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What is a thesis | A Complete Guide with Examples


Table of Contents

A thesis is a comprehensive academic paper based on your original research that presents new findings, arguments, and ideas of your study. It’s typically submitted at the end of your master’s degree or as a capstone of your bachelor’s degree.

However, writing a thesis can be laborious, especially for beginners. From the initial challenge of pinpointing a compelling research topic to organizing and presenting findings, the process is filled with potential pitfalls.

Therefore, to help you, this guide talks about what is a thesis. Additionally, it offers revelations and methodologies to transform it from an overwhelming task to a manageable and rewarding academic milestone.

What is a thesis?

A thesis is an in-depth research study that identifies a particular topic of inquiry and presents a clear argument or perspective about that topic using evidence and logic.

Writing a thesis showcases your ability of critical thinking, gathering evidence, and making a compelling argument. Integral to these competencies is thorough research, which not only fortifies your propositions but also confers credibility to your entire study.

Furthermore, there's another phenomenon you might often confuse with the thesis: the ' working thesis .' However, they aren't similar and shouldn't be used interchangeably.

A working thesis, often referred to as a preliminary or tentative thesis, is an initial version of your thesis statement. It serves as a draft or a starting point that guides your research in its early stages.

As you research more and gather more evidence, your initial thesis (aka working thesis) might change. It's like a starting point that can be adjusted as you learn more. It's normal for your main topic to change a few times before you finalize it.

While a thesis identifies and provides an overarching argument, the key to clearly communicating the central point of that argument lies in writing a strong thesis statement.

What is a thesis statement?

A strong thesis statement (aka thesis sentence) is a concise summary of the main argument or claim of the paper. It serves as a critical anchor in any academic work, succinctly encapsulating the primary argument or main idea of the entire paper.

Typically found within the introductory section, a strong thesis statement acts as a roadmap of your thesis, directing readers through your arguments and findings. By delineating the core focus of your investigation, it offers readers an immediate understanding of the context and the gravity of your study.

Furthermore, an effectively crafted thesis statement can set forth the boundaries of your research, helping readers anticipate the specific areas of inquiry you are addressing.

Different types of thesis statements

A good thesis statement is clear, specific, and arguable. Therefore, it is necessary for you to choose the right type of thesis statement for your academic papers.

Thesis statements can be classified based on their purpose and structure. Here are the primary types of thesis statements:

Argumentative (or Persuasive) thesis statement

Purpose : To convince the reader of a particular stance or point of view by presenting evidence and formulating a compelling argument.

Example : Reducing plastic use in daily life is essential for environmental health.

Analytical thesis statement

Purpose : To break down an idea or issue into its components and evaluate it.

Example : By examining the long-term effects, social implications, and economic impact of climate change, it becomes evident that immediate global action is necessary.

Expository (or Descriptive) thesis statement

Purpose : To explain a topic or subject to the reader.

Example : The Great Depression, spanning the 1930s, was a severe worldwide economic downturn triggered by a stock market crash, bank failures, and reduced consumer spending.

Cause and effect thesis statement

Purpose : To demonstrate a cause and its resulting effect.

Example : Overuse of smartphones can lead to impaired sleep patterns, reduced face-to-face social interactions, and increased levels of anxiety.

Compare and contrast thesis statement

Purpose : To highlight similarities and differences between two subjects.

Example : "While both novels '1984' and 'Brave New World' delve into dystopian futures, they differ in their portrayal of individual freedom, societal control, and the role of technology."

When you write a thesis statement , it's important to ensure clarity and precision, so the reader immediately understands the central focus of your work.

What is the difference between a thesis and a thesis statement?

While both terms are frequently used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings.

A thesis refers to the entire research document, encompassing all its chapters and sections. In contrast, a thesis statement is a brief assertion that encapsulates the central argument of the research.

Here’s an in-depth differentiation table of a thesis and a thesis statement.

Now, to craft a compelling thesis, it's crucial to adhere to a specific structure. Let’s break down these essential components that make up a thesis structure

15 components of a thesis structure

Navigating a thesis can be daunting. However, understanding its structure can make the process more manageable.

Here are the key components or different sections of a thesis structure:

Your thesis begins with the title page. It's not just a formality but the gateway to your research.


Here, you'll prominently display the necessary information about you (the author) and your institutional details.

  • Title of your thesis
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date
  • Your Supervisor's name (in some cases)
  • Your Department or faculty (in some cases)
  • Your University's logo (in some cases)
  • Your Student ID (in some cases)

In a concise manner, you'll have to summarize the critical aspects of your research in typically no more than 200-300 words.


This includes the problem statement, methodology, key findings, and conclusions. For many, the abstract will determine if they delve deeper into your work, so ensure it's clear and compelling.


Research is rarely a solitary endeavor. In the acknowledgments section, you have the chance to express gratitude to those who've supported your journey.


This might include advisors, peers, institutions, or even personal sources of inspiration and support. It's a personal touch, reflecting the humanity behind the academic rigor.

Table of contents

A roadmap for your readers, the table of contents lists the chapters, sections, and subsections of your thesis.


By providing page numbers, you allow readers to navigate your work easily, jumping to sections that pique their interest.

List of figures and tables

Research often involves data, and presenting this data visually can enhance understanding. This section provides an organized listing of all figures and tables in your thesis.


It's a visual index, ensuring that readers can quickly locate and reference your graphical data.


Here's where you introduce your research topic, articulate the research question or objective, and outline the significance of your study.


  • Present the research topic : Clearly articulate the central theme or subject of your research.
  • Background information : Ground your research topic, providing any necessary context or background information your readers might need to understand the significance of your study.
  • Define the scope : Clearly delineate the boundaries of your research, indicating what will and won't be covered.
  • Literature review : Introduce any relevant existing research on your topic, situating your work within the broader academic conversation and highlighting where your research fits in.
  • State the research Question(s) or objective(s) : Clearly articulate the primary questions or objectives your research aims to address.
  • Outline the study's structure : Give a brief overview of how the subsequent sections of your work will unfold, guiding your readers through the journey ahead.

The introduction should captivate your readers, making them eager to delve deeper into your research journey.

Literature review section

Your study correlates with existing research. Therefore, in the literature review section, you'll engage in a dialogue with existing knowledge, highlighting relevant studies, theories, and findings.


It's here that you identify gaps in the current knowledge, positioning your research as a bridge to new insights.

To streamline this process, consider leveraging AI tools. For example, the SciSpace literature review tool enables you to efficiently explore and delve into research papers, simplifying your literature review journey.


In the research methodology section, you’ll detail the tools, techniques, and processes you employed to gather and analyze data. This section will inform the readers about how you approached your research questions and ensures the reproducibility of your study.


Here's a breakdown of what it should encompass:

  • Research Design : Describe the overall structure and approach of your research. Are you conducting a qualitative study with in-depth interviews? Or is it a quantitative study using statistical analysis? Perhaps it's a mixed-methods approach?
  • Data Collection : Detail the methods you used to gather data. This could include surveys, experiments, observations, interviews, archival research, etc. Mention where you sourced your data, the duration of data collection, and any tools or instruments used.
  • Sampling : If applicable, explain how you selected participants or data sources for your study. Discuss the size of your sample and the rationale behind choosing it.
  • Data Analysis : Describe the techniques and tools you used to process and analyze the data. This could range from statistical tests in quantitative research to thematic analysis in qualitative research.
  • Validity and Reliability : Address the steps you took to ensure the validity and reliability of your findings to ensure that your results are both accurate and consistent.
  • Ethical Considerations : Highlight any ethical issues related to your research and the measures you took to address them, including — informed consent, confidentiality, and data storage and protection measures.

Moreover, different research questions necessitate different types of methodologies. For instance:

  • Experimental methodology : Often used in sciences, this involves a controlled experiment to discern causality.
  • Qualitative methodology : Employed when exploring patterns or phenomena without numerical data. Methods can include interviews, focus groups, or content analysis.
  • Quantitative methodology : Concerned with measurable data and often involves statistical analysis. Surveys and structured observations are common tools here.
  • Mixed methods : As the name implies, this combines both qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

The Methodology section isn’t just about detailing the methods but also justifying why they were chosen. The appropriateness of the methods in addressing your research question can significantly impact the credibility of your findings.

Results (or Findings)

This section presents the outcomes of your research. It's crucial to note that the nature of your results may vary; they could be quantitative, qualitative, or a mix of both.


Quantitative results often present statistical data, showcasing measurable outcomes, and they benefit from tables, graphs, and figures to depict these data points.

Qualitative results , on the other hand, might delve into patterns, themes, or narratives derived from non-numerical data, such as interviews or observations.

Regardless of the nature of your results, clarity is essential. This section is purely about presenting the data without offering interpretations — that comes later in the discussion.

In the discussion section, the raw data transforms into valuable insights.

Start by revisiting your research question and contrast it with the findings. How do your results expand, constrict, or challenge current academic conversations?

Dive into the intricacies of the data, guiding the reader through its implications. Detail potential limitations transparently, signaling your awareness of the research's boundaries. This is where your academic voice should be resonant and confident.

Practical implications (Recommendation) section

Based on the insights derived from your research, this section provides actionable suggestions or proposed solutions.

Whether aimed at industry professionals or the general public, recommendations translate your academic findings into potential real-world actions. They help readers understand the practical implications of your work and how it can be applied to effect change or improvement in a given field.

When crafting recommendations, it's essential to ensure they're feasible and rooted in the evidence provided by your research. They shouldn't merely be aspirational but should offer a clear path forward, grounded in your findings.

The conclusion provides closure to your research narrative.

It's not merely a recap but a synthesis of your main findings and their broader implications. Reconnect with the research questions or hypotheses posited at the beginning, offering clear answers based on your findings.


Reflect on the broader contributions of your study, considering its impact on the academic community and potential real-world applications.

Lastly, the conclusion should leave your readers with a clear understanding of the value and impact of your study.

References (or Bibliography)

Every theory you've expounded upon, every data point you've cited, and every methodological precedent you've followed finds its acknowledgment here.


In references, it's crucial to ensure meticulous consistency in formatting, mirroring the specific guidelines of the chosen citation style .

Proper referencing helps to avoid plagiarism , gives credit to original ideas, and allows readers to explore topics of interest. Moreover, it situates your work within the continuum of academic knowledge.

To properly cite the sources used in the study, you can rely on online citation generator tools  to generate accurate citations!

Here’s more on how you can cite your sources.

Often, the depth of research produces a wealth of material that, while crucial, can make the core content of the thesis cumbersome. The appendix is where you mention extra information that supports your research but isn't central to the main text.


Whether it's raw datasets, detailed procedural methodologies, extended case studies, or any other ancillary material, the appendices ensure that these elements are archived for reference without breaking the main narrative's flow.

For thorough researchers and readers keen on meticulous details, the appendices provide a treasure trove of insights.

Glossary (optional)

In academics, specialized terminologies, and jargon are inevitable. However, not every reader is versed in every term.

The glossary, while optional, is a critical tool for accessibility. It's a bridge ensuring that even readers from outside the discipline can access, understand, and appreciate your work.


By defining complex terms and providing context, you're inviting a wider audience to engage with your research, enhancing its reach and impact.

Remember, while these components provide a structured framework, the essence of your thesis lies in the originality of your ideas, the rigor of your research, and the clarity of your presentation.

As you craft each section, keep your readers in mind, ensuring that your passion and dedication shine through every page.

Thesis examples

To further elucidate the concept of a thesis, here are illustrative examples from various fields:

Example 1 (History): Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807 by Suchait Kahlon.
Example 2 (Climate Dynamics): Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study by Takahito Mitsui · Michel Crucifix

Checklist for your thesis evaluation

Evaluating your thesis ensures that your research meets the standards of academia. Here's an elaborate checklist to guide you through this critical process.

Content and structure

  • Is the thesis statement clear, concise, and debatable?
  • Does the introduction provide sufficient background and context?
  • Is the literature review comprehensive, relevant, and well-organized?
  • Does the methodology section clearly describe and justify the research methods?
  • Are the results/findings presented clearly and logically?
  • Does the discussion interpret the results in light of the research question and existing literature?
  • Is the conclusion summarizing the research and suggesting future directions or implications?

Clarity and coherence

  • Is the writing clear and free of jargon?
  • Are ideas and sections logically connected and flowing?
  • Is there a clear narrative or argument throughout the thesis?

Research quality

  • Is the research question significant and relevant?
  • Are the research methods appropriate for the question?
  • Is the sample size (if applicable) adequate?
  • Are the data analysis techniques appropriate and correctly applied?
  • Are potential biases or limitations addressed?

Originality and significance

  • Does the thesis contribute new knowledge or insights to the field?
  • Is the research grounded in existing literature while offering fresh perspectives?

Formatting and presentation

  • Is the thesis formatted according to institutional guidelines?
  • Are figures, tables, and charts clear, labeled, and referenced in the text?
  • Is the bibliography or reference list complete and consistently formatted?
  • Are appendices relevant and appropriately referenced in the main text?

Grammar and language

  • Is the thesis free of grammatical and spelling errors?
  • Is the language professional, consistent, and appropriate for an academic audience?
  • Are quotations and paraphrased material correctly cited?

Feedback and revision

  • Have you sought feedback from peers, advisors, or experts in the field?
  • Have you addressed the feedback and made the necessary revisions?

Overall assessment

  • Does the thesis as a whole feel cohesive and comprehensive?
  • Would the thesis be understandable and valuable to someone in your field?

Ensure to use this checklist to leave no ground for doubt or missed information in your thesis.

After writing your thesis, the next step is to discuss and defend your findings verbally in front of a knowledgeable panel. You’ve to be well prepared as your professors may grade your presentation abilities.

Preparing your thesis defense

A thesis defense, also known as "defending the thesis," is the culmination of a scholar's research journey. It's the final frontier, where you’ll present their findings and face scrutiny from a panel of experts.

Typically, the defense involves a public presentation where you’ll have to outline your study, followed by a question-and-answer session with a committee of experts. This committee assesses the validity, originality, and significance of the research.

The defense serves as a rite of passage for scholars. It's an opportunity to showcase expertise, address criticisms, and refine arguments. A successful defense not only validates the research but also establishes your authority as a researcher in your field.

Here’s how you can effectively prepare for your thesis defense .

Now, having touched upon the process of defending a thesis, it's worth noting that scholarly work can take various forms, depending on academic and regional practices.

One such form, often paralleled with the thesis, is the 'dissertation.' But what differentiates the two?

Dissertation vs. Thesis

Often used interchangeably in casual discourse, they refer to distinct research projects undertaken at different levels of higher education.

To the uninitiated, understanding their meaning might be elusive. So, let's demystify these terms and delve into their core differences.

Here's a table differentiating between the two.

Wrapping up

From understanding the foundational concept of a thesis to navigating its various components, differentiating it from a dissertation, and recognizing the importance of proper citation — this guide covers it all.

As scholars and readers, understanding these nuances not only aids in academic pursuits but also fosters a deeper appreciation for the relentless quest for knowledge that drives academia.

It’s important to remember that every thesis is a testament to curiosity, dedication, and the indomitable spirit of discovery.

Good luck with your thesis writing!

Frequently Asked Questions

A thesis typically ranges between 40-80 pages, but its length can vary based on the research topic, institution guidelines, and level of study.

A PhD thesis usually spans 200-300 pages, though this can vary based on the discipline, complexity of the research, and institutional requirements.

To identify a thesis topic, consider current trends in your field, gaps in existing literature, personal interests, and discussions with advisors or mentors. Additionally, reviewing related journals and conference proceedings can provide insights into potential areas of exploration.

The conceptual framework is often situated in the literature review or theoretical framework section of a thesis. It helps set the stage by providing the context, defining key concepts, and explaining the relationships between variables.

A thesis statement should be concise, clear, and specific. It should state the main argument or point of your research. Start by pinpointing the central question or issue your research addresses, then condense that into a single statement, ensuring it reflects the essence of your paper.

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While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence) 

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim 

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim 

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis 

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
  • picture_as_pdf Thesis

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What is a Master’s Thesis: A Guide for Students 

masters thesis

A master’s thesis is an academic research output that is expected to showcase a student’s competence in a higher level of research as compared to an undergraduate one. The primary objective of a master’s thesis is to assess a student on the depth of their understanding, knowledge, and competence on the subject of their choice. It provides a scholarly and research foundation for students to build on if they are interested in pursuing higher academic degrees and professional work. 

Benefits of Writing a Master’s Thesis  

Undertaking a master’s thesis program enhances your career and academic prospects. In the academic sphere, those who have completed a master’s thesis program are in a more advantageous position when they seek admission to a PhD program. Research-focused disciplines, in particular, usually favour students who have completed their master’s thesis. Opting for a master’s thesis program also gives researchers the opportunity to pursue their interest area through study and research. Further, through the process of thesis writing, students also develop their skills in writing, putting forth an informed argument and developing research questions. A well-developed thesis can also be published as a research paper in peer-reviewed journals, thereby enhancing future academic and career prospects.  

Thesis Masters and Non-thesis Masters Program: Differences   

It is critical to note that all master’s programs do not have a thesis requirement. At the same time, some programs allow students to choose between a thesis and a non-thesis master’s program. In a thesis Master’s program, you are required to prepare a comprehensive scholarly paper under the advice of a faculty member that demonstrates the knowledge, skills, and critical thinking that you have developed during the program. Hence, it is a mandatory requirement for the completion of your degree. However, in a non-thesis master’s program, you are not expected to write a thesis. You are nevertheless required to take additional classes and, by the end of the program, complete a Capstone project, a comprehensive exam, or a summary project. 

Master’s thesis and PhD Dissertation: Differences  

A Master’s thesis is very different from a PhD dissertation, though often, the words thesis and dissertation are used interchangeably not only by students but also by the wider academic community and publishers.   

  • A PhD dissertation is an original research by the doctoral candidate that contributes something new to the existing body of knowledge in the field, such as new theories and information. This should not have been published previously. In contrast, a master’s thesis is a scholarly paper that involves original testing of ideas and demonstrates the knowledge and skills the student has acquired and built during the master’s program.  
  • A master’s thesis deals or engages more with existing research or secondary knowledge, though depending on the subject, there can be research of primary sources as well. Here, the student certainly has to bring in their critical and analytical skills. The sources of data will generally be research papers, scholarly books, journal articles, government reports, statistics, and so on. However, in a PhD dissertation, the focus is on generating new and novel data, resulting in an original piece of work that external subject experts will evaluate. Hence, apart from the sources of data mentioned for the Master’s thesis, the significant component of sources of data for PhD dissertation will be generated from interviews, focus groups, surveys, laboratory experiments and so on. 
  • A master’s thesis is presented at the end of the master’s program, which is about one or two years. The thesis is a critical part of completing the degree. A PhD dissertation takes a considerable amount of time, ranging from 4 to 7 years. By this time, the candidate should have completed, apart from their dissertation, other requirements such as fulfilling a set of coursework, attending seminars/ conferences, presenting papers at seminars and publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals. 
  • The master’s thesis is completed and submitted at the end of the master’s program. The PhD dissertation is presented to earn the PhD degree. 
  • Another major difference between the two is the length. While a master’s thesis may be between 50 and 100 pages, the Ph.D. dissertation is more detailed, in-depth, and comprehensive, with a length of up to 400 pages. 

While all Master’s programs do not have a thesis requirement, completing a thesis provides a scholarly and research foundation for students to pursue higher academic degrees and professional work. A master’s thesis program can be a valuable experience for students interested in pursuing higher academic degrees and professional work in research-focused disciplines.

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/images/cornell/logo35pt_cornell_white.svg" alt="academic writing master thesis"> Cornell University --> Graduate School

Guide to writing your thesis/dissertation, definition of dissertation and thesis.

The dissertation or thesis is a scholarly treatise that substantiates a specific point of view as a result of original research that is conducted by students during their graduate study. At Cornell, the thesis is a requirement for the receipt of the M.A. and M.S. degrees and some professional master’s degrees. The dissertation is a requirement of the Ph.D. degree.

Formatting Requirement and Standards

The Graduate School sets the minimum format for your thesis or dissertation, while you, your special committee, and your advisor/chair decide upon the content and length. Grammar, punctuation, spelling, and other mechanical issues are your sole responsibility. Generally, the thesis and dissertation should conform to the standards of leading academic journals in your field. The Graduate School does not monitor the thesis or dissertation for mechanics, content, or style.

“Papers Option” Dissertation or Thesis

A “papers option” is available only to students in certain fields, which are listed on the Fields Permitting the Use of Papers Option page , or by approved petition. If you choose the papers option, your dissertation or thesis is organized as a series of relatively independent chapters or papers that you have submitted or will be submitting to journals in the field. You must be the only author or the first author of the papers to be used in the dissertation. The papers-option dissertation or thesis must meet all format and submission requirements, and a singular referencing convention must be used throughout.

ProQuest Electronic Submissions

The dissertation and thesis become permanent records of your original research, and in the case of doctoral research, the Graduate School requires publication of the dissertation and abstract in its original form. All Cornell master’s theses and doctoral dissertations require an electronic submission through ProQuest, which fills orders for paper or digital copies of the thesis and dissertation and makes a digital version available online via their subscription database, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses . For master’s theses, only the abstract is available. ProQuest provides worldwide distribution of your work from the master copy. You retain control over your dissertation and are free to grant publishing rights as you see fit. The formatting requirements contained in this guide meet all ProQuest specifications.

Copies of Dissertation and Thesis

Copies of Ph.D. dissertations and master’s theses are also uploaded in PDF format to the Cornell Library Repository, eCommons . A print copy of each master’s thesis and doctoral dissertation is submitted to Cornell University Library by ProQuest.

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Thesis and Dissertation: Getting Started

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

The resources in this section are designed to provide guidance for the first steps of the thesis or dissertation writing process. They offer tools to support the planning and managing of your project, including writing out your weekly schedule, outlining your goals, and organzing the various working elements of your project.

Weekly Goals Sheet (a.k.a. Life Map) [Word Doc]

This editable handout provides a place for you to fill in available time blocks on a weekly chart that will help you visualize the amount of time you have available to write. By using this chart, you will be able to work your writing goals into your schedule and put these goals into perspective with your day-to-day plans and responsibilities each week. This handout also contains a formula to help you determine the minimum number of pages you would need to write per day in order to complete your writing on time.

Setting a Production Schedule (Word Doc)

This editable handout can help you make sense of the various steps involved in the production of your thesis or dissertation and determine how long each step might take. A large part of this process involves (1) seeking out the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding specific document formatting requirements, (2) understanding research protocol limitations, (3) making note of deadlines, and (4) understanding your personal writing habits.

Creating a Roadmap (PDF)

Part of organizing your writing involves having a clear sense of how the different working parts relate to one another. Creating a roadmap for your dissertation early on can help you determine what the final document will include and how all the pieces are connected. This resource offers guidance on several approaches to creating a roadmap, including creating lists, maps, nut-shells, visuals, and different methods for outlining. It is important to remember that you can create more than one roadmap (or more than one type of roadmap) depending on how the different approaches discussed here meet your needs.

academic writing master thesis

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Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

Basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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Master's thesis

Master's Thesis is a part of Master's degree in other fields than technology and Master's thesis in technology / architecture is a part of Master of Science in Technology /Architecture degree.

The aims and place of the thesis in degrees

During the studies, students gradually gain the skills they need to write the thesis. In order to graduate, you should master the learning outcomes set for your degree and thesis.  

The aim of the Master’s thesis is that 

  • the student is well familiar with his/her field and especially the field of his/her thesis topic  
  • the student possesses the skills necessary for applying scientific knowledge and methods or the knowledge and skills required for independent and demanding artistic work 
  • the student has good communication and language skills that can be applied in his/her field and other applicable fields 

Students mainly complete the Master’s thesis during the second year of studying for the Master’s degree; it is part of the advanced studies in the degree programme. You must have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree or your Bachelor’s thesis must be approved before you can start working on the Master’s thesis and drawing up the supervisory plan with your supervisor.  

The goals of theses based on learning outcomes. As you work on your thesis, your research skills, knowledge of the subject matter in the field, academic language and communication skills as well as your scientific debating skills are enhanced through peer learning and supervision, and via the discussion you conduct with previous research. Working on the thesis means practising independent research in accordance with good scientific practice. Your faculty or degree programme defines the form of the thesis more closely (see the section on your faculty).

The stages of the Master’s thesis are outlined below

Academic guidance and counselling.

Writing a Master’s thesis starts with participation in the thesis seminar and deciding on the topic. You will be assigned at least one supervisor – the responsible supervisor – who supports your work in matters related to the content and research process throughout the thesis process. The responsible supervisor is familiar with the assessment criteria of theses and discusses them with you. If the thesis has two supervisors – the responsible supervisor and the other supervisor – at least one must be well familiar with the topic of the thesis and both should hold degrees at least on the same level as the thesis in question. A person who is not a member of the University community may also act as a supervisor based on his/her expertise in the field.

The supervisor(s) and the student draw up a supervision plan that defines the rights, responsibilities and duties of the parties and the duration of the supervisory relationship. In the supervisory situation, a common understanding of the academic requirements of the thesis and of good scientific practice is also formed. The timing of supervision and the stages of the thesis process are also agreed upon. The supervisory plan also defines the target time of completing the thesis, which also gives an indication of the length of the supervisory relationship.

Your work process is the core of the supervision process. Supervision supports your learning process and your growth as an academic expert. You are in charge of your motivation and working and the way the thesis process advances. Faculties take care of the equal distribution of supervision work and including supervision in the teachers’ work plans.   

The faculty also defines the practices applied if any changes, conflicts or problems arise in the supervisory relationship.

Theses done in pairs or groups 

Doing the thesis with another student or in a group is agreed with the supervisor. If the thesis is undertaken by a pair or a group, each student must be able to demonstrate his/her share of the work because the thesis is fundamentally about practising independent scientific work. The thesis is assessed for each student individually. 

Language of the thesis

The language of the thesis is either Finnish or the main language of the student’s degree programme. The supervisor of the thesis decides on the use of other languages than the ones mentioned above. 

A student studying in an English-language degree programme may write his/her thesis in Finnish. However, if the student wants his/her academic record to show that he/she has earned the degree in English, it may be required that the thesis is also written in English. 

If the student has not demonstrated language and communication skills in his/her field in the Bachelor’s degree, they are demonstrated in the maturity test related to the Master’s thesis. The demonstration of language skills in relation to the thesis is described in more detail in the section on the maturity test.

The thesis seminar

To support working on the thesis, a thesis seminar or other teaching and activities that aid the thesis process are organised.   

In the thesis seminar, students especially gain peer supervision and peer learning skills as well as those on academic writing, information seeking and scientific debate. The seminar guides and supports working on an independent thesis and the parts it consists of, such as defining the research problem, outlining the topic, and structuring and reporting the research results. In the seminar, students also learn about the assessment criteria of the thesis. As far as possible, you should strive to complete your thesis in the seminar. 

If the curriculum of the degree programme does not include a seminar on the Master’s thesis in the fields of technology, other means of supervision must ensure that students receive sufficient support for writing the thesis and learning research skills. 

Adherence to good scientific practice

Learning outcomes related to good scientific practice are included in all theses. Review the guidelines on good scientific practice and consult your supervisor if you need further guidance. As part of the process of facilitating the writing process, the supervisor should ensure that you are familiar with good scientific practice and able to work accordingly. 

Also remember the accessibility of the thesis.

The originality checking of a thesis 

During the writing process, you may use the originality check tool found on your supervisor’s Turnitin section on Moodle. It will give you a comparative report on your text that will help you evaluate the appropriateness of your citation practices. You can always ask your thesis supervisor for advice on interpreting the comparison report.

The student and the thesis supervisor agree about the point when the thesis is ready for the official originality check and the subsequent actual assessment. You enter the text of your completed thesis in the originality checking software after which the supervisor reviews the originality report. After the supervisor has checked the originality report, you may submit the thesis for the actual assessment process. 

Finding a thesis placement - Commissioned theses  

You may do your Master’s thesis as a commissioned study for a principal that can be a company or another body. A thesis is a scientific study that is assessed on the basis of academic criteria and it must be completed within the target time. The supervisor and examiners at the University are responsible for the academic guidance and assessment of the thesis. The principal may appoint a contact person who may also participate in the supervision of the thesis. The principal must also be aware of the academic nature and publicity of the thesis. You, the reponsbile supervisor and the principal agree on the topic, schedule and objectives of the thesis.  Make a written agreement with the principal on any fee paid to you. 

The University has drawn up a checklist for the first meeting on a commissioned thesis on issues that should be covered in the meeting.

Copyright of the thesis 

Copyright issues are also related to the publicity of the thesis. The student is reponsible for the contents of the thesis and ascertaining his/her rights to it. The author of a thesis that is intended for publication must have full copyright to the thesis, including any pictorial material, tables or other material, or have the right to publish such material online. 

Further information on copyright is available on the Library’s Open Access guide and on the following websites:  https://libguides.tuni.fi/opinnaytteet/julkaisuluvat_tekijanoikeus

  • ImagOA: Open science and use of images: a guide on the Aalto University website http://libguides.aalto.fi/imagoa_eng

Publicity of the thesis and processing confidential information

Under law, the thesis is a public document (1999/621). A thesis becomes public as soon as it has been approved. After a thesis has been approved, it cannot be modified in any way. Confidential information cannot be included in a thesis. Publishing the thesis or its parts elsewhere, eg as articles, does not change the publicity requirement.  

If confidential information is processed in relation to the thesis, its use should be agreed with the supervisor and the possible principal in advance. The actual thesis should be written in a manner that allows publishing all of its parts. The possible confidential information should be incorporated in the appendices or background data that are not published. The separate data is not archived at the University.   

Other help and support during the writing of a thesis

You are not alone with your thesis. Support is available, for example, on information searching and data management as well as writing and making progress . Support is offered by the University’s joint counselling services, Language Centre and Library and Data Service.

Maturity test

Purpose of the maturity test .

With the maturity test, the student demonstrates his/her familiarity with the field of the thesis and his/her Finnish or Swedish language skills. (Government Decree on University Degrees 794/2004). See below for information on other languages.  

If the student has already demonstrated his/her language skills in the Bachelor’s degree, he/she only demonstrates his/her familiarity in the field of the thesis in the maturity test.  

Language of the maturity test 

If Finnish or Swedish language skills are to be demonstrated in the Master’s degree studies, the language of the maturity test is defined as in the Bachelor’s degree. 

If a student is not required to demonstrate his/her language skills in the Master’s degree, he/she takes the maturity test in the language of the thesis.  

Form of the maturity test 

In a Master’s degree, the abstract of the thesis serves as a maturity test. 

Submitting the thesis for assessment

When the thesis is nearing completion, the student discusses the final stage with his/her supervisor. The student and the supervisor agree on the pre-examination of the thesis and any corrections that are still needed. After the pre-examination and the final corrections, the supervisor gives the student permission to submit the thesis for assessment. The student feeds the final version of the manuscript to the originality checking software in a manner provided by the supervisor who will check the originality report. The originality check of the thesis should be completed before the thesis is submitted for assessment.  

When you submit your Master’s thesis to assessment in the publication archive Trepo you also ensure that the originality check of the thesis has been done and that your supervisor has given you permission to submit the thesis for assessment. The student also decides what kind of a publication permission he/she gives to the thesis. Note that you must be registered as present in order to submit a thesis on Trepo.

The student should let the supervisor know when the thesis can be retrieved from Trepo. The student receives a message from the Library within a few days of submitting the thesis for assessment. The assessment deadline is calculated from the date of the email sent to the supervisor. 

Assessment and grade of the thesis

The responsible supervisor proposes examiners either at the start or the end of the thesis process. Use this form to make the proposal 

Thesis supervision plan (Master’s thesis) and proposal of examiners

Examiners of a Master’s thesis  

The supervisor(s) of the thesis may also act as the examiners of the thesis if they fulfil the requirements stipulated in the Tampere University Regulations on Degrees.  According to Section 28 “At least one of the examiners must be employed by Tampere University”. Both examiners must have completed at least a master’s-level degree."

The thesis examiners have 21 days to review the thesis after it has been submitted for evaluation.  The results on theses submitted for examination during the period from 1 June to 31 August may take longer to be published. For justified reasons, the dean may make an exception to the deadline. Such exceptions must be communicated to the students in advance.   

Master’s theses are assessed with a grading scale from 0 to 5.  The grades are 1 (sufficient), 2 (satisfactory), 3 (good), 4 (very good) and 5 (excellent). Assessment criteria given by the faculties can be found at the bottom of this page.

Students will receive the examiners’ statement and grade proposal by email to their tuni.fi email address. Students will then have seven (7) days to provide a written response to the examiners’ statement. The countdown begins when the email is sent to the student. A possible written response is addressed to the student’s faculty and will be reviewed by the dean. The dean will assess whether there is reason to reconsider the grade or whether he or she will confirm the final grade based on the examiners’ statement. The dean can also appoint an additional examiner to review the thesis or bring the matter before the Faculty Council.  

If a student does not provide a written response, the dean will confirm the final grade of the thesis based on the examiners’ statement. If a student is satisfied with the assessment outcome, he or she can expedite the process and the entry of the thesis on his or her academic record by immediately informing the faculty thereof by email. The procedure for providing a written response does not apply to theses counted towards the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.

A student cannot submit a new thesis to replace an already approved one.  

Appealing against thesis assessment

A student dissatisfied with the assessment outcome of a master’s thesis (or equivalent) can submit a written appeal (request for rectification) to the relevant Faculty Council within 14 days of receiving the results.

An appeal can be delivered in writing or by email.

Postal address: Tampere University, FI-33014 Tampere University, Finland

Street address: Kalevantie 4, campus information desk, 33100 Tampere, Finland

Email: tau [at] tuni.fi (tau[at]tuni[dot]fi)

Electronic archiving and publishing of the thesis 

According to a decision by the National Archives of Finland (AL/11085/ on the permanent electronic preservation of universities’ theses and Tampere University’s information control plan that is based on it, Tampere University’s Master’s theses are permanently archived. All theses are electronically archived. The Library is in charge of archiving theses and dissertations on the University’s publication database. 

All theses are public and saved in the University’s publication database. According to the University’s strategic alignment on open science, all theses and dissertations are openly published unless the publisher’s conditions prevent it. All theses may be read with the Library’s computers and online if the student has granted permission to publish the thesis on the internet.     

After approval, all theses are stored in the comparison database of the originality checking software.  

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Tampere University and Tampere University of Applied Sciences (TAMK) constitute the Tampere Universities community. Our areas of priority in research and education are technology, health and society. Tampere University: +358 (0)294 5211 Tampere University of Applied Sciences : +358 (0)294 5222

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Academic writing - Structuring your thesis

  • Planning your thesis
  • IMRAD-structure
  • Strukture in a empirical thesis
  • Structure in a literature review
  • Writing your thesis
  • The writing process
  • Finding sources
  • Using and citing sources
  • Tools for academic writing
  • Glossary of terms

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Structuring your thesis, structuring your thesis, structuring your text.

Different assignments may have different requirements regarding structure. Below, you will find a description of the most important sections of complex works like bachelor- and master theses, followed by an overview of the IMRAD-style, which can be used in bachelor- and master theses, as well as other types of papers.

What genre?

What structure you will use for your text will naturally depend on what kind of genre you are using. An essay and an article share common features, but they do not have the same structure. A report is usually descriptive in form, while an article is analytical. The first thing you must do is therefore to understand the genre. A good tip in that regard is to read other texts within the same genre. That way you will gain knowledge on the theme and a bigger understanding for the genre all at the same time.

There are many variants, but we have put up structure suggestions here:

Empirical thesis

Literature review


Rienecker et al. (2013) har utviklet noe de kaller "Pentagon-modellen". Den består av fem elementer som går igjen i alle store, vitenskapelige tekster. De fem elementene er:

  • Hva spør du om? Problemformulering
  • Hvorfor spør du? Formål
  • Hva spør du til? Empiri
  • Hva spør du med? Teori, metoder
  • Hvordan spør du? Fremgangsmåte

I boken til Rienecker et al. (2013) finner du mange eksempler på bruken av disse fem elementene.

Structure: a couple of possibilities

In some texts it is natural to use the IMRoD-structure, while in others it is more natural to have a less fine structure. Regardless, in most theses it will be good to have in mind that there should be an introduction that explains what the thesis is about, a middle part where you explain what you have discovered and a conclusion where you summarize or conclude. Dyste et al. (2010) recommends using the “thread spool model” (p. 170) where you start off wide with an introduction, followed by the narrowest point, which is the procedure, then expand in the discussion.

Trådsnelle. Illustrasjon.

The book «Success in academic writing” by Trevor Day (2013, p. 101) describes the procedure for planning the thesis structure from the start, i.e., a detailed outline. In a larger document, i.e., a dissertation, you can plan from chapters to part of chapters and down to subchapters and paragraphs. In a shorter thesis you can plan from the parts you must include. You can always change the headings and reorganize later but planning from the very start can help you. The process could look like this:

  • Suggest titles for chapters or parts you must include in the thesis
  • Write a sentence or two underneath each chapter or a part to describe which content is planned
  • Make a list of possible titles for subchapters or subtitles under each part
  • Describe the logical sequence of the arguments under each part so you know you have a common thread and a good connection with the proposed subchapter titles.
  • Write a sentence or a short paragraph under each part
  • Calculate how many words you will use under each part or chapter so that you do not go over the word limit (if you have one)

I am writing a bachelor thesis on critical thinking and source criticism for 1st year students in nursing education. I have 10.000 words +/- 10% available. The thesis is a literature review. My structure plan will look like this:

Introduction (approx. 500 words)

  • Theme and definition
  • Relevance for the field

Background (approx. 220 words)

  • Definition for critical thinking and source criticism
  • Traditions in teaching
  • Fraudulent research
  • Patient safety in a world full of fake information

Method (approx. 1300 words)

  • Literature overview and more on the choice of genre
  • Database selection
  • Search strategy and documentation

Results (approx. 3000 words)

  • Presentation of the articles
  • Summary of the articles

Discussion (approx. 2500 words)

  • The importance of source criticism in the patient safety perspective
  • Critical thinking in clinical practice
  • Teaching and training in critical thinking and source criticism

Conclusion (approx. 500 words)

  • Conclusions and implications for practice

Now I have a structure plan with suggestions to subchapters and an indication of total word count. This can, of course, be adjusted along the way when I get a better overview.

Kilder struktur

Your plan might look different, even if you are also writing a literature review. Follow the guidelines from your institute/faculty and use your supervisor well in the planning phase

Day, T. (2013). Success in academic writing . Palgrave Macmillan. 

Dysthe, Hoel, T. L., & Hertzberg, F. (2010).  Skrive for å lære : skriving i høyere utdanning  (2nd ed.). Abstrakt. 

Rienecker, Stray Jørgensen, P., Skov, S., & Landaas, W. (2013).  Den gode oppgaven : håndbok i oppgaveskriving på universitet og høyskole  (2nd ed.). Fagbokforlaget.

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academic writing master thesis

  • Aims and Objectives – A Guide for Academic Writing
  • Doing a PhD

One of the most important aspects of a thesis, dissertation or research paper is the correct formulation of the aims and objectives. This is because your aims and objectives will establish the scope, depth and direction that your research will ultimately take. An effective set of aims and objectives will give your research focus and your reader clarity, with your aims indicating what is to be achieved, and your objectives indicating how it will be achieved.


There is no getting away from the importance of the aims and objectives in determining the success of your research project. Unfortunately, however, it is an aspect that many students struggle with, and ultimately end up doing poorly. Given their importance, if you suspect that there is even the smallest possibility that you belong to this group of students, we strongly recommend you read this page in full.

This page describes what research aims and objectives are, how they differ from each other, how to write them correctly, and the common mistakes students make and how to avoid them. An example of a good aim and objectives from a past thesis has also been deconstructed to help your understanding.

What Are Aims and Objectives?

Research aims.

A research aim describes the main goal or the overarching purpose of your research project.

In doing so, it acts as a focal point for your research and provides your readers with clarity as to what your study is all about. Because of this, research aims are almost always located within its own subsection under the introduction section of a research document, regardless of whether it’s a thesis , a dissertation, or a research paper .

A research aim is usually formulated as a broad statement of the main goal of the research and can range in length from a single sentence to a short paragraph. Although the exact format may vary according to preference, they should all describe why your research is needed (i.e. the context), what it sets out to accomplish (the actual aim) and, briefly, how it intends to accomplish it (overview of your objectives).

To give an example, we have extracted the following research aim from a real PhD thesis:

Example of a Research Aim

The role of diametrical cup deformation as a factor to unsatisfactory implant performance has not been widely reported. The aim of this thesis was to gain an understanding of the diametrical deformation behaviour of acetabular cups and shells following impaction into the reamed acetabulum. The influence of a range of factors on deformation was investigated to ascertain if cup and shell deformation may be high enough to potentially contribute to early failure and high wear rates in metal-on-metal implants.

Note: Extracted with permission from thesis titled “T he Impact And Deformation Of Press-Fit Metal Acetabular Components ” produced by Dr H Hothi of previously Queen Mary University of London.

Research Objectives

Where a research aim specifies what your study will answer, research objectives specify how your study will answer it.

They divide your research aim into several smaller parts, each of which represents a key section of your research project. As a result, almost all research objectives take the form of a numbered list, with each item usually receiving its own chapter in a dissertation or thesis.

Following the example of the research aim shared above, here are it’s real research objectives as an example:

Example of a Research Objective

  • Develop finite element models using explicit dynamics to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion, initially using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum.
  • Investigate the number, velocity and position of impacts needed to insert a cup.
  • Determine the relationship between the size of interference between the cup and cavity and deformation for different cup types.
  • Investigate the influence of non-uniform cup support and varying the orientation of the component in the cavity on deformation.
  • Examine the influence of errors during reaming of the acetabulum which introduce ovality to the cavity.
  • Determine the relationship between changes in the geometry of the component and deformation for different cup designs.
  • Develop three dimensional pelvis models with non-uniform bone material properties from a range of patients with varying bone quality.
  • Use the key parameters that influence deformation, as identified in the foam models to determine the range of deformations that may occur clinically using the anatomic models and if these deformations are clinically significant.

It’s worth noting that researchers sometimes use research questions instead of research objectives, or in other cases both. From a high-level perspective, research questions and research objectives make the same statements, but just in different formats.

Taking the first three research objectives as an example, they can be restructured into research questions as follows:

Restructuring Research Objectives as Research Questions

  • Can finite element models using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum together with explicit dynamics be used to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion?
  • What is the number, velocity and position of impacts needed to insert a cup?
  • What is the relationship between the size of interference between the cup and cavity and deformation for different cup types?

Difference Between Aims and Objectives

Hopefully the above explanations make clear the differences between aims and objectives, but to clarify:

  • The research aim focus on what the research project is intended to achieve; research objectives focus on how the aim will be achieved.
  • Research aims are relatively broad; research objectives are specific.
  • Research aims focus on a project’s long-term outcomes; research objectives focus on its immediate, short-term outcomes.
  • A research aim can be written in a single sentence or short paragraph; research objectives should be written as a numbered list.

How to Write Aims and Objectives

Before we discuss how to write a clear set of research aims and objectives, we should make it clear that there is no single way they must be written. Each researcher will approach their aims and objectives slightly differently, and often your supervisor will influence the formulation of yours on the basis of their own preferences.

Regardless, there are some basic principles that you should observe for good practice; these principles are described below.

Your aim should be made up of three parts that answer the below questions:

  • Why is this research required?
  • What is this research about?
  • How are you going to do it?

The easiest way to achieve this would be to address each question in its own sentence, although it does not matter whether you combine them or write multiple sentences for each, the key is to address each one.

The first question, why , provides context to your research project, the second question, what , describes the aim of your research, and the last question, how , acts as an introduction to your objectives which will immediately follow.

Scroll through the image set below to see the ‘why, what and how’ associated with our research aim example.

Explaining aims vs objectives

Note: Your research aims need not be limited to one. Some individuals per to define one broad ‘overarching aim’ of a project and then adopt two or three specific research aims for their thesis or dissertation. Remember, however, that in order for your assessors to consider your research project complete, you will need to prove you have fulfilled all of the aims you set out to achieve. Therefore, while having more than one research aim is not necessarily disadvantageous, consider whether a single overarching one will do.

Research Objectives

Each of your research objectives should be SMART :

  • Specific – is there any ambiguity in the action you are going to undertake, or is it focused and well-defined?
  • Measurable – how will you measure progress and determine when you have achieved the action?
  • Achievable – do you have the support, resources and facilities required to carry out the action?
  • Relevant – is the action essential to the achievement of your research aim?
  • Timebound – can you realistically complete the action in the available time alongside your other research tasks?

In addition to being SMART, your research objectives should start with a verb that helps communicate your intent. Common research verbs include:

Table of Research Verbs to Use in Aims and Objectives

Last, format your objectives into a numbered list. This is because when you write your thesis or dissertation, you will at times need to make reference to a specific research objective; structuring your research objectives in a numbered list will provide a clear way of doing this.

To bring all this together, let’s compare the first research objective in the previous example with the above guidance:

Checking Research Objective Example Against Recommended Approach

Research Objective:

1. Develop finite element models using explicit dynamics to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion, initially using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum.

Checking Against Recommended Approach:

Q: Is it specific? A: Yes, it is clear what the student intends to do (produce a finite element model), why they intend to do it (mimic cup/shell blows) and their parameters have been well-defined ( using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum ).

Q: Is it measurable? A: Yes, it is clear that the research objective will be achieved once the finite element model is complete.

Q: Is it achievable? A: Yes, provided the student has access to a computer lab, modelling software and laboratory data.

Q: Is it relevant? A: Yes, mimicking impacts to a cup/shell is fundamental to the overall aim of understanding how they deform when impacted upon.

Q: Is it timebound? A: Yes, it is possible to create a limited-scope finite element model in a relatively short time, especially if you already have experience in modelling.

Q: Does it start with a verb? A: Yes, it starts with ‘develop’, which makes the intent of the objective immediately clear.

Q: Is it a numbered list? A: Yes, it is the first research objective in a list of eight.

Mistakes in Writing Research Aims and Objectives

1. making your research aim too broad.

Having a research aim too broad becomes very difficult to achieve. Normally, this occurs when a student develops their research aim before they have a good understanding of what they want to research. Remember that at the end of your project and during your viva defence , you will have to prove that you have achieved your research aims; if they are too broad, this will be an almost impossible task. In the early stages of your research project, your priority should be to narrow your study to a specific area. A good way to do this is to take the time to study existing literature, question their current approaches, findings and limitations, and consider whether there are any recurring gaps that could be investigated .

Note: Achieving a set of aims does not necessarily mean proving or disproving a theory or hypothesis, even if your research aim was to, but having done enough work to provide a useful and original insight into the principles that underlie your research aim.

2. Making Your Research Objectives Too Ambitious

Be realistic about what you can achieve in the time you have available. It is natural to want to set ambitious research objectives that require sophisticated data collection and analysis, but only completing this with six months before the end of your PhD registration period is not a worthwhile trade-off.

3. Formulating Repetitive Research Objectives

Each research objective should have its own purpose and distinct measurable outcome. To this effect, a common mistake is to form research objectives which have large amounts of overlap. This makes it difficult to determine when an objective is truly complete, and also presents challenges in estimating the duration of objectives when creating your project timeline. It also makes it difficult to structure your thesis into unique chapters, making it more challenging for you to write and for your audience to read.

Fortunately, this oversight can be easily avoided by using SMART objectives.

Hopefully, you now have a good idea of how to create an effective set of aims and objectives for your research project, whether it be a thesis, dissertation or research paper. While it may be tempting to dive directly into your research, spending time on getting your aims and objectives right will give your research clear direction. This won’t only reduce the likelihood of problems arising later down the line, but will also lead to a more thorough and coherent research project.

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The 11 best AI tools for academic writing

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By leveraging the power of the right AI tool, you can significantly improve the clarity, efficiency, and overall quality of your academic writing. In this guide, we reviewed and ranked 11 popular AI tools for academic writing , along with our top 3 choices, so that you can pick the best one.

Disclosure: This post contains affiliate links, which means I may earn a small commission if you make a purchase using the links below at  no additional cost to you.

What are the best AI tools for academic writing?

  • 3. QuillBot

4. Writefull

5. grammarly, 6. wordtune, 7. paperpal, 8. sourcely, 10. writesonic, 11. textcortex, summary and top picks.

With the rise of AI tools, academic writing is undergoing a remarkable transformation. The emergence of new AI-powered tools has revolutionized the way researchers, scholars, and students approach their writing tasks.

However, not all tools are created equal! And with the influx of options, it’s important for academics to discern between the high-quality ones and the mediocre ones that can hinder efficiency rather than enhance it.

High-quality AI tools for academic writing help you:

  • correct grammar and spelling mistakes,
  • paraphrase,
  • incorporate references,
  • and much more.

Having to use multiple tools for different purposes can be frustrating. Therefore, comprehensive testing was conducted on AI tools to assess their all-encompassing capabilities.

Furthermore, the optional functions were compared to their respective prices to ensure a fair pricing structure. AI support for academic writing should be affordable and not strain your budget.

Here are Master Academia’s top picks for the best AI tools for academic writing in 2023:

academic writing master thesis

Best Overall for Academic Writing ($6.67/month)

academic writing master thesis

Trinka is a unique AI-powered writing tool designed specifically for academic and technical writing.

What sets Trinka apart is its ability to go beyond basic grammar and spelling corrections. It assists writers in finding the appropriate tone and style for academic writing, while also improving conciseness and implementing formal syntax.

Trinka takes into account the specific research subjects, ensuring that the writing style, word choice, and tone align with disciplinary standards and scientific conventions.

In addition to these advanced writing enhancements, Trinka offers a range of additional features. It includes consistency checking to maintain a coherent writing style, publication readiness checks to prepare your work for submission, plagiarism checking to ensure originality, and a citation analyzer to assess the quality and relevance of your citations.

By providing these comprehensive tools, Trinka offers a convenient and all-encompassing solution for taking your academic writing to the next level.

Key Features:

  • Robust grammar and spell-checker – Real-time writing suggestions that also cover tone and style enhancement, syntax, and technical spelling make you a proficient academic writer.
  • Disciplinary and scientific conventions – Trinka provides specialized adjustments of language, style, and tone to adhere to scientific conventions in various research fields, based on existing academic publications.
  • Powerful plagiarism checker – Through the inclusion of a powerful plagiarism checker powered by iThenticate and Turnitin (renowned software for plagiarism detection), you do not have to worry about accidental plagiarism.
  • Wide range of additional features – Trinka offers extra features such as a citation analyzer, journal finder, and publication readiness checker, ensuring your academic writing is prepared for publication efficiently.
  • Customization – Trinka has a personal dictionary feature, allowing you to customize the spellchecker to suit your own research work, facilitating a seamless editing process.
  • Plug-ins – Plug-ins are available for your favorite browser, and work on Microsoft Word, Google Docs, Gmail, Evernote, Notion, and more.
  • For the Trinka Citation Checker and Plagiarism Check, you need to upload your file separately.

academic writing master thesis

You can use the basic version of Trinka for free, which includes access to all features but with a monthly word limit of 5000 words. The pricing for Trinka’s premium plan starts at $6.67 per month with annual billing, which is extremely affordable.

Best for Summarizing ($15.99/month)

academic writing master thesis

Genei has established itself as a prominent player in the realm of academic AI tools, and rightfully so.

As a comprehensive tool designed for academics, Genei goes beyond assisting with workflow organization and document storage—it also offers a plethora of features tailored specifically for academic writing.

Genei streamlines the academic writing process by utilizing AI-generated summaries and note-taking shortcuts, extracting information from academic articles.

Users can benefit from comprehensive summaries of entire articles or manually highlighted passages, which can be expanded, condensed, rephrased, and summarized with ease using Genei.

Moreover, Genei allows users to seamlessly adapt writing styles and effortlessly incorporate references.

For those heavily reliant on literature reviews in their academic writing, Genei proves to be a gamechanger.

  • Research article summaries – Academic writing often necessitates summarizing existing scientific articles, and Genei excels in simplifying this task with its high-quality AI-generated summaries.
  • Integrated workflow management – With Genei, you have the ability to save, store, and organize your publications and other documents, providing you with a comprehensive solution to manage your entire workflow within the tool.
  • Summarizing notes – When reading and summarizing within Genei, you have the option to utilize the note function, enabling you to highlight specific text passages and gather your thoughts, all of which can be conveniently converted into text format.
  • Control and customization over generated summaries: Genei allows you to provide specific instructions to the AI, such as requesting to “expand,” “rephrase,” or “summarize” a particular section. ‍
  • Academic discount – As an academic, you can receive a 40% discount on your Genei Pro subscription.
  • Genei does not offer the option to customize the style and tone to adhere to specific disciplinary standards.
  • To utilize Genei, it is necessary to access its online interface as the tool does not offer any integrations or plug-ins with other platforms.

academic writing master thesis

Genei offers two pricing structures, one for professionals and another for academics.


  • The basic version costs £9.99 per month, providing unlimited projects and resources but excluding GPT3 summaries and AI-powered expand, paraphrase & rephrase functions, with a maximum individual file upload of 5GB. The professional pro version, priced at £29.99/month, offers unlimited file upload and full functionality. Annual discounts are available.
  • For academics, the basic version costs £4.99, while the pro version costs £19.99, which is essential for accessing the summaries and paraphrasing functions. With the annual discount, the pro version costs £15.99 per month.

3. Quil lBot

Best for Paraphrasing ($8.33/month)

academic writing master thesis

QuillBot is an AI-powered paraphrase tool that helps you to rewrite, edit, and adjust the tone of your text for increased clarity.

With QuillBot ‘s all-in-one Co-Writer, you can access paraphrasing, summarizing, citation creation, and essay writing tools in a single location.

QuillBot’s online paraphraser allows you to modify the meaning of any text using a variety of options. It offers two free modes and five premium modes, allowing you to control the level of vocabulary change.

A synonym slider enables you to adjust the amount of rewriting, in addition to a built-in thesaurus for customizing your paraphrases.

In simple terms, QuillBot’s AI will collaborate with you to generate effective rephrasing. You have a lot of control as you can compare outputs from all seven available modes to choose the most suitable paraphrase.

QuillBot integrates seamlessly with Chrome and Microsoft Word, eliminating the need to switch windows when rephrasing sentences, paragraphs, or articles.

  • Paraphrasing options – QuillBot allows you to choose from seven different paraphrasing options (standard, fluency, formal, simple, creative, expand, shorten) to adjust your paraphrasing to your needs.
  • Built-in thesaurus – You can customize paraphrases with synonyms using the built-in thesaurus, which is extremely handy.
  • Track changes – You can view word count and percent change to feel confident about your revisions when paraphrasing.
  • All-in-one – Access all of QuillBot’s tools in one writing space, including paraphrasing, summarizing, access to its citation generator, and its plagiarism checker.
  • Translation option – Translate text into 30+ languages.
  • Seamless integration – It is easy to incorporate QuillBot into your existing writing tools via Word and Chrome extensions.
  • Pause subscription – Academics and students can pause their subscription to align with their academic writing periods.
  • QuillBot does not offer the option to customize the style and tone to adhere to specific disciplinary standards.
  • QuillBot has no built-in note-taking option.

academic writing master thesis

The free plan of QuillBot allows paraphrasing of up to 125 words and summarizing of up to 1200 words at a time, but excludes advanced features like advanced grammar rewrites, comparing paraphrasing options, and the plagiarism checker.

With the premium plan, you gain access to full functionality, including unlimited word paraphrasing, summarizing up to 6000 words, faster processing, advanced grammar features, tone detection, and more. The premium plan is priced at $19.95 per month or $8.33 per month when paid annually.

QuillBot also offers a 100% money back guarantee for the QuillBot Premium Plan.

Solid Editing and Content Creation Tool ($5.46/month)

academic writing master thesis

Writefull utilizes language models trained on extensive journal articles to provide tailored edits for academic writing and offers automatic paraphrasing and text generation.

With additional AI widgets like the Abstract Generator, Academizer, Paraphraser, and Title Generator, it provides inspiration and assistance for academic writers.

Writefull is a powerful editing tool designed for individuals who struggle with writer’s block and prefer to revise and edit existing text rather than creating it from scratch.

Writefull is available for Word and Overleaf, allowing users to revise, upload, and download documents with track changes. This can be particularly useful if a document with track changes is required for a journal submission.

  • Data security – Writefull provides secure and quick text revisions without storing any user data or search history.
  • Track Changes – Users can upload their text for a language check, evaluate overall language quality, and make corrections using Track Changes.
  • AI-generated abstracts and titles: Writefull helps you to write abstracts based on your input, and provides suggestions for titles.
  • Institutional Premium Accounts – Universities can purchase a license which makes Writefull free to their students and staff.
  • GPT detector – Writefull users can utilize a GPT detector feature to determine if a text comes from GPT-3, GPT-4, or ChatGPT models.
  • Writefull’s Academizer makes text is supposed to make texts sound more academic, but it does not adjust to different disciplinary standards.
  • The seven paraphrasing modes are not all suitable for academic writing.
  • While abstracts and titles generated by Writefull ard not be flawless and may require some editing. Nonetheless, they serve as an excellent source of inspiration.

academic writing master thesis

Writefull can be used with limited functionality for free. Its Premium Plan offers unlimited use of all features at a cost of $15.37 per month.

However, there are significant savings if you choose to pay annually, as it amounts to only $5.46 per month.

Tried and Tested Writing Assistant ($12.00/month)

academic writing master thesis

Grammarly is widely recognized as the leading AI-powered writing assistance tool. One of Grammarly’s key advantages is its versatility and convenience.

Grammarly stands out among other AI tools by having a widespread and popular institutional license, which universities readily embrace.

Despite the common reservations university administrators hold against AI usage, Grammarly has established itself as a widely accepted and trusted tool among academics, researchers, and students.

Once installed, it seamlessly integrates into various desktop applications and websites, providing suggestions and assistance as you write across different platforms, including apps, social media, documents, messages, and emails, without requiring separate installations.

Grammarly’s popularity in the academic community can be attributed to its support for citation style formatting and robust plagiarism detection, making it a valuable tool for academic writing.

  • Style and tone real-time assistance – Grammarly provides real-time suggestions and guidance on improving the style and tone of your writing.
  • Solid free version – The free version of Grammarly is reliable for basic grammar and spelling checks, as well as identifying unclear sentences and auto-citations.
  • Additional features: A range of advanced features, plagiarism detection, citation checking, and essay analysis, help you to identify unintentional plagiarism and enhance the overall quality of your writing.
  • Special offers for education: Grammarly for Education is available as an institutional license for universities. It ensures high security standards and data protection, which is particularly crucial when dealing with research data. This contributes to Grammarly’s acceptance in academia.
  • Grammarly is not directly targeted at academic writing, which means it may not fully cater to the specific needs and conventions of academic writing styles.
  • While Grammarly’s premium plan provides suggestions to improve the overall tone of your writing, it lacks subdivision according to research fields or disciplines, which may not meet the specific requirements for unique scientific tone required in academic research writing.

academic writing master thesis

Grammarly’s free plan offers valuable basic writing suggestions to improve your writing.

The premium plan may seem expensive at $30 per month, but with the annual savings of 60%, it becomes much more affordable at $12 per month.

The business account may not be of interest to students or researchers. However, universities can opt for Grammarly for Education, which provides licenses for free premium plans to students and staff.

Efficient Paraphrasing Tool ($9.99/mo)

academic writing master thesis

Wordtune utilizes sophisticated AI tools and language models that possess a deep understanding of written text, including its context and semantics.

Wordtune goes beyond mere grammar and spelling corrections, empowering you to express your own ideas effectively in writing.

The tool itself proclaims that it has gained the trust of students and researchers at renowned universities.

Although Wordtune excels in paraphrasing, providing synonym recommendations and an integrated plagiarism check for seamless usage, it is important to note that its focus is not primarily on academic writing, which influences the training of the system.

  • Synonyms – Wordtune provides contextual synonym recommendations for your sentences.
  • Grammar and spelling correction – With Wordtune you can rest assured that your text is free from grammar and spelling mistakes.
  • Plagiarism-free writing – Wordtune helps you avoid plagiarism by rephrasing text while preserving its original meaning with its built-in plagiarism checker.
  • Wide range of extensions – Wordtune offers convenient extensions for Chrome, Microsoft Word, iOS, Teams, and more.
  • Affordable – Wordtune provides cost-effective AI-powered paraphrasing capabilities.
  • Wordtune does not have specific features or styles tailored for academic writing.
  • Wordtune primarily focuses on lengthening or shortening text and does not offer extensive tools for academic writing needs.

academic writing master thesis

Wordtune offers a free version with limited features, while the premium version is priced at $24.99 per month. However, users can benefit from a significant 60% discount when opting for an annual subscription: With an annual subscription, the premium version of Wordtune is available at a reduced rate of $9.99 per month.

Academic Language Editor ($8.25 / month)

academic writing master thesis

Paperpal, developed by Researcher.life, is a specialized AI tool designed for researchers and academic writers, leveraging the expertise gained from editing numerous manuscripts by professional editors.

With Paperpal , you can effortlessly enhance your writing by addressing grammar errors and improving sentence structure, ensuring your credibility remains intact.

Moreover, Paperpal offers advanced features such as accurate translation and contextual synonyms, along with the choice between Essential and Extensive editing modes, providing flexibility to tailor the editing process to your specific needs.

Available as Paperpal for Word, Web, and Manuscript, this comprehensive tool also checks for structural and technical inconsistencies in your writing.

  • Trained with expertise of academic editors – Paperpal is an AI system that has undergone training on academic writing and human-edited manuscripts, guaranteeing high standards.
  • Translation – With Paperpal, you can effortlessly translate academic texts from over 25 languages to academic English.
  • Compliance with technical language standards – The manuscript checker in Paperpal ensures technical compliance and maintains language quality standards required for journal submissions.
  • Consistency feature – Paperpal’s consistency feature checks for and detects stylistic inconsistencies unique to research content, allowing for seamless correction.
  • Data security – Your data is secure with Paperpal, as it adheres to a certified data security protocol and is compliant with ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standards.
  • Paperpal does not offer a subdivision into research fields or disciplinary standards, meaning it does not cater to specific tones or styles required by different academic disciplines.
  • Currently, Paperpal only provides word integration and is limited to integration with Microsoft Word and web browsers.
  • Paperpal lacks a built-in plagiarism checker.

academic writing master thesis

The Prime plan offers unlimited language suggestions and is priced at $99, which translates to just $8.25 per month when billed annually. For those who prefer a monthly plan, it is available at an affordable rate of $12 per month.

Smart Reference Tool While Writing ($3.00/mo)

academic writing master thesis

Sourcely is an AI-powered source-finding tool developed by a team of students which offers an easy-to-use solution for academic writers in search of references.

By analyzing text and identifying key themes, Sourcely searches through a vast data set to locate relevant and reliable sources, providing academic writers with the information needed to support their work.

Good references are crucial in academic writing, as they provide legitimacy to arguments and claims.

Simply input your essay title or text, and Sourcely finds suitable sources to enhance your work.

  • Source discovery – Sourcely provides a unique approach where you can first write your content and then effortlessly discover relevant sources to support your ideas.
  • Summaries – Sourcely offers a convenient feature called “Summarize a Source,” allowing users to obtain a summary of an article or source they are considering for their work.
  • Affordability – Sourcely is highly affordable, making it an accessible option for users.
  • Sourcely’s feature of providing interesting source recommendations is appealing, but it is not comprehensive enough to solely rely on and neglect consulting resources from other reliable sources.
  • Sourcely has limited features compared to other AI writing tools.

academic writing master thesis

Sourcely offers great affordability with a price of $5.99 per month or $36.99 per year. While it may have fewer features compared to other academic writing tools, its lower price point still makes it a valuable and useful tool for academic writing.

Fast Translating and Rewording Tool ($7.5/mo)

academic writing master thesis

Rytr is an AI writing assistant that quickly generates high-quality content at an affordable price, primarily targeting marketers, copywriters, and entrepreneurs.

While it is recognized by G2 (business software reviews) as a leading brand in the AI Writing space and claims to be “loved by academicians,” it is important to note that Rytr is not trained on academic articles.

Rytr is a text-generating AI tool. Depending on the purpose, academics can find it useful for selecting from multiple languages and tones of voice, as well as rewording and shortening text.

With the convenience of a browser extension, Rytr saves time and ensures your copy is top-notch especially for emails, social media posts, or blogs.

  • 40+ use cases – Rytr is an AI writing assistant that offers content generation for over 40 use cases, including emails, cover letters, and blog posts, with the ability to both shorten and lengthen content as needed.
  • Generous free plan – While Rytr is not specifically targeting academic writing, it provides a generous free plan that can be beneficial for tasks such as writing emails and blog posts for research dissemination.
  • Translation – Rytr can help you to translate your texts into 30+ languages.
  • Customization – The platform offers a range of options to enhance the writing process, including language selection, tone customization, expanding or rephrasing text, formatting options, and even a readability score feature.
  • Rytr is not suitable for essay or academic writing purposes, as it lacks the necessary features specifically designed for these types of tasks.
  • It is not targeted towards researchers and fails to provide valuable tools like citation assistance, which is essential for academic writing.
  • While Rytr offers a range of features, some of them, such as SEO optimization, are irrelevant and not beneficial for academic writing purposes.

academic writing master thesis

Rytr offers a free plan that allows users to generate content up to 10,000 characters per month. For more advanced features and increased usage, there is the Saver Plan priced at $9 per month (or $7.5 per month when billed annually).

Alternatively, the Unlimited plan is available at $29 per month or $290 per year. These different pricing tiers cater to the diverse needs of users, ensuring they can find the plan that best suits their requirements.

Paraphrasing and Translation Tool ($12.67/mo)

academic writing master thesis

While Writesonic is primarily geared towards marketing teams and entrepreneurs, it offers an intriguing feature for academics: the paraphrasing tool. This tool allows users to rephrase content in multiple languages.

With Writesonic ‘s paraphrasing tool, you can effortlessly rewrite sentences, paragraphs, essays, and even entire articles with a simple click.

Produced content is 100% unique and free from plagiarism.

Upon generating a paragraph, Writesonic provides three different versions for you to choose from. It allows you to select the best option or make edits and revisions using the various variations.

  • Choice – Writesonic provides three paraphrased options for each paraphrase, ensuring you find the most suitable and impactful version for your content.
  • Switching from passive to active voice – Transform your writing by switching from passive voice to active voice. Active voice sentences provide clarity, conciseness, and impact, ensuring you don’t miss out on great opportunities. The rewording tool allows you to rephrase paragraphs and change the voice of your sentences effortlessly.
  • Paraphrase your content in different languages – Writesonic’s Paraphrase tool can be used to conduct AI paragraph rephrasing in up to 26 different languages.
  • Writesonic is not specifically designed for academic writing, and its features are not tailored to meet the specific requirements of academic writing.
  • The platform lacks an academic writing style, which is essential for maintaining scholarly integrity and adhering to academic conventions.
  • While Writesonic offers various features, some of them, such as SEO optimization, are not directly applicable or relevant to academic writing tasks.

academic writing master thesis

You can start with a free trial of Writesonic to experience its features. If you decide to upgrade to the Pro version, it is available at a cost of $12.67 per month.

Summarizing and Paraphrasing Tool ($19.99/mo)

academic writing master thesis

With TextCortex you can say goodbye to any worries about wording and spelling mistakes. Furthermore, it can help you to speed up your reading process.

TextCortex is an AI tool which can condense long texts into concise summaries, capturing the essential points.

Moreover, it can enhance your fluency and adapting vocabulary, tone, and style to match any situation.

  • Paraphrasing – TextCortex offers a powerful paraphrasing tool to help you rephrase and enhance your text.
  • Translations – TextCortex’s translation feature allows you to effortlessly write in over 25 languages including French, German, Spanish, Swedish, and more.
  • TextCortex is not specifically designed for academic writing, catering to a broader audience instead.
  • It may not be cost-effective for academics due to its high price relative to the limited functionality it offers for academic writing purposes.

academic writing master thesis

With the free version of TextCortex, you have the ability to create up to 10 pieces per day. For enhanced features and unlimited usage, the Pro version is available at a price of $19.99.

The landscape of AI writing tools is continuously evolving, witnessing the introduction of new tools regularly. However, not all these tools are equally suitable for academic writing, as their effectiveness depends on your specific goals and requirements.

While some tools, although not specifically designed for academic writing, can still provide valuable assistance in certain areas, there are standout options that are solely dedicated to enhancing academic writing.

Keeping this in mind, our top picks for academic writing support are the following AI tools:

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academic writing master thesis

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    A thesis is a comprehensive academic paper based on your original research that presents new findings, arguments, and ideas of your study. It's typically submitted at the end of your master's degree or as a capstone of your bachelor's degree. However, writing a thesis can be laborious, especially for beginners.

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    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

  5. What is a Master's Thesis: A Guide for Students

    A master's thesis is an academic research output that is expected to showcase a student's competence in a higher level of research as compared to an undergraduate one. The primary objective of a master's thesis is to assess a student on the depth of their understanding, knowledge, and competence on the subject of their choice.

  6. Guide to Writing Your Thesis/Dissertation : Graduate School

    Definition of Dissertation and Thesis. The dissertation or thesis is a scholarly treatise that substantiates a specific point of view as a result of original research that is conducted by students during their graduate study. At Cornell, the thesis is a requirement for the receipt of the M.A. and M.S. degrees and some professional master's ...


    minimum of ten days for all members of the thesis committee to review the thesis. Step 1: Prepare the content of your presentation. The content of your presentation is the mirror of your thesis ...

  8. The Ultimate Guide on How to Write a Master's Thesis

    A thesis could consist of an average of 70 to 100 pages, including a bibliography, citations, and various sections. It is written under the guidance of a faculty advisor and should be publishable as an article. Your master's thesis reflects the literature in your field, challenges, evidence, and arguments around your writing topics.

  9. Getting Started

    Thesis and Dissertation: Getting Started. The resources in this section are designed to provide guidance for the first steps of the thesis or dissertation writing process. They offer tools to support the planning and managing of your project, including writing out your weekly schedule, outlining your goals, and organzing the various working ...

  10. Academic Guides: Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

    When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize, and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing. Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question, and interrogate.


    Academic writing is built upon three truths that aren't self-evident: - Writing is Thinking: While "writing" is traditionally understood as the expression of thought, we'll redefine "writing" as the thought process itself. Writing is not what you do with thought. Writing is thinking. - Writing is a Process: Both the ...

  12. A complete guide to writing a master's thesis

    OK, we realise we may be teaching your grandma how to suck eggs here - starting with a plan is the obvious first step in any piece of academic writing. And yet, as good as everyone's intentions may be when students start writing a master's thesis, circumstances (nearly) always arise that make sticking to the plan much more challenging.

  13. Supporting bachelor's and master's students' thesis writing: a

    Supporting thesis writing. Previous research has identified challenges in students' academic writing, such as confusion about academic writing requirements and negative emotions toward academic writing (Cameron, Nairn, and Higgins Citation 2009; Itua et al. Citation 2014), which might also affect students' thesis writing.Several researchers have directed interest toward developing ...

  14. Master's thesis

    Academic guidance and counselling. Writing a Master's thesis starts with participation in the thesis seminar and deciding on the topic. You will be assigned at least one supervisor - the responsible supervisor - who supports your work in matters related to the content and research process throughout the thesis process.

  15. How to write a fantastic thesis introduction (+15 examples)

    The thesis introduction, usually chapter 1, is one of the most important chapters of a thesis. It sets the scene. It previews key arguments and findings. And it helps the reader to understand the structure of the thesis. In short, a lot is riding on this first chapter. With the following tips, you can write a powerful thesis introduction.

  16. Academic writing

    The book «Success in academic writing" by Trevor Day (2013, p. 101) describes the procedure for planning the thesis structure from the start, i.e., a detailed outline. In a larger document, i.e., a dissertation, you can plan from chapters to part of chapters and down to subchapters and paragraphs. In a shorter thesis you can plan from the ...

  17. PDF Analysis of MA Students' Writing in English Language Teaching: A ...

    master thesis writing as a critical social space in which students have to develop a purposeful academic text on their way towards becoming part of a professional community. However, more often than not, students fail to recognize the social nature of master thesis writing—in terms of the organization of knowledge and the organi -

  18. Aims and Objectives

    Summary. One of the most important aspects of a thesis, dissertation or research paper is the correct formulation of the aims and objectives. This is because your aims and objectives will establish the scope, depth and direction that your research will ultimately take. An effective set of aims and objectives will give your research focus and ...

  19. Full article: Postgraduate students' difficulties in writing their

    1. Introduction. Although writing effectively can lead to fruitful academic upshots (Mousavi & Kashefian-Naeeini, Citation 2011), writing thesis is not an easy task for many students.Most of them face with challenges of writing up their theses particularly their literature review section (Boote & Beile, Citation 2005; Fergie et al., Citation 2011). ...

  20. Thesis & Dissertation

    The University of Florida Graduate School's Thesis & Dissertation team helps you format and submit your master's thesis or doctoral dissertation.. As you work on that crowning achievement of your graduate education experience, our Thesis & Dissertation team can inform you about policy and procedure, lead you to helpful resources, and offer sage advice so that you complete and submit your ...

  21. 75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

    Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic

  22. The 11 best AI tools for academic writing

    Here are Master Academia's top picks for the best AI tools for academic writing in 2023: 1. Trinka. Best Overall for Academic Writing ($6.67/month) Trinka is a unique AI-powered writing tool designed specifically for academic and technical writing.