take the exam annually. With some preparation and knowing how to study, it is totally possible to do well on this AP exam.

The AP Lang Rhetorical Essay is one section of the AP English Language Exam. The exam itself is 3 hours and 15 minutes long, and is broken into two sections. The first part of the exam is a 60 minute, 45-question multiple-choice section. The questions on this part of the exam will test your ability to read a passage and then interpret its meaning, style, and overall themes. After the multiple-choice section, there is a section lasting 2 hours and 15 minutes with three “free response” essays. This includes the synthesis essay, the rhetorical analysis essay, and the argument essay. 

  • In the synthesis essay , you will have to develop an argument using pieces of evidence provided to you. 
  • The argumentative essay will have you pick a side in a debate and argue for or against it.
  • The rhetorical essay requires that you discuss how an author’s written passage contributes to a greater meaning or theme. 

The rhetorical essay is perhaps the most unique of all AP Lang exam essays because it requires the test taker to analyze and interpret the deeper meanings of the passage and connect them to the author’s writing style and writing syntax in only 40 minutes. This essay can be the trickiest because it requires you to have knowledge of rhetorical strategies and then apply them to a passage you’ve never seen before.

1. Outline Your Essay Before Writing

One of the most important parts of the AP Lang essays is structuring your essay so that it makes sense to the reader. This is just as important as having good content. For this essay in particular, you’ll want to read the passage first and write a brief outline of your points before you begin the essay. This is because you will want to write the essay using the passage chronologically, which will be discussed in detail below.

2. Understand Rhetorical Strategies 

If you feel like you don’t know where to start as you prepare to study for the rhetorical essay portion of the exam, you aren’t alone. It is imperative that you have a grasp on what rhetorical strategies are and how you can use them in your essay. One definition of rhetoric is “language carefully chosen and arranged for maximum effect.” This can include types of figurative language (metaphor, simile, personification, pun, irony, etc.) elements of syntax (parallelism, juxtaposition, anthesis, anaphora, etc), logical fallacies, or persuasive appeals. Overall, there are many elements that you can analyze in an essay and having a good grasp on them through practice and memorization is important.

3. Keep the Essay Well Structured 

Even if you understand the various rhetorical strategies you can use, where do you begin? First of all, you’ll want to write a strong introduction that outlines the purpose of the piece. At the end of this introduction, you will write a thesis statement that encapsulates all the rhetorical strategies you discuss. Perhaps these are style elements, tone, or syntax. Be sure to be specific as you list these.

Next, you will create your body paragraphs. As you discuss the rhetorical elements in the piece and tie them back to the work’s meanings, be sure to discuss the points in chronological order. You don’t have to discuss every single strategy, but just pick the ones that are most important. Be sure to cite the line where you found the example. At the end of the essay, write a short conclusion that summarizes the major points above.

4. Be Sure to Explain Your Examples

As you write the essay, don’t just list out your examples and say something like “this is an example of ethos, logos, pathos.” Instead, analyze how the example shows that rhetoric device and how it helps the author further their argument. As you write the rhetorical essay, you’ll want to be as specific and detail-focused as possible. 

how to conclude rhetorical essay

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AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

Below is a prompt and example for a rhetorical essay, along with its score and what the writer did well and could have improved:

The passage below is an excerpt from “On the Want of Money,” an essay written by nineteenth-century author William Hazlitt. Read the passage carefully. Then write an essay in which you analyze the rhetorical strategies Hazlitt uses to develop his position about money.

how to conclude rhetorical essay

Student essay example:

In his essay, Hazlitt develops his position on money through careful use of adjectives and verbs, hypothetical situations, and images. His examples serve to impress upon the reader the highly negative consequences of being in “want of money.”

Hazlitt’s word choice in his opening phrase provides an example of his technique in the rest of the essay. It is not necessary to follow “literally” with “truly” yet his repetition of the same ideas emphasizes his point. In his next sentence, one that lasts forty-six lines, Hazlitt condignly repeats similar ideas, beating into his audience the necessity of having money in this world. The parallelism throughout that one long sentence, “it is not to be sent for to court, or asked out to dinner…it is not to have your own opinion consulted or sees rejected with contempt..” ties the many different situations Haziltt gives together. What could have become a tedious spiel instead becomes a melodious recitation, each example reminding you of one before it, either because of the similarities in structure or content. Hazlitt addresses many different negative effects of not having money but manages to tie them together with his rhetorical strategies. 

The diction of the passage fully relays Hazlitt’s position about money. In every example he gives a negative situation but in most emphasizes the terrible circumstance with strong negative adjectives or verbs. “Rejected,” “contempt,” “disparaged,” “scrutinized,” “irksome,” “deprived,” “assailed” “chagrin;” the endless repetition of such discouragement shows how empathetically Hazlitt believes money is a requisite for a happy life. Even the irony of the last sentences is negative, conveying the utter hopelessness of one without money. Through one may have none in life, pitiless men will proceed to mock one’s circumstances, “at a considerable expense” after death! 

In having as the body of his essay one long sentence, Hazlitt creates a flow that speeds the passage along, hardly giving the reader time to absorb one idea before another is thrown at him. The unceasing flow is synonymous with Hazlitt’s view of the life of a person without money: he will be “jostled” through life, unable to stop and appreciate the beauty around him or to take time for his own leisure. 

The score on this essay was a 6 out of 6. This essay started out very strong as the student had a concrete thesis statement explaining the strategies that Hazlitt used to develop his position on money as well as Hazlitt’s belief on the topic. In the thesis statement, the student points out that adjectives, verbs, hypothetical situations, and images help prove Hazlitt’s point that wanting money can be problematic. 

Next, the student broke down their points into three main subsections related to their thesis. More specifically, the student first discusses word choice of repetition and parallelism. When the student discusses these strategies, they list evidence in the paragraph that can be found chronologically in Hazlitt’s essay. The next paragraph is about diction, and the student used specific adjectives and verbs that support this idea. In the last paragraph, the student emphasized how the speed and flow of the essay helped describe Hazlitt’s viewpoint on life. This last concluding sentence is particularly thoughtful, as it goes beyond the explicit points made in the essay and discusses the style and tone of the writing. 

It is important to remember that in some ways, the rhetorical essay is also an argumentative essay, as the student must prove how certain rhetorical strategies are used and their significance in the essay. The student even discussed the irony of the paragraph, which is not explicit in the passage.

Overall, this student did an excellent job organizing and structuring the essay and did a nice job using evidence to prove their points. 

Now that you’ve learned about the AP Lang rhetorical essay, you may be wondering how your AP scores impact your chances of admission. In fact, your AP scores have relatively little impact on your admissions decision , and your course rigor has much more weight in the application process.

If you’d like to know your chances of admission, be sure to check out our chancing calculator! This tool takes into account your classes, extracurriculars, demographic information, and test scores to understand your chances at admission at over 600 schools. Best of all, it is completely free!

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Printing a New Age of Design: A Rhetorical Analysis of Neri Oxman’s TED Talk: “Design at the Intersection of Technology and Biology”

By Jason Piechota

Published: June 06, 2024

a tree growing through an opening with curved stairs wrapping around it

Could scientists 3D print a human? What about a finger? As the ability to additively manufacture and 3D print components became easier and cheaper with the 2000s, designers looked to additive manufacturing as a potential way to approach new design problems. One designer, Neri Oxaman, details her work with additive manufacturing within a biological framework in her 2015 TED Talk, “Design at the Intersection of Technology and Biology.” In the talk, Neri Oxman’s use of comparison between current design and her work establishes a base for her argument that her technology is more sustainable than current design. Oxman then utilizes different rhetorical devices to create a presentation that focuses on appeals to the audience’s values and involvement in design, which aid in creating a persuasive argument for the implementation of her technology.

Neri Oxman employs a harsh juxtaposition between manmade and natural language to appeal to the world’s rising belief that design should shift to more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods. In 2015, the same year as the TED Talk, the United Nations launched their sustainable development agenda to address the growing movement towards creating a more sustainable future. Part of the plan of action is the 2030 Agenda, which calls for creating “sustainable cities and communities” alongside “responsible production and consumption” (“Support Sustainable Development”). In the linguistic mode of the talk, Oxman “focuses on [her] language use and specific word choice” to appeal to the growing call for sustainable design (Carroll 55). Oxman highlights the difference between parts and continuous material, noting that a steel dome is “made of thousands of steel parts,” while the silk dome is made “of a single silk thread” (Oxman 00:01-00:26). The comparison between “thousands” and “single” emphasizes the difference in the large quantities of the world’s common assemblies to her new work. “Steel parts” and “silk thread” also illuminates that while her technology is still developed by man, it is entirely made of a component that has already existed in nature and was not manufactured by man. The manufacturing of “thousands” of man made steel parts can create environmentally harmful byproducts when being produced, while the cultivating the “silk thread” from a caterpillar creates no negative effect. Oxman continues that the steel dome is “synthetic,” and “the other [dome] organic” (Oxman 00:01-00:26). Directly pitting “synthetic” with “organic” suggests that Oxman’s work is produced in a more sustainable method than current design. “Organic” gives the impression that Oxman’s design can be decomposed in a safe manner, while “synthetic” brings connotations of materials that will either fail to decay, or will harm the environment. Through her careful language choice, Oxman creates an image of her work that emphasizes a new sustainable way of design in order to produce materials that do not generate negative environmental effects through their production or decomposition.

Oxman builds off of the juxtaposition to illuminate the similarities in overall function between her work and current design through the use of visual aids. The start of Oxman’s presentation immediately shows two different domes, side by side (See fig. 1), as she uses the visual aids to “position the spectator as an active participant in the making of meaning” (Benson 197). She places a manufactured dome on the left side of the visual, and her silk designed dome on the right side. As the viewer progresses from the left to right, they are invited to interpret the connection between the two domes. Oxman’s visual of her designed dome having a similar shape, structure, and background lighting pushes the audience to “make meaning” of the direct comparison between the two domes. The similarities in the visuals allows the audience to imply that the new design has an analogous function to the one of the currently accepted dome. Oxman continues by using a technique of reframing the photographs in order to “provide close-ups of [things] barely noticeable in the original photograph, thus inviting viewers to question why this is so” (Lancioni 398). She drastically zooms in on the two domes to show their structures (See fig. 2). The clear similarity in color and web-like appearance pushes the audience to draw the conclusion that the function and structure of the newly designed dome follows the current approach, but takes a new approach. Oxman then looks to influence the connotation the audience has with her new design by placing visuals of models wearing her work on modeling runways (See fig. 3). The visual of the technology in a modeling show encourages the audience to associate runway fashion qualities of luxury, high quality, and innovation with Oxman’s work. Oxman’s use of visual aids helps her subtly promote the message that her new technology has a proven function and is a higher quality product in comparison to current design.

After using visual aids to cement the logistical appeal of her design, Oxman seeks to appeal to the emotional response of the audience through the use of religious values within a biblical allusion. According to a Pew Research Center demographic analysis in 2015, Christians made up about 31% of the world’s population, the largest religious group in the world (Hackett and McClendon). Knowing that her talk will reach a large global audience due to TED’s prominence, Oxman “tailor[s] it to a particular audience” through the use of a biblical story (Herrick 19). Oxman recalls a biblical story where there was a fruit tree, but “there was to be no differentiation between trunk, branches, leaves and fruit. The whole tree was a fruit” (Oxman 5:40-6:42). She uses the story to emphasize that the tree is made of a single part, similar to the production of her own work. Immediately after introducing the story, Oxman claims that her team “looked for that biblical material,” and “found it” (Oxman 6:42-7:15). The description of finding biblical material creates an implicit comment on the material of Oxman’s design. Oxman attempts to “alter the symbolic framework [her audience employs] to organize their thinking” so that a religious audience immediately associates their predisposed, positive, biblical qualities with her work (Herrick 19). Oxman’s awareness of the audience and her talk’s outreach allows her to effectively persuade a portion of the audience by connecting her work to their deeper, unwavering personal values.

Oxman expands on her emotional appeal by establishing a personal bond between the audience and her work. She utilizes displaying human emotion and using collective pronouns in order to construct a personal bias for the audience’s view of her technology. Oxman introduces her team with a photo board of their headshots, and a picture of their hands next to them. Suddenly, the students begin to laugh and smile, while their hands begin working on different tasks next to each other (Oxman 2:29-3:27). The emotion that is displayed in the video allows Oxman to effectively “persuade through the character” of her team by showing the audience that they are not a distant group of scientists, but resemble the people sitting besides them (Selzer 287). The audience having a more grounded connection to the team enables Oxman to directly include the audience in her work, telling them that “[w]e live in a very special time in history, a rare time” (Oxman 2:29-3:27). The use of the collective “we” immediately places the audience within a context of Oxman’s work. They are not just observers of a creation, they are active participants in the change her work is bringing. Oxman also focuses on describing the time period as “special” and “rare” to give the audience a unique sense of relation to the project; they are the first ones throughout their genealogy who can experience Oxman’s work. Oxman’s ability to give the audience an interpersonal relation to her work puts them at a disposition to be more accepting of new views and potentially have a subtle bias towards the work they are connected to. Oxman’s progression from a logical comparison of her work and current design to an emotional appeal towards her audience’s values signals a focus on the connection between her technology and the audience.

A critical analysis of Oxman’s talk suggests that she uses a deliberative styled approach in her claims in order to achieve a single goal of having her work adopted by society. Selzer characterizes deliberative rhetoric as being “organized around the kinds of decisions a civic or social organization must make (about a future course of action)” (Selzer 284). Oxman describes her collection of wearable technology as “the future of our race on our planet and beyond,” which will help society “move away from the age of the machine” (Oxman 11:39-12:37). Oxman gives the audience a blueprint for the future of technology with her work, and proposes that the audience must choose to adopt the new technology over the current systems in place. The use of deliberative rhetoric establishes a forceful tone, suggesting that Oxman’s main goal is to push her technology for its own success.

While Oxman’s use of deliberative rhetoric may underline an ultimate goal to have her work adopted by the current world, her focus on incorporating epideictic rhetoric creates a more persuasive argument for adopting her work. By focusing on the community the audience is a part of, Oxman articulates an overall goal of improving society through reevaluating design beliefs, something that is more inclusive of the audience’s interests. Selzer claims that “in epideictic discourse, the audience is asked to reconsider beliefs and values” (Selzer 284). Oxman challenges the audience’s views on design by asking multiple questions, such as “[w]hat would design be like if objects were made of a single part?” (Oxman 5:40-6:42). Oxman specifically questions the current assemblies that are made up of thousands of parts, and are integrated into daily life. While her technology fits the criteria of being a single part, Oxman aims to question how the current world could view design in new lenses in order to improve. After asking the audience to reconsider the current state, she then asks, “[w]ould we return to a better state of creation?” (Oxman 5:40-6:42). Oxman asking if adopting new beliefs would not only change the current system of design, but “return” to a “better state” suggests that the present design process is flawed, but she does not immediately follow that her work is the solution. Oxman’s deliberative rhetoric tells the audience that they must accept her work, but the epideictic rhetoric gives the audience agency. The audience feels as though they are tasked in assessing how their community adopts design standards because Oxman makes them feel as though they have a choice in what the standards are. Owing to Oxman's strategic framing of her argument, the audience has the agency in deciding to adopt Oxman’s design and is able to enthusiastically drive the direction of the future.

Neri Oxman’s use of rhetorical strategies helps her create a persuasive argument for the audience to reconsider the design values that are currently being deployed. Oxman pushes her own technology, but also raises the question of how the world can adapt to more sustainable design through additive manufacturing. Can whole buildings be 3D printed with organic materials? Can a building be composed of a single component? By reconsidering how to design, the world can investigate new sustainable approaches to old and arising problems alike. With additive manufacturing, the future of human design may lead not only to new technological breakthroughs, but also a more symbiotic relationship between the Earth and its inhabitants.

a split screen of two different domes with light shining through each one

Works Cited

Benson, Thomas J. “Respecting the Reader.” Quarterly Journal of Speech , vol. 72, no. 2, 1986, pp. 197-204.

Carroll, Laura Bolin. “Backpacks vs. Briefcases: Steps Towards Rhetorical Analysis.” Writing Spaces: Readings on Writings, Vol. 1., edited by Charles Lowe and Pavel Zemliansky, Parlor Press, 2010, pp. 55.

Hackett, Conrad, and David McClendon. “Christians Remain World's Largest Religious Group, but They Are Declining in Europe.” Pew Research Center , Pew Research Center, 31 May 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/05/christians-remain-worlds-largest-religious-group-but-they-are-declining-in-europe/ .

Herrick, James A. “An Overview of Rhetoric.” The History of Theory of Rhetoric , 2nd ed., Allyn and Bacon, 2001, pp. 19.

Lancioni, Judith. “The rhetoric of the frame revisioning archival photographs in The Civil War .” Western Journal of Communication , vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 397-414.

Oxman, Neri. “Design at the Intersection of Technology and Biology.” TED , October, 2015, https://www.ted.com/talks/neri_oxman_design_at_the_intersection_of_technology_and_biology/transcript .

Selzer, Jack. “Rhetorical Analysis: Understanding How Texts Persuade Readers.” What Writing Does and How it Does It, edited by Charles Bazerman, Paul Prior, Routledge, 2003, pp. 284, 287.

“Support Sustainable Development and Climate Action.” United Nations . https://www.un.org/en/our-work/support-sustainable-development-and-climate-action . Accessed 6 March 2023.

how to conclude rhetorical essay

Jason Piechota

Jason Piechota is a sophomore at the University of Notre Dame studying Mechanical Engineering. Interested in design, Jason analyzed Neri Oxman’s TED Talk, “Design at the Intersection of Technology and Biology,” where Oxman outlines a new approach to design. His essay investigates the different rhetorical techniques employed by Oxman in order to promote biological additive manufacturing, which may prove to be a viable solution to many design problems. In the future, Jason hopes to find a job within the automotive industry, specifically focusing on design. He would like to thank his family and friends for their support, and Dr. McLaughlin for her help in forming his analysis.

Home — Essay Samples — Business — Leadership — Barack Obama: A Study in Transformational Leadership


Barack Obama: a Study in Transformational Leadership

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Published: Jun 6, 2024

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Visionary leadership and inspirational communication, inclusive and collaborative approach, adaptive leadership in times of crisis, ethical leadership and integrity.

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how to conclude rhetorical essay


After Conviction, Trump Says ‘Real Verdict’ Will Come in November

Former President Donald J. Trump, speaking in the courthouse hallway, repeated his unfounded claims that the case was an attempt to interfere with his White House bid, and insisted he was innocent.

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how to conclude rhetorical essay

By Michael Gold

  • May 30, 2024

Moments after becoming the first former president to be convicted of a felony, Donald J. Trump walked out of the courtroom, strode toward a television camera and declared the legal system that had found him guilty — a system that presidents are sworn to uphold — a sham.

“This was a disgrace,” Mr. Trump said on Thursday evening, his first words to the public after a jury in Manhattan found him guilty on 34 felony counts of falsifying business records. “This was a rigged trial by a conflicted judge who is corrupt.”

Standing in the hallway outside the courtroom where he spent the preceding six weeks as a criminal defendant, Mr. Trump denounced practically every aspect of the trial he faced as illegitimate. Then, he minimized the jury’s verdict and cast it as irrelevant, encouraging Americans to push it aside and elect him in November anyway.

“The real verdict is going to be Nov. 5 by the people,” Mr. Trump said. “And they know what happened here, and everybody knows what happened here.”

Speaking for less than two minutes, a somber Mr. Trump revived his contention that the case amounted to a politically motivated prosecution intended to interfere with his bid to return to the White House.

But as he rattled off now-familiar attacks against Manhattan’s district attorney, the judge in the case, President Biden and Democrats, Mr. Trump seemed less animated than he had while addressing reporters during the duration of the trial. Rather than an energized rebuttal, his post-verdict remarks felt more like a rote recitation of grievances.

The heart of Mr. Trump’s response to the verdict was the same refrain that Mr. Trump has long used in the face of defeat, including his 2020 election loss: that a system that failed to produce his desired outcome was inherently unfair and “rigged” against him.

He repeated his unfounded claim that the entire case was orchestrated by Mr. Biden, even though Manhattan’s district attorney, a Democrat, is a state prosecutor who is outside the control of the Justice Department.

Mr. Trump reinforced this view in three different fund-raising emails and a text message appeal in which he claimed that he was a “political prisoner” and then urged his supporters to back him by donating to his political campaign. (In an illustration of how the court schedule has collided with the campaign trail, he noted that his “end-of-month fund-raising deadline is just days away!”)

During his hallway remarks, Mr. Trump once again criticized the judge in the case, Juan M. Merchan, as being biased against him, an accusation he has made for weeks.

And Mr. Trump, who throughout the trial was bound by a gag order that has restricted him from commenting on the jurors, suggested that it was impossible for him to have a fair trial in Manhattan, a Democratic stronghold. His lawyers had tried and failed to get a change of venue for similar reasons.

“We were at 5 percent or 6 percent in this district, in this area,” Mr. Trump said, though he actually received roughly 12 percent of the vote in Manhattan in 2020. “This was a rigged, disgraceful trial.”

Even as he denounced his former home turf as hostile territory, Mr. Trump during the weeks he was in court made three campaign stops in the borough and has insisted that he was making political gains in the area.

In the face of the verdict, Mr. Trump again insisted on his innocence, much as he has in all of the criminal cases brought against him. “We didn’t do a thing wrong,” he said. “I’m a very innocent man.” He and his lawyers have already indicated that they plan to appeal the conviction.

At the same time, Mr. Trump, the presumptive Republican presidential nominee, made clear that he had no intention of ending his campaign.

Sentencing in the case is scheduled for July 11, four days before the start of the Republican National Convention, where Mr. Trump is expected to be chosen as his party’s presidential nominee.

“We will fight for our Constitution. This is long from over,” Mr. Trump told reporters. “Thank you very much.”

how to conclude rhetorical essay

The Trump Manhattan Criminal Verdict, Count By Count

Former President Donald J. Trump faced 34 felony charges of falsifying business records, related to the reimbursement of hush money paid to the porn star Stormy Daniels in order to cover up a sex scandal around the 2016 presidential election.

Michael Gold is a political correspondent for The Times covering the campaigns of Donald J. Trump and other candidates in the 2024 presidential elections. More about Michael Gold

Our Coverage of the Trump Hush-Money Trial

Guilty Verdict : Donald Trump was convicted on all 34 counts  of falsifying records to cover up a sex scandal that threatened his bid for the White House in 2016, making him the first American president to be declared a felon .

What Happens Next: Trump’s sentencing hearing on July 11 will trigger a long and winding appeals process , though he has few ways to overturn the decision .

Reactions: Trump’s conviction reverberated quickly across the country  and around the world . Here’s what voters , New Yorkers , Republicans , Trump supporters  and President Biden  had to say.

The Presidential Race : The political fallout of Trump’s conviction is far from certain , but the verdict will test America’s traditions, legal institutions and ability to hold an election under historic partisan tension .

Making the Case: Over six weeks and the testimony of 20 witnesses, the Manhattan district attorney’s office wove a sprawling story  of election interference and falsified business records.

Legal Luck Runs Out: The four criminal cases that threatened Trump’s freedom had been stumbling along, pleasing his advisers. Then his good fortune expired .


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  2. Rhetorical analysis project

  3. Mastering Rhetorical Theory: Engaging Audiences and Delivering Impactful Messages #shorts

  4. Writing the Rhetorical Analysis

  5. Essay: Your Rhetorical Self

  6. The Rhetorical Analysis Essay


  1. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis

    Concluding a rhetorical analysis. The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis wraps up the essay by restating the main argument and showing how it has been developed by your analysis. It may also try to link the text, and your analysis of it, with broader concerns. Explore the example below to get a sense of the conclusion. Rhetorical analysis ...

  2. How to Write a Conclusion for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

    Tip #3: Reflect on the message of the passage. Think about abstract concepts from the passage, such as unity or resilience. In the conclusion, reflect upon what conclusions, messages, or lessons can be learned from these abstract concepts in the passage. Ask yourself "how is the message still relevant today?".

  3. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay-Examples & Template

    Rhetorical appeal #2: Pathos. The purpose of Pathos-driven rhetoric is to appeal to the reader's emotions. A common example of pathos as a rhetorical means is adverts by charities that try to make you donate money to a "good cause". To evoke the intended emotions in the reader, an author may use passionate language, tell personal stories ...

  4. How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay (With Example)

    The AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay is one of three essays included in the written portion of the AP English Exam. The full AP English Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long, with the first 60 minutes dedicated to multiple-choice questions. Once you complete the multiple-choice section, you move on to three equally weighted essays that ask you ...

  5. How to Write a Great Rhetorical Analysis Essay: With Examples

    Name the author of the text and the title of their work followed by the date in parentheses. Use a verb to describe what the author does, e.g. "implies," "asserts," or "claims". Briefly summarize the text in your own words. Mention the persuasive techniques used by the rhetor and its effect.

  6. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: 6 Steps and an Outline for Your

    5. State your thesis. Now that you've completed your analysis of the material, try to summarize it into one clear, concise thesis statement that will form the foundation of your essay. Your thesis statement should summarize: 1) the argument or purpose of the speaker; 2) the methods the speaker uses; and 3) the effectiveness of those methods ...

  7. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

    4. Summarizing Your Main Points. In your conclusion, sum up the main points of your analysis and restate your thesis. Without introducing any new points (such as topics or ideas you haven't already covered in the main body of your essay), summarize the overall impact that the author's rhetorical strategies likely had on their intended audience.

  8. How to write a rhetorical analysis [4 steps]

    Step 1: Plan and prepare. With a rhetorical analysis, you don't choose concepts in advance and apply them to a specific text or piece of content. Rather, you'll have to analyze the text to identify the separate components and plan and prepare your analysis accordingly. Here, it might be helpful to use the SOAPSTone technique to identify the ...

  9. Rhetorical Analysis

    Rhetorical Analysis. Rhetoric is the study of how writers and speakers use words to influence an audience. A rhetorical analysis is an essay that breaks a work of non-fiction into parts and then explains how the parts work together to create a certain effect—whether to persuade, entertain or inform. You can also conduct a rhetorical analysis ...

  10. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay in 6 Steps

    Follow this step-by-step guide to write your own effective rhetorical analysis essay. 1. Choose and study a text. Review the work you're analyzing more than once to become as familiar as possible with the author's argument and writing style. Make sure you have read the text thoroughly, and that you fully understand each point that the ...

  11. PDF How to Write a RHETORICAL ANALYSIS ESSAY Step 1: Full Comprehension of

    Like all other essays, your rhetorical analysis essay will have an introduction with a thesis, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. WRITE - write your essay. Asher AP ELAC Name: _____ Step 3: Organizing and Writing Your Essay: Some of this is redundant, but this breaks down some of the steps from MAD TO WRITE even further. ...

  12. How to Write a Conclusion for a Rhetorical Analysis

    Check out this blog post about writing a rhetorical analysis conclusion: https://coachhallwrites.com/how-to-write-a-conclusion-for-a-rhetorical-analysis-essa...

  13. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

    The purpose refers to what the writer wants to accomplish in the text. It usually includes selling a product or point of view. The subject is simply the topic the writer discusses in the text. 2. Examine the appeals. Appeals are the first classification of rhetorical strategy and involve the ethos, logos, and pathos.

  14. PDF How to Write the LLD/ENGL 100A Rhetorical Analysis Essay

    In the conclusion to your rhetorical analysis essay, summarize briefly the main points of your analysis to explain its significance and to draw a clear and specific conclusion. Rhetorical Analysis Thesis Statement Example The author's emphasis on her first-hand experience as a mother who lost her son to E. coli and

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for a Rhetorical Analysis

    A cohesive rhetorical analysis is more than a mere essay. It deftly answers questions and dissects how the author of the nonfiction piece created and arrived at the main idea of the work. ... A solid rhetorical analysis will explore the techniques that the author used to arrive at the conclusion and provide examples of the tools used. It will ...

  16. Wrapping Up a Rhetorical Analysis Essay (CONCLUSIONS)

    This is the final video about how to write the Rhetorical Analysis essay. It outlines 3 steps for writing strong conclusions.💀 *GRAB THE GARDEN OF ENGLISH'...

  17. How To Write a Rhetorical Analysis in 8 Simple Steps

    Follow these steps when writing your rhetorical analysis essay: 1. Gather information. Use the SOAPSTone technique to identify the components of the work and plan your analysis. SOAPSTone is an acronym commonly used in literary analysis that stands for Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject, Tone. 2.

  18. Tips for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

    Rhetorical analysis essays focus on examining how authors use rhetorical strategies (such as ethos, pathos, and logos) to create an argument or persuade the audience. Here is a step-by-step guide to help you write an effective rhetorical analysis essay: 1. ... Write the conclusion: Summarize your analysis, restate your thesis, and discuss the ...

  19. Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline With Templates & Tips

    Key Elements to Analyze. In a rhetorical analysis essay, you would be analyzing the text keeping these key rhetorical concepts in mind: Ethos: This concerns the credibility of the author or speaker. Logos: This focuses on the logical aspects of the argument. Pathos: Pathos explores the emotional appeal of the discourse.

  20. Rhetorical Analysis Essay

    A rhetorical analysis is an essay where you break down a text into its components to examine how these parts work together to create an effect. You will look at elements like the author's use of logos, ethos, and pathos. The goal of a rhetorical analysis essay is not to say if the text is good or bad. Instead, it's about understanding how the ...

  21. How to End a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

    5 Expert Tips For How to End A Rhetorical Analysis Essay? Ending a rhetorical essay is very important because it is the crux of the entire essay. A conclusion summarizes all the ideas and arguments discussed in the essay, and it is going to help readers understand what key results they have achieved through the essay. It gives a proper closure ...

  22. How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Essay

    4. Be Sure to Explain Your Examples. As you write the essay, don't just list out your examples and say something like "this is an example of ethos, logos, pathos.". Instead, analyze how the example shows that rhetoric device and how it helps the author further their argument. As you write the rhetorical essay, you'll want to be as ...

  23. Printing a New Age of Design: A Rhetorical Analysis of Neri Oxman's TED

    The clear similarity in color and web-like appearance pushes the audience to draw the conclusion that the function and structure of the newly designed dome follows the current approach, but takes a new approach. ... His essay investigates the different rhetorical techniques employed by Oxman in order to promote biological additive manufacturing ...

  24. Malala Yousafzai: Catalyst for Global Educational Reform ...

    Conclusion. In conclusion, Malala Yousafzai's activism represents a powerful convergence of personal courage and global advocacy. ... I Am Malala Rhetorical Analysis Essay. In her compelling memoir "I Am Malala," Malala Yousafzai recounts her journey as an advocate for girls' education, her survival of a brutal attack by the Taliban, and her ...

  25. Barack Obama: a Study in Transformational Leadership

    Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States, is often lauded for his dynamic and transformational leadership style. His tenure was marked by significant challenges and achievements, and his approach to leadership provides a compelling study in modern political science. This essay aims to dissect the key components of Obama's ...

  26. Opinion

    My conclusions are based on the public record, my years of experience as a federal judge and a criminal defense lawyer and my decades teaching courses on sentencing at Yale and Harvard Law Schools.

  27. After Conviction, Trump Says 'Real Verdict' Will Come in November

    During his hallway remarks, Mr. Trump once again criticized the judge in the case, Juan M. Merchan, as being biased against him, an accusation he has made for weeks.