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Essay on World Literacy Day

Students are often asked to write an essay on World Literacy Day in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on World Literacy Day

Introduction.

World Literacy Day, celebrated every year on September 8th, is an initiative by UNESCO to promote the importance of literacy.

Significance

This day highlights the significance of literacy as a human right and the foundation for learning.

Global Scenario

Despite progress, literacy challenges persist globally, impacting millions of people.

Role of Education

Education plays a crucial role in achieving literacy, empowering individuals, and improving societies.

World Literacy Day reminds us to strive for literacy for all, to create a better and more equitable world.

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250 Words Essay on World Literacy Day

World Literacy Day, celebrated annually on September 8th, is a global acknowledgment of the importance of literacy as a fundamental human right and the cornerstone for individual empowerment, societal development, and sustainable progress.

Significance of World Literacy Day

The day serves as a reminder of the global literacy needs, aiming to bridge the gap between the literate and illiterate. UNESCO first announced it on November 17, 1965, with the goal to eradicate illiteracy by promoting a literate culture and encouraging access to education for all, regardless of age, gender, or socioeconomic status.

Current Scenario and Challenges

In today’s digital age, literacy extends beyond just reading and writing. It includes digital, financial, and media literacy, among others. Despite advancements, approximately 773 million adults worldwide still lack basic literacy skills, according to UNESCO. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the global literacy challenge, disrupting education and learning for millions.

Role of Individuals and Institutions

On World Literacy Day, individuals, institutions, and governments are encouraged to recognize and address literacy challenges. It’s a call to action for educators to innovate and adapt, policy-makers to invest and legislate, and communities to support and uplift.

World Literacy Day underscores the undeniable importance of literacy in achieving inclusive societies. It’s not just a day, but a movement towards a more literate and informed world, where education is not a privilege but a basic human right.

500 Words Essay on World Literacy Day

World Literacy Day, celebrated annually on September 8th, is a significant event that underscores the importance of literacy as a human right, a tool of personal empowerment, and a means for social and human development. Established by UNESCO in 1966, the day aims to highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities, and societies worldwide.

The Importance of Literacy

Literacy is more than just the ability to read and write. It is a fundamental skill that fuels learning and personal growth. It enables individuals to perform everyday tasks, understand complex issues, and participate fully in their communities. Literacy empowers individuals to make informed decisions, communicate effectively, and understand the world around them.

In the broader societal context, literacy is a key driver of sustainable development. It contributes to poverty reduction, reduces health risks, and promotes gender equality, peace, and democracy. Literacy, therefore, plays a pivotal role in shaping a more equitable and sustainable world.

Global Literacy Challenges

Despite its recognized importance, literacy remains an elusive target for many. According to UNESCO, there are still over 773 million illiterate adults worldwide, two-thirds of whom are women. This is a clear indication that more needs to be done to address this global challenge.

The reasons for illiteracy are multifaceted, including poverty, inadequate educational systems, social exclusion, and gender discrimination. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated these challenges, disrupting education for millions of students and widening existing literacy gaps.

The Role of World Literacy Day

World Literacy Day serves as a crucial platform for raising awareness about the importance of literacy and advocating for more inclusive and effective literacy policies and programs. The day encourages governments, civil society, and stakeholders to intensify efforts towards achieving universal literacy.

Each year, World Literacy Day is marked by a specific theme. These themes serve to highlight particular aspects of literacy and encourage discourse and action around them. For instance, the 2020 theme focused on “Literacy teaching and learning in the COVID-19 crisis and beyond,” spotlighting the impact of the pandemic on global education and literacy.

As we celebrate World Literacy Day, it is important to remember that literacy is not just a personal achievement but a collective societal responsibility. It requires the concerted efforts of all sectors of society to ensure that every individual, regardless of their circumstances, has the opportunity to become literate.

In the face of current global literacy challenges, World Literacy Day serves as a reminder of the critical role of literacy in sustainable development and the need for intensified efforts towards universal literacy. It is a call to action for all of us to promote literacy as a fundamental human right and a cornerstone of a more equitable and sustainable world.

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WORLD BOOK AND COPYRIGHT DAY

What is World Book Day and why is it celebrated? Origin and meaning

Proposed one hundred years ago, world book day is now celebrated annually in over 100 countries to promote the enjoyment of reading and books on 23 april..

Greg Heilman

Reading books brings with it numerous benefits giving people the opportunity to explore new worlds and meet new people both real and imagined. It expands our knowledge and understanding of the world around us and those far away.

To celebrate the wonderment of books and those that make them come to life, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established 23 April as World Book and Copyright Day in 1995. However, it got its start long before that in Spain.

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The meaning of World Book and Copyright Day

Fundamentally, it is a celebration of the enjoyment of books, reading and storytelling. World Book and Copyright Day is a recognition of power of books to cross space, time and generations, uniting cultures and linking the present with the future and the past.

Literature is a powerful and effective tool to transmit information and knowledge worldwide, promoting culture, education and science. The World Book and Copyright Day is a time for nations to share the message that books can help address challenges which societies around the world and as whole we currently face. Through understanding the economic and political realities that we’re presented with, it is possible to combat inequalities and misinformation.

The origin of World Book and Copyright Day

Setting aside a day to celebrate books traces its beginnings to Spanish writer Vicente Clavel Andrés. In 1922 he proposed the idea as a way to honor fellow countryman author Miguel de Cervantes. Four years later the first celebration took place on 7 October, Cervantes’ birthday, but was moved to 23 April, the date of his death, in 1930.

In 1995, the UNESCO General Conference decided to pay homage to authors and books world-wide as a way of encouraging everyone to access books. Choosing 23 April seemed a logical choice, besides being the date of Cervante’s death, it also happens to be the date William Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega died, among other prominent authors. Additionally, several distinguished authors were born on 23 April making it a symbolic date in the world literature.

A book is a bridge between generations and across cultures, a force for creating & sharing knowledge. One click to the World Digital Library for free access to thousands of books, documents & photos from all countries & cultures. ✨ https://t.co/0YQora8TRJ #WorldBookDay pic.twitter.com/8knNI094vB — UNESCO 🏛️ #Education #Sciences #Culture 🇺🇳😷 (@UNESCO) April 21, 2022

The UNESCO World Book Capital

Annually since 2001, one city around the world is chosen to be the UNESCO World Book Capital for a year. The selected city is tasked with carrying out activities over its year-long designation to encourage “a culture of reading and diffusing its values in all ages and population groups in and out of the national borders.”

The initiative was put forward by Spain in 2001, and Madrid was designated the first capital, followed by Alexandria and then New Delhi. Following those designations cities are chosen each year by the Director-General of UNESCO in consultation with an advisory committee made up of representatives from international organizations representing authors, libraries and publishers.

Starting 23 April 2022, Guadalajara, Mexico will be the World Book Capital and during the following 12 months will implement its program on “policies around the book to trigger social change, combat violence and build a culture of peace.” The activities will focus on three main areas, regaining public spaces, social bonding and cohesion and strengthening neighborhood identity.

Reading is Good Habit for Students and Children

 500+ words essay on reading is good habit.

Reading is a very good habit that one needs to develop in life. Good books can inform you, enlighten you and lead you in the right direction. There is no better companion than a good book. Reading is important because it is good for your overall well-being. Once you start reading, you experience a whole new world. When you start loving the habit of reading you eventually get addicted to it. Reading develops language skills and vocabulary. Reading books is also a way to relax and reduce stress. It is important to read a good book at least for a few minutes each day to stretch the brain muscles for healthy functioning.

reading is good habit

Benefits of Reading

Books really are your best friends as you can rely on them when you are bored, upset, depressed, lonely or annoyed. They will accompany you anytime you want them and enhance your mood. They share with you information and knowledge any time you need. Good books always guide you to the correct path in life. Following are the benefits of reading –

Self Improvement: Reading helps you develop positive thinking. Reading is important because it develops your mind and gives you excessive knowledge and lessons of life. It helps you understand the world around you better. It keeps your mind active and enhances your creative ability.

Communication Skills: Reading improves your vocabulary and develops your communication skills. It helps you learn how to use your language creatively. Not only does it improve your communication but it also makes you a better writer. Good communication is important in every aspect of life.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Increases Knowledge: Books enable you to have a glimpse into cultures, traditions, arts, history, geography, health, psychology and several other subjects and aspects of life. You get an amazing amount of knowledge and information from books.

Reduces Stress: Reading a good book takes you in a new world and helps you relieve your day to day stress. It has several positive effects on your mind, body, and soul. It stimulates your brain muscles and keeps your brain healthy and strong.

Great Pleasure: When I read a book, I read it for pleasure. I just indulge myself in reading and experience a whole new world. Once I start reading a book I get so captivated I never want to leave it until I finish. It always gives a lot of pleasure to read a good book and cherish it for a lifetime.

Boosts your Imagination and Creativity: Reading takes you to the world of imagination and enhances your creativity. Reading helps you explore life from different perspectives. While you read books you are building new and creative thoughts, images and opinions in your mind. It makes you think creatively, fantasize and use your imagination.

Develops your Analytical Skills: By active reading, you explore several aspects of life. It involves questioning what you read. It helps you develop your thoughts and express your opinions. New ideas and thoughts pop up in your mind by active reading. It stimulates and develops your brain and gives you a new perspective.

Reduces Boredom: Journeys for long hours or a long vacation from work can be pretty boring in spite of all the social sites. Books come in handy and release you from boredom.

Read Different Stages of Reading here.

The habit of reading is one of the best qualities that a person can possess. Books are known to be your best friend for a reason. So it is very important to develop a good reading habit. We must all read on a daily basis for at least 30 minutes to enjoy the sweet fruits of reading. It is a great pleasure to sit in a quiet place and enjoy reading. Reading a good book is the most enjoyable experience one can have.

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world reading day essay

World Book and Copyright Day

Unesco’s theme for 2023 - indigenous languages.

Last year saw the start of the International Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022-32) and it’s a UN priority to uphold and promote linguistic diversity and multilingualism. Indigenous and local languages feature as part of the World Book Capital Network Charter, and the Charter recognizes a less rigid concept of ‘the book’, i.e., acknowledging various forms of literature (including oral traditions). For World Book and Copyright Day on 23 April, Indigenous Languages will be the message UNESCO will focus on.

Of the almost 7,000 existing languages – many of which are fast disappearing – the majority are spoken by indigenous peoples who represent the greater part of the world’s cultural diversity. The UN does not put restrictions on who or which cultures can be termed indigenous, but many of you will be aware of indigenous communities either from your own country, residing there, or among those you have worked with abroad.

"Indeed, books are vital vehicles to access, transmit and promote education, science, culture and information worldwide."

UNESCO Director-General

What is World Book and Copyright Day

World Book and Copyright Day   is a celebration to promote the enjoyment of books and reading. Each year, on 23 April, celebrations take place all over the world to recognize the scope of books - a link between the past and the future, a bridge between generations and across cultures. On this occasion, UNESCO and the international organizations representing the three major sectors of the book industry - publishers, booksellers and libraries, select the  World Book Capital  for a year to maintain, through its own initiatives, the impetus of the Day’s celebrations. 

23 April is a symbolic date in world literature. It is the date on which several prominent authors, William Shakespeare, Miguel de Cervantes and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega all died. This date was a natural choice for UNESCO's General Conference, held in Paris in 1995, to pay a world-wide tribute to books and authors on this date, encouraging everyone to access books.

Books and copyright day

By championing books and copyright, UNESCO stands up for creativity, diversity and equal access to knowledge, with the work across the board – from the   Creative Cities of Literature network  to promoting literacy and mobile learning and advancing Open Access to scientific knowledge and educational resources. With the active involvement of all stakeholders: authors, publishers, teachers, librarians, public and private institutions, humanitarian NGOs and the mass media, and all those who feel motivated to work together in this world celebration of books and authors, World Book and Copyright Day has become a platform to rally together millions of people all around the world.

What UNESCO does for Book and Copyright

world reading day essay

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world reading day essay

Home › Blog Topics › Advocacy/Leadership › 3 Reasons to Celebrate World Read Aloud Day

3 Reasons to Celebrate World Read Aloud Day

By Kelly Hincks on 01/03/2018 • ( 0 )

world reading day essay

World Read Aloud Day is an annual event where people all over the world read aloud as a way to advocate for literacy. This event is run by a nonprofit organization called LitWorld . Their mission is to provide reading and writing opportunities to young children around the world.  This year World Read Aloud Day takes place on February1. Below are three reasons why and how we celebrate.

Awareness: Recently, I was asked why we celebrate World Read Aloud Day. We read aloud to our students daily, so why should we celebrate something we do all the time. The students that I teach have been read to regularly since birth. They come from households with well-educated parents, who value reading as an important part of their lives. Yet, World Read Aloud Day allows us to talk about the fact that this is not true for all people. Since reading is something that young children can relate to, it allows us to discuss differences at a global level that they can understand.

Connections: World Read Aloud Day is about making connections with the world around you as well as sharing the importance of reading. This event allows connections to be made between children and books. Connections are also made across our school building, in the community and across the globe.

Fun: Instilling a love of reading is a goal in the library. World Read Aloud Day is a celebration. It is about reading just for the fun of it, which directly connects to the curriculum objectives.

world reading day essay

School-Wide Event:  Our school community started celebrating World Read Aloud Day four years ago.  We started with a school-wide event that we now do annually. We keep it simple by having older classes are paired with younger classes. The teachers will read aloud a book and then students will read aloud together. There are no “extras.” Students just enjoy reading together.

world reading day essay

Community Partnerships: This is a great opportunity to connect with community members in your area. Invite business leaders, book store owners, or even political officials to come and read aloud as part of the celebration. Additionally, this provides us the opportunity to connect between home and school by having families celebrate by reading together.

If you are interested in learning more or registering to be a part of World Read Aloud Day 2018 visit:  http://www.litworld.org/wrad/ . Make sure to share how you plan to celebrate!

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Author: Kelly Hincks

I am the librarian at Detroit Country Day Lower School in Bloomfield Hills, MI. I have worked as a school librarian for the past eleven years. I was a classroom teacher for four years prior to that. I have worked in charter, public, and private schools. My favorite thing about being a school librarian is the opportunities I have to work both with students and teachers. I love the co-teaching opportunities and connections I have been able to make! I have served on AASL committees as a member and chair. I currently serve as secretary of my state association, Michigan Association of School Librarians (MASL).

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Essay About Reading

Reading is a crucial activity since it sharpens your mind and provides you with a wealth of information and life lessons. It improves your understanding of the environment around you. It keeps your brain engaged and nurtures creativity. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘reading’.

  • 100 Words Essay On Reading

Reading for pleasure is one of the simplest and most underrated forms of relaxation. It's a way to take a break from the world and lose yourself in another place, without ever having to leave your home. It's not just a mental escape. Reading can also be incredibly soothing for the body. When we read, our heart rate and blood pressure drop, and we actually experience a decrease in stress hormones. For me, reading is a way to recharge myself. I love losing myself in a good book, especially when I need some downtime. It's my favourite way to relax, and it never fails to help me unwind after a long day.

200 Words Essay On Reading

500 words essay on reading.

Essay About Reading

Reading has been a part of human existence since the beginning of time. It's one of the simplest and most natural ways to learn, and it's no wonder that so many people consider reading to be one of the most important things they can do. Reading offers a way to learn about the world and expand your horizons in a way that's both comfortable and safe. It's a great way to gain new perspectives without having to risk anything or make any compromises.

Benefits of Reading

There are many benefits of reading. For one, it can help improve your vocabulary. When you read, you're exposed to new words and different ways of using them. This can help you become a more articulate speaker and writer.

Reading also helps you learn about new topics and explore different points of view. You might not agree with everything you read, but that's okay. Reading allows you to consider arguments and opinions that differ from your own, and that can make you a more well-rounded thinker.

And finally, reading is just plain enjoyable. It's a great way to relax and escape from the world for a while. Whether you're reading fiction or nonfiction, biography or history, there's something for everyone in the world of books.

Though it seems like a simple enough activity, reading can actually offer a great deal of insight and understanding into different perspectives. When you read a book, you're not just absorbing the words on the page, you're also getting a glimpse into the mind of the author.

You can see the world through their eyes, and explore different cultures and lifestyles without ever having to leave your home. You can also gain an understanding of different issues and topics that you may not have otherwise been exposed to.

Different Ways To Read More

If you want to read more, there are some strategies you can use to help fit reading into your day. First, one of the most helpful things you can do is to set aside an hour each day for reading. This will help to ensure that you have time for reading consistently. You can also try making it a priority in your daily routine, such as doing it right before bed or right after you wake up in the morning.

Another helpful strategy is to find a book that piques your interest and keep it with you wherever you go. Having a book close by will make it easier for you to grab a few minutes to read here and there throughout your day. You could even try joining a local book club or starting one with friends if socialising while reading appeals to you.

Finally, try setting goals for yourself and challenge yourself by committing to reading more than you would normally think possible in a given period of time. Book clubs can be great for this too as they often have monthly challenges which can be motivating and fun!

Why It's Important To Read Regularly

Reading books is an important activity that can have many positive effects on one's life. First and foremost, reading has been proven to create more empathy in people. It is well known that those who read more books tend to be more empathetic, understanding others’ perspectives better. This means that reading can help not just our own personal growth, but also how we interact with other people, particularly strangers.

Not only this, but reading books can help us learn new skills and gain knowledge quickly. It is often said that knowledge is power, and reading can be a great source of both specialist knowledge as well as general knowledge about the world. Reading also helps us express ourselves better by teaching us new words and improving our grammar skills.

Overall, regular reading has multiple benefits for the individual reader and for society in general. As such it should be encouraged for all ages of the population, who can each get something valuable out of it.

It can be hard to find the time to read, but the benefits of reading are undeniable. Reading can help you learn new things, it can help you relax and de-stress, and it can even help improve your memory. So, if you're looking for a way to improve your life, start reading more books.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

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Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Cartographer

How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Underwriter

An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

A career as financial advisor is all about assessing one’s financial situation, understanding what one wants to do with his or her money, and helping in creating a plan to reach one’s financial objectives. An Individual who opts for a career as financial advisor helps individuals and corporations reduce spending, pay off their debt, and save and invest for the future. The financial advisor job description includes working closely with both individuals and corporations to help them attain their financial objectives.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

Pathologist

A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist

Gynaecologist.

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Audiologist

The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Dental Surgeon

A Dental Surgeon is a professional who possesses specialisation in advanced dental procedures and aesthetics. Dental surgeon duties and responsibilities may include fitting dental prosthetics such as crowns, caps, bridges, veneers, dentures and implants following apicoectomy and other surgical procedures.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Videographer

Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Travel Journalist

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

SEO Analyst

An SEO Analyst is a web professional who is proficient in the implementation of SEO strategies to target more keywords to improve the reach of the content on search engines. He or she provides support to acquire the goals and success of the client’s campaigns. 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

Reliability engineer.

Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

.net developer.

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

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world reading day essay

World Read Aloud Day (WRAD) is an annual advocacy day that unites people around the world by highlighting the importance of reading aloud and sharing stories. It’s presented by global literacy nonprofit  LitWorld  and sponsored by  Scholastic . Join us on February 5 by encouraging your students to grab a book and read aloud in class!

Now in its tenth year, WRAD has grown worldwide and is celebrated in over 173 countries—and counting! Here, world-renowned literacy expert, author, motivational speaker, and Senior Vice President, Innovation & Development, Scholastic Education, Pam Allyn  answers frequently asked questions about World Read Aloud Day.

What was the inspiration behind World Read Aloud Day? 

The inspiration came right from a child. I was visiting a classroom where I was sharing a read aloud to a group of children, and they were loving it. Afterwards, a little boy asked me, “Mrs. Allyn, why don't we do this more often?”

I replied, “You mean the read-aloud?”

He said, “Yes! Our teacher says we don't have time for this anymore because we have to get ready for the tests.”

I said to him, “Well, do you know that it is proven that kids who get a lot of read-alouds do better on those same tests?!”

He said, so excitedly, “We have to let people know about this! And I have an idea!”

“What is it?” I replied.

“Well, when it's my birthday everyone gives me a lot of attention! Let's have a big party for the read-aloud.”

And so that is how World Read Aloud Day was born, right then and there. I rushed back to our office and told my team. I asked them, “Is there any way we could make a big, big celebration for the read-aloud?” That wonderful team helped me develop World Read Aloud Day. We shared that message all over social media, which was kind of a new idea at the time, using #WorldReadAloudDay. The celebration grew person by person, reader by reader, and in that first year alone we had thousands of people saying, “YES—let's make World Read Aloud Day a celebration!”

Are you surprised by the global success of World Read Aloud Day? 

I am in one way because it's such a beautiful, pure, and delightful thing to celebrate. It is such a rare occasion when everyone comes together for the love of children and for the joy of any one thing—in this case, reading aloud. Yet, I am not surprised at all. People are so good at heart. Anne Frank said that so famously and I have always agreed.

World Read Aloud Day is about our best impulses, our best and deepest work to make children happy. It conveys a very complex idea in a very simple way—that something so meaningful to a child is meaningful to us all. We can all love World Read Aloud Day and see it for what it is—a time to come together and savor the profound power of reading. We can also understand that around the world there are many people who will never get the benefit of the read-aloud, or literacy in general, if we don't advocate for it. Making sure that everyone has access to stories as a human right has drawn major attention, and we should all raise our voices to make it happen.

What can you tell us about this year’s event? 

I am so excited about this year's World Read Aloud Day taking place on February 5. Peter Reynolds, legendary author and illustrator of The Word Collector , Say Something and Happy Dreamer , created signature artwork just for this event, and it so beautifully captures the magic of World Read Aloud Day and the inclusivity of it. This day is not about us all reading the very same book—it's about people getting to choose, about having the agency to know which story is going to create the most joy for the reader and listener.

Also, it's Scholastic's 100th anniversary this year and World Read Aloud Day is part of that history, encouraging people to share and enjoy stories together. The world is constantly evolving, but the read-aloud remains relevant and urgent. This year, we’re encouraging people to share their read-aloud moments on social media and tag their friends to join the fun, along with using #WorldReadAloudDay and tagging @Scholastic and @litworldsays . 

Why is reading aloud so beneficial for children?

Reading aloud immerses children in the sounds and feelings of literary and informational language. Children who are read aloud to daily perform better academically than those who are not read aloud to. In addition, our children are absorbing grammar and vocabulary seamlessly through the read-aloud. There are even studies that show children learn the rules of grammar best by hearing read-alouds!

When read aloud to, our children can absorb and internalize more complex information than they may be able to when reading independently. It is also profoundly beneficial for children in the area of social-emotional learning. The nearness to a reader, the sound of a reader's voice, and the companionship and discussion of a shared text all tell children they are not alone in the world.

Do you have any special read-aloud tips you can share with teachers? 

One is to practice! Take your favorite book and read aloud to everyone—your own kids, your best friend, your dog! Release your inhibitions so your children can see the joy and delight that is possible in a world of reading. Another recommendation is not to "over teach" read-alouds. Sometimes I see teachers stopping on every page to ask a comprehension question, but it's ok for children not to know all the vocabulary in advance or to answer a prediction question on every page. Try to pace yourself on this. It's fine to use these tactics, but if we interrupt the story too much for our own teachings, we miss an essential point of the read-aloud, which is for children to fall in love with reading for a lifetime.

Let the power of story guide children and immerse them. Let them fall through the pages and into the story! And the same goes for you as the teacher. Relax and enjoy your experience. Watch the faces of your children. Know that the sound of your voice and your connection to your students and the text will change them forever. It will be what they remember for the rest of their lives. Appreciate that.

Is reading aloud endangered or thriving right now? 

I believe the read-aloud is thriving enormously. The Scholastic Kids & Family Reading Report™: 7 th Edition shows that the percentage of parents reading aloud to their children has gone up 50% since 2014 and the American Academy of Pediatrics cites the read-aloud as a key part of a child's healthy development.

Yet, it does worry me greatly to think about how technology is increasingly consuming every waking minute of our daily lives. This leaves less time for quality read-aloud moments among families. But, I think there is a happy medium where stories can be read from various devises such as tablets and phones. I also think we need to keep fighting for the role of the read-aloud during the school day, bringing students together and providing an anchor for teaching deep ideas about texts.

What does reading aloud mean to you personally?

To me, the read-aloud is the signifier of love, connection and the deepest and most important parts of my life with my family and with the children I serve. I have very old and significant memories of my mother reading to me when I was very young. Her voice was so kind and it guided me into a lifetime of joy in reading. I also have memories of my father reading the sports pages to me in high school at the dinner table. I loved the sound of his voice and I am always grateful for all of that.

When my husband and I had our daughters, read-alouds drew us very, very close as a family, from the earliest texts to the chapter books we all read later. We sobbed over Little Women and laughed over funny passages. As our daughters got older, we read poems together, finding lines we liked and sharing them with one another.

And for all my students—the boys at Children's Village facing many, many challenges in the foster care system, the children of the New York City public schools, the children supported by LitWorld, the children I have met in all my travels to LitCamps every summer, and so many more—they have all changed the way I think about stories. They teach me so, so much, not only about reading, but about life when we share these texts together.

What are some of your favorite read-alouds? 

This is the hard one because there are so many! Always, I love Charlotte's Web by E. B. White. I have very fond memories of a read-aloud I did in Nairobi, Kenya and how the children loved that book in so many profound ways. I also love Langston Hughes . His poems are incredibly beautiful and deceptively simple, children really love them, too. But, his writing is also wrenchingly sad and even revolutionary, which children understand.

I love to read aloud anything by Carmen Agra Deedy . She is a storyteller and so her books are built to read aloud. And, lastly, I love books that kids love. When I read a Dav Pilkey book with a child and we are both screaming with laughter, well, that just makes my day.

Why would you encourage educators to get involved with World Read Aloud Day? 

I think it is really important for our kids to see the beauty of celebrating something so simple and easy that makes people happy. In addition, kids should know that reading aloud and sharing stories is really important. We are advocating for the human right of reading. What a beautiful day to commemorate that.

Where can everybody follow along on social media? 

Join the celebration on social media by following #WorldReadAloudDay, @Scholastic and @litworldsays . Invite friends to join by tagging them in any posts!

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National Reading Day

India celebrates the silver Jubilee or 25 th year of National Reading Day on 19 th June to honour P N Panicker. He is the founding father of Libraries as well as the Literacy Movement in Kerala, India. Keep reading to know more details on this topic along with more about P N Panicker.

This article will discuss National Reading Day in the context of the IAS Exam .

The candidates can go through the relevant topics useful for their upcoming exams from the links provided below:

There are other Important days and dates of national and international importance, integral from the UPSC prelims and other government exams.

What is National Reading Day?

The P N Panicker Vigyan Vikas Kendra and P N Panicker Foundation have been celebrating the reading day since 19 th June 1996. They also observe a digital reading month and reading week nationally. The reason behind celebrating this day is to promote the reading culture and support literacy. Also, the Kerala Government named this day Vaayanadinam, which means “National Reading Day.”

The following stakeholders collaborate every year to observe this day:

  • P.N. Panicker Foundation
  • P.N. Panicker Vigyan Vikas Kendra
  • The Government of India
  • The Government of Kerala
  • The Ministry of Education
  • The National Digital Library of India (NDLI)
  • Other stakeholders

National Reading Day, 2021

The National Reading Day in India was the 25 th edition, where numerous programs were organised. Some pivotal webinars among these occasions are as follows:

  • Significance of reading
  • Covid-19 awareness
  • Intellectual property rights and digital library
  • Green Economy

In addition, people also participated in a digital reading pledge. On top of that, there were many reading competitions arranged specially for school students, such as essay writing, quizzes, open art, etc.

Who Is P. N. Panicker?

Puthuvayil Narayana Panicker is the founder of the library movement. He was born on 1 st March 1909 and breathed his last on 19 th June 1995. People observe the National Reading Day on his death anniversary to pay tribute to his contribution to reading and literacy.

P. N. Panicker and His Role in promoting Reading

  • This man dedicated his life as a teacher and contributed much more than other contemporary teachers of his time. He knew that education was the only key to developing society. Therefore, he established Sanadanadharmam Library in his birthplace.
  • However, it was just the beginning of his endeavours’ success, which gradually proliferated. He became the founder of Thiruvithaamkoor Granthasala Sangham or the modern-day Travancore Library Association in 1945. This association undertook almost 47 rural libraries with a slogan of reading, growing, and encapsulating the significance of reading in someone’s life.
  • He travelled throughout the country to educate people about the value of reading. He successfully brought 6000 libraries within his network in his lifetime. Consequently, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) awarded his organisation the prestigious ‘Krupsakaya Award’ in 1975.
  • He remained the general secretary of this association for 32 years. Nevertheless, the State government took over the Travancore Library Association in 1977 and renamed it Kerala State Library Council.

Influence of Panicker in Literacy Rate of Kerala

Panicker was disheartened with the political intervention after his Sangham turned into a state’s association. Consequently, he started the KANFED or Kerala Association for Non-formal Education and Development. It aimed to increase the state’s literacy rate and influenced the literacy mission. As a result, Panicker’s KANFED left its significant contribution to Kerala’s 100% universal literacy rate.

Important Information on National Reading Day

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the 22nd national reading day and digital reading month celebrations in June 2017 on his visit to Kerala.
  • He also appealed to promote “read and grow” to at least 300 million people over the nation by 15 th August 2022.
  • Lastly, he governed the P.N. Panicker Foundation to propagate digital reading and usage of digital technology in education in 2017.

Panicker understood that libraries act as gateways to education and knowledge and play a key role in developing society. They shape the fundamentals of the youth and create opportunities to come across new ideas and perspectives. Therefore, India celebrates National Reading Day to recognise his remarkable contribution to education.

Furthermore, candidates can learn more about the detailed UPSC Syllabus and exam pattern for the preliminary and mains phase of the examination at the linked article. Analysing the syllabus will help candidates accordingly schedule a study plan.

Aspirants who shall be appearing for the exam for the first time and are willing to get some preparation tips and study material for the competitive exams can turn to BYJU’S for assistance.

Frequently Asked Questions about National Reading Day

What is the significance of national reading day.

People observe this day in India to honour Puthuvayil Narayana Panicker’s contribution to the promotion of education and the literacy movement.

Name any institution that organises National Reading Day every year.

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is one of many institutions across India that observes the reading day on 19th June every year.

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National Reading Day India 2021: A day in honour of P.N. Panicker, Know how this day gets celebrated

Nita Samantaray

National Reading Day India 2021 would be celebrated across the country today, in the honour of P.N Panicker. Today is the 26th edition of National Reading Day. Check details on how this day gets celebrated.

National Reading Day India 2021: A day in honour of Panicker

Key Highlights

  • Today is the 26th edition of National Reading Day India 2021. Curious to know how this day gets celebrated?
  • The day is an annual event that falls on the death anniversary of PN Panicker, the man behind the ‘Library Movement in Kerala’.
  • The Government of Kerala and Panicker Foundation observes week-long activities at various schools and colleges.

The country will celebrate National Reading Day India 2021 today, on June 19, 2021. National Reading Day is an annual event that falls on the death anniversary of PN Panicker, the man behind the ‘Library Movement in Kerala’. Today is the 26th edition of National Reading Day.

The P N Panicker Foundation has been observing the national reading day, reading week, and reading month since June 19, 1996. This year, the foundation has organized activities that motivate reading online due to the prevailing COVID 19 situation in the country. A month-long ‘Digital Reading’ celebration would begin today, June 19, 2021, and will continue till July 18, 2021.

On National Reading Day India 2021, the country will once again honour the man behind the Library Movement in Kerala. The day is celebrated in memory of his marked contribution towards the 100% literacy rate in Kerala. The motto of National Reading Day is ‘Read and Grow’.

Latest News:  National Reading Day 2021: CBSE to celebrate Reading Day, Week & Month through online activities

National Reading Day India 2021: How this day gets celebrated?

  • The Government of Kerala and Panicker Foundation observes week-long activities at schools and colleges.
  • Some of the activities involve a Digital Reading Pledge, Webinars and Reading competitions for school students.
  • Apart from this, schools across the country conduct different competitions at their own level.

To know more about National Reading Day India 2021 celebrations, students can take a look at the official website of PN Panicker Foundation, pnpanickerfoundation.org . The Central Board of Secondary Education has also asked schools to honour the day by conducting online activities and competitions for students.

In 2017, PM Narendra Modi had launched the 22nd edition of the National Reading Day, taking the event from state to the national level. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had recently announced the ‘Young, Upcoming and Versatile Authors’ scheme. This is a mentorship programme to train 75 young authors to celebrate India’s 75th Independence Day. Along with this, the government is expected to announce some initiative to celebrate National Reading Day India 2021.

Get latest news and live updates,   Latest Education News , updates from Education Minister, CBSE News and other Board Results

  • Latest education News

world reading day essay

3. Writings On Education From Introduction To Tolstoy's Writings by Ernest J Simmons (1968)

After Tolstoy's speech at the Moscow Society of Lovers of Russian Literature in 1859, the president of that organization, devoted to popular views of the immediate social significance of literature, coldly reminded him that, however eternal truth and beauty may be in art, the artist is a man of his own times, and that the present historical moment was one in which self-indictment acquired a special meaning and an indefeasible right and hence must manifest itself in literature.

The time would come when Tolstoy's own views on literature for the people would radically change, but at the moment he had reached a point of despair and thought of abandoning literature forever. To scribble stories was stupid and shameful, he told A. A. Fet in a burst of enthusiastic confidence when he learned that this poet was thinking of settling on an estate near him and subordinating literature to farming. Literary friends, learning of his intention to plunge into educational theory and start a school at Yasnaya Polyana, pleaded with him not to deprive Russia of his literary leadership. He answered that his new endeavours bore a direct connection with his retreat from literature. For whom did Russian authors write, he asked? For themselves and the cultured few. For masses of illiterate Russian peasants literature was useless. If they could not read his writings, then he would teach them. This, he declared, was the first and essential step toward the creation of a "literature for the people." Here was a purpose that would satisfy his thirst for activity and moral influence.

When Tolstoy opened his school in the autumn of 1859 in a single room of his large manor house at Yasnaya Polyana, free education for peasant children did not exist in Russia. Occasionally, a village would boast of a priest or an ex-soldier who taught a few children at so much per head. The subjects were elementary, the method a mixture of blows and learning by heart, and the results negligible. This situation Tolstoy wished to remedy by substituting public education based on entirely original pedagogical methods.

With half a year of highly successful teaching behind him, it was almost inevitable that Tolstoy should find himself bedevilled in a maze of speculation on pedagogy and obsessed with schemes for improving national education. In March, 1860, he wrote to a friend, E. P. Kovalevsky, brother of the Minister of National Education, of his efforts and mentioned that he already had fifty students and that the number was growing.

"Wisdom in all worldly affairs it seems to me," he continued, "consists not in recognizing what must be done but in knowing what to do first and then what comes after."

He boldly questioned the value to progress in Russia of roads, the telegraph, literature, and the arts, as long as only about one per cent of some seventy millions of people were literate. As a remedy he proposed the establishment of a Society of National Education. Among its duties would be setting up public schools where they were most needed, designing courses of instruction, training teachers in suitable educational methods, and publishing a journal devoted to the dissemination of the society's pedagogical ideals.

Tolstoy received no official encouragement for his proposed program, but from the evidence of fragments of pedagogical essays at this time it is obvious that he had begun to think out his own course of instruction. In one fragment, entitled " On the Problems of Pedagogy ," he wrote:

"For every living condition of development, there is a pedagogical expediency, and to search this out is the problem of pedagogy."

Aware that he was trying, without sufficient knowledge, to handle large abstract concepts of educational theory, which in Russia were entirely dominated by Western European influence, he went abroad in 1860 to study them at the source. A full account of this effort reveals how thoroughly he pursued his objective. He visited schools and participated in classroom work in Germany, France, and England; he talked with teachers and leading educational theorists in these countries; and he collected and studied quantities of textbook samples and read numerous foreign treatises on education. After visiting schools at Kissingen, he jotted down in his diary:

"It is terrible! Prayers for the king; blows; everything by rote; terrified, beaten children."

Another entry shortly after:

"The idea of experimental pedagogy agitates me. I can scarcely contain myself...."

And in still a third entry, after reading Montaigne, he wrote:

"In education, once more, the chief things are equality and freedom."

Julius Froebel, nephew of Friedrich Froebel the celebrated educational reformer and founder of the kindergarten system, has left an interesting account of his discussion with Tolstoy:

" 'Progress in Russia,' he told me, 'must come out of public education, which among us will give better results than in Germany, because the Russian masses are not yet spoiled by false education."'

Tolstoy went on to inform him of his own school in which learning was in no sense obligatory.

"'If education is good,' he said, 'then the need for it will manifest itself like hunger."'

And Froebel also relates that Tolstoy spoke of the Russian masses as a "mysterious and irrational force," from which one day would emerge an entirely new organization of the world, and said that from the Russian artel would develop in the future a communistic structure.

This report reflects the proud, dogmatic, almost arrogant attitude that Tolstoy adopted toward European personalities he met on this educational study trip. While sincerely seeking knowledge, he invariably made it clear that he belonged to no school of thought, had his own point of view on most questions, and that Europeans did not understand the real failings of their civilization.

From his visits to the schools of Marseille, Tolstoy took away a gloomy impression of the futility of the subjects taught and the lifeless, unimaginative methods of teaching them. On the other hand, when he talked with workers and children on the streets, he found them intelligent, free-thinking, and surprisingly well informed, but with no thanks to their schooling.

This situation led him to conclude in a later account of these experiences, in an article entitled " On National Education ":

"Here is an unconscious school undermining a compulsory school and making its contents almost of no worth.... What I saw in Marseille and in all other countries amounts to this: everywhere the principal part in educating a people is played not by schools, but by life."

This is the kind of characteristic half-truth that Tolstoy was fond of deducing from incomplete experience, and it became an important factor in his educational theorizing. But even half-truths that blasted away the hard shell of traditional and erroneous thinking on vital social problems had their value for him.

Tolstoy returned to Russia in the spring of 1861. He erected a three-room schoolhouse at Yasnaya Polyana, and, with several teachers employed to assist him in the instruction, he worked for the next year and a half with self-sacrificing zeal on theoretical and practical problems of education. He expounded his theories and described his practice in twelve extensive articles and a series of notes published in a magazine he founded called Yasnaya Polyana, the issues of which appeared between February, 1862, and March, 1863. Teachers and students also contributed to the magazine. Much of what follows here is based upon Tolstoy's articles, which for that time were quite original in substance but often weakened by perverse and exasperatingly dogmatic reasoning. Though truth was his sole aim, he occasionally forgot that his sweeping generalizations were based on limited experience with his own little school and on the efforts of unique students and a unique teacher. A persistent scepticism was the trade secret of his thinking in educational matters as in other fields of human endeavour.

Over the door of the school Tolstoy placed the inscription: " Enter and Leave Freely ." Perhaps he was thinking, by way of contrast, of Dante's inscription over hell: " Abandon Hope, All Ye who Enter Here ," which he would hardly have hesitated to place above the entrance to most European schools he had visited. Certainly the atmosphere of his own school convinced the children that education was a precious and joyous heritage.

Tolstoy believed that all education should be free and voluntary. He supported the desire of the masses for education, but he denied that the government or any other authority had the right to force it upon them. The logic of things, and his study of the operation of compulsory education abroad, convinced him that in this form it was an evil. Pupils should come to learn of their own accord, for if education were a good, it would be found as necessary as the air they breathed. If people were antagonistic, then the will of the people should become the guiding factor. Tolstoy's faith in the " will of the people ," even though the people might oppose commonly accepted notions of progress, contained the seeds of his later anarchism, and was a direct slap at radical reformers who would uplift the masses against their will.

Tolstoy also believed that education should answer the needs of the masses, but his conception of their needs had nothing in common with that of contemporary progressive thinkers. Nor did he have any patience with the widespread pedagogical conviction that education should mould the character and improve the morals of students. These were matters for family influence, he declared, and the teacher had no right to introduce his personal moral standards or social convictions into the sanctity of the home. In public education he was concerned primarily with peasants, the vast majority of the population. But he was not bent on elevating them above their class by the power of education (a definite evil in his eyes); he was concerned with making them better, more successful, and happier peasants.

In this context the individualistic direction of Tolstoy's thought was apparent. The assumption of civilization's progress in Macaulay, Buckle, and especially in Hegel, he firmly rejected. For some time opposition between the good of the individual and the good of society had been troubling him. He was already developing a philosophy hostile to the pragmatic ideal that progress could be achieved only by social education of the people through the medium of democracy. Progress was personal, he felt, and not social. Education must serve the individual and not society, for the individual's capacity to serve humanity was what gave meaning to life. Yet he did not appear to see the contradiction in his rejection of the whole modern concept of progress. He would teach the peasant child what he needed, but what he needed was often conditioned by the social system in which he lived.

In his article " On National Education " Tolstoy defined education as "a human activity based on desire for equality and a constant tendency or urge to advance in knowledge." Education, he asserted, was history and therefore had no final aim. Its only method was experience; its only criterion, freedom.

Tolstoy attempted to realize in practice even the more extreme aspects of his educational philosophy. Since he believed that the functioning of a school must be adapted to the peculiar conditions of the pupils, he conceded that his own village school might well be the worst possible model for those elsewhere. Attendance was non-compulsory and free to all. Classes ordinarily ran from eight o'clock to noon and then from three o'clock to six, but, as Tolstoy proudly wrote a friend, the students often continued an hour or more beyond closing time,

"because it is impossible to send the children away — they beg for more."

During the morning, elementary and advanced reading were taught, composition, penmanship, grammar, sacred history, Russian history, drawing, music, mathematics, natural sciences, and religion; in the afternoon there were experiments in physical sciences and lessons in singing, reading, and composition. No consistent order was followed, however, and lessons were lengthened or omitted according to the degree of interest manifested by the students. On Sundays the teachers met to talk over the work and lay out plans for the following week. But there was no obligation to adhere to any plan, and each teacher was placed entirely upon his own. For a time they kept a common diary in which were set down with merciless frankness their failures as well as their successes.

Originality was the guiding spirit. Freedom ruled, but never to the extent of anarchy. When Tolstoy purposely left the room in the middle of a lesson to test the behaviour of his students, they did not break into an uproar as he had observed was the case in similar circumstances in classrooms he visited abroad. When he left, the students were enjoying complete freedom, and hence they behaved as though he were still in the room. They corrected or praised each other's work, and some-times they grew entirely quiet. Such results, he explained, were natural in a school where the pupils were not obliged to attend, to remain, or to pay attention.

Tolstoy insisted that only in the absence of force and compulsion could natural relations be maintained between teacher and pupils. The teacher defined the limits of freedom in the classroom by his knowledge and capacity to manage. And the pupils, Tolstoy wrote, should be treated as reasoning and reasonable beings; only then would they find out that order was essential and that self-government was necessary to preserve it. If pupils were really interested in what was being taught, he declared, disorder would rarely occur, and when it did, the interested students would compel the disorderly ones to pay attention.

The successful functioning of such a school demanded unusual ability on the part of the teacher. Tolstoy admitted this, and justly claimed for himself a certain pedagogic tact. Always in his mind was the pupil's convenience in learning and not the teacher's in teaching. He argued that there was no best method in teaching a subject; the best method was that which the teacher happened to know best. That method was good which when introduced did not necessitate an increase of discipline, and that which required greater severity was bad. The method should develop out of the exigencies of a given problem in teaching, and it should please the pupils instead of the teacher. In short, teaching, according to Tolstoy, could not be described as a method; it was a talent, an art. Finality and perfection were never achieved in it; development and perfecting continued endlessly.

In this free atmosphere of student-dominated learning, certain traditional subjects were resisted in a manner that led Tolstoy to doubt their ultimate usefulness and to question the desirability of teaching them to youngsters. Grammar was such a subject. Although his emphasis in instruction favoured analysis, the kind involved in grammar put the students to sleep. To write correctly and to correct mistakes made by others gave his pupils pleasure, but this was only true when the process was unrelated to grammar. After much experimentation with teaching the subject, he concluded in an article in Yasnaya Polyana that

"grammar comes of itself as a mental and not unprofitable gymnastic exercise, and language — to write with skill and to read and understand — also comes of itself."

In the pages of his educational magazine, Tolstoy provides vivid accounts, filled with all the charm of his realistic art, of daily life at the school. On a cold winter morning the bell would ring. Children would run out into the village street. There was no lagging on the way, no urge to play the truant. Each child was eager to get there first. The pupils carried nothing in their hands, no homework books or exercises. They had not been obliged to remember any lesson. They brought only themselves, their receptive natures, and the certainty that it would be as jolly in school that day as it had been the day before.

At the end of a lesson Tolstoy would announce that it was time to eat and play, and, challenging them to race him out-doors, he would leap downstairs, three or four steps at a time, followed by a pack of screaming laughing children. Then he would face them in the snow and they would clamber over his back, desperately striving to pull him down. He was more like an older brother to them and they responded to his efforts with devotion and tireless interest. Their close, even tender, relations are touchingly reflected in one of the magazine articles. He describes how, after school, he accompanies several of the pupils home on a moonless winter night by a roundabout way through the woods, entertaining them with tales of Caucasian robbers and brave Cossacks. The youngest, a ten-year-old boy, furtively clasps two of his teacher's fingers during the most fearful part of a story. At the end of the narration, by one of those quick transitions of children, an older pupil suddenly asks why do they have to learn singing at school? "What is drawing for?" Tolstoy rhetorically asks, puzzled for the moment about how to explain the usefulness of art. "Yes, why draw figures?" - another queries. "What is a lime tree for?" a third asks. At once all begin to speculate on these questions, and the fact emerges that not everything exists for use, that there is also beauty, and that art is beauty

"It feels strange to repeat what we said then," Tolstoy writes, "but it seems to me that we said all that can be said about utility, and plastic and moral beauty."

The ten-year-old was the last of the group to be delivered to his home. He still clung to Tolstoy's hand, out of gratitude it seemed, and as he entered the miserable thatched hut of his poverty-stricken parents, in which his father and the drunken village tailor were gambling, the lad said pathetically:

"Good-by! Let us always have talks like this!"

Tolstoy ended this account in his article by meditating on the age-old question of the moral and practical utility of educating the masses. The cultured, he wrote, would remonstrate: Why give these poor peasant children the knowledge that will make them dissatisfied with their class and their lot in life? But such a peasant boy, concluded Tolstoy, addressing the upper class,

"needs what your life of ten generations unoppressed by labor has brought to you. You had the leisure to search, to think, to suffer — then give him that for which you suffered; this is what he needs. You, like the Egyptian priest, conceal yourself from him by a mysterious cloak, you bury in the earth the talent given to you by history. Do not fear: nothing human is harmful to man. Do you doubt yourself? Surrender to the feeling and it will not deceive you. Trust in his [the peasant boy's] nature, and you will be convinced that he will take only that which history commanded you to give him, that which you have earned by suffering."

The question of art and its relation to his young peasant pupils interested Tolstoy. With his customary freshness, attention to detail, and marvellous power of direct vision he discussed the subject in one of his most remarkable articles, " Who Should Teach Whom to Write, We the Peasant Children or the Peasant Children Us ?" It was inspired by an exciting experience in composition in his school. Themes on the usual subjects, such as descriptions of a forest, a pig, or a table, drove the children to tears. Tolstoy then suggested that they write a story on peasant life, to illustrate a proverb. The pupils found this difficult too, but one boy proposed that Tolstoy write the story himself, in competition with them. He composed several pages and then was interrupted by Fedka, who climbed on the back of his chair and read over his shoulder. Tolstoy explained the plot of the story and the boys immediately became interested. They criticized what had been done and suggested different ways of continuing. Fedka took the leading part in this discussion and surprised Tolstoy by his imagination and sense of proportion, important qualities in every art. Tolstoy set to work to write to the dictation of his pupils Syomka and Fedka, who angrily rejected superfluous details offered by others and eventually took command of the situation. The rest of the boys went home.

Tolstoy described how he and his two pupils worked feverishly from seven in the evening till eleven. Neither hunger nor weariness bothered them. In his account of their collective effort, he gave a number of convincing examples of the artistic rightness and fitness of details, descriptions, and selection that the boys argued and insisted upon. They drew from their experience of village life and characters; and they were nearly always right. Tolstoy was tremendously excited and admitted that he had felt such a strong emotion only two or three times in his life. He was amazed at his discovery of such artistic and creative powers in two peasant lads who could scarcely read or write, and it seemed almost offensive that he, a nationally known author, was virtually unable to instruct these eleven-year-old pupils in his art.

The next day, and still a third day, they continued the story with equal enthusiasm. Then the work was interrupted because Tolstoy had to go away for a few days. During his absence a craze for making popguns out of paper swept the school and the unfinished manuscript of the story was unwittingly sacrificed to this childish diversion. When Tolstoy discovered the loss upon his return, he was deeply chagrined. Fedka and Syomka, aware of his keen disappointment, offered to reproduce the tale themselves. They came after school one evening at nine o'clock and locked themselves in his study. Tolstoy listened at the door and heard them laughing. Then all grew quiet, except for subdued voices discussing the story, and the scratching of a pen. At midnight he knocked and was admitted. Fedka still had a few more sentences to dictate to Syomka, who stood at the large table busily writing, his lines running crookedly across the paper and his pen constantly stabbing at the inkpot. At last Tolstoy took the copybook. After a merry supper of potatoes and kvas, the boys lay down on their sheepskin coats under the writing table, and until sleep over-took them, their healthy, childish laughter rang through the room.

Tolstoy read the story over and found it very similar to the original draft. Some new details had been added, but the tale contained the same truth, measure, and feeling for beauty of the first version. Under the title of the Russian proverb, " The Spoon Feeds, but the Handle Sticks in the Eye ," he printed it, with very few changes, in his pedagogical magazine.

From this unusual experiment in composition Tolstoy drew some interesting conclusions. He declared that nearly all contemporary art was intended for people of leisure and artificial training and was therefore useless to the masses, whose demand for art was more legitimate. He dismissed with some vexation the stale notion that in order to understand and appreciate the beautiful a certain amount of preparation was necessary.

"Who said this?" he asked in his magazine account of the writing of the story. "Why? What proves it? It is only a dodge, a loophole to escape from the hopeless position to which the false direction of our art, produced for one class alone, has led us. Why are the beauty of the sun, of the human face, the beauty of the sounds of a folk song, and of deeds of love and self-sacrifice accessible to everyone, and why do they demand no preparation? "

Tolstoy's position was no doubt extreme, and there was also considerable exaggeration in his unqualified praise of the literary ability of his pupils, who were unquestionably inspired by his own artistic interests. Yet such schoolboy efforts helped to teach him the fundamental truth that the need to enjoy and serve art was inherent in every human being, and that this need had its right and should be satisfied.

Although the Society for National Education that Tolstoy projected found no support among government officials, his school was not without its influence. After the emancipation of the serfs, the government encouraged them to open their own schools. Peasants in the Tula district, where Yasnaya Polyana was situated, appealed to Tolstoy for teachers, and he willingly suggested a number. By 1862 there were no less than thirteen village schools in his area, and their teachers were all zealous disciples of Tolstoy's pedagogical approach. They caught from him a devotion and enthusiasm in what was essentially a pioneering venture. Living like peasants in the dirty, stuffy huts where they held their classes, and using tables for blackboards, they worked from seven in the morning until late at night. At first, like Tolstoy, they had to overcome the ignorant suspicions of peasant fathers and mothers who distrusted these newfangled methods of teaching and were alarmed because their children were not regularly beaten by the masters. But the fact that they were entirely free to send them to school or take them out overcame resistance. Finally, the happiness of the youngsters and their obvious progress in so short a time eventually won the parent's complete confidence in the system.

In a brief note " To the Public " that introduced his pedagogical magazine, Tolstoy eagerly invited criticism. Much of it was hostile and unconstructive, and particularly that which came from progressive thinkers of the time. He was called a " pedagogical nihilist " and his experiment was castigated as a complete overthrow of educational order and discipline. In a few periodicals, however, several teachers, weary of slavish Russian devotion to foreign models in pedagogy, bravely encouraged the less extreme aspects of his school. But, in general, his efforts failed to inspire enthusiastic acceptance among educators. His principle of freedom for both teachers and pupils was too radical a demand for even the most progressive theorists.

Worse still, in the eyes of critics, was Tolstoy's conviction that his educational ideas amounted to a revolt against established opinion in the name of healthy common sense. More-over, he scorned scientific exposition in his articles and used the simple and forceful prose of which he was a master. If he had elected to write treatises on experimental pedagogy in the accepted trade jargon, buttressed with elaborate footnotes and well-chosen citations from approved authorities, he would doubtless have gained a hearing, even if an unfavourable one.

As a matter of fact, certain government officials regarded Tolstoy's activities in education with dark suspicion. In October, 1862, the Minister of the Interior wrote to the Minister of National Education to complain about the harmful aspects of the pedagogical magazine. He pointed out that its general direction and spirit perverted the fundamental values of religion and morality, and he suggested that the censor's attention should be specifically directed toward correcting the situation.

In part, the fears of the Minister of the Interior were correct: Tolstoy's educational articles did call into question the whole contemporary concept of morality. His extremely radical position represented a danger not only to the whole foundation of educational practice, but to the authority of the State. The freedom that he advocated seemed to verge on rebellion, and children educated in this spirit would hardly grow up with proper reverence for those institutions of tsarist government that had been infested by corruption and oppression. His educational philosophy would place the human worth and well-being of the individual above the well-being of the State. In short, the spirit of Christian anarchy that Tolstoy was later to preach so openly and eloquently had already crept into his thinking. For in his educational articles he condemned the false morality of government and society, their despotism, the use of force, and the belief in the legality of punishment. And he frankly stated his belief that the masses could exist without the educated classes, and hence without government, but that the educated classes could not exist without the masses.

Because of his marriage, various discouragements, and a suddenly renewed interest in fiction writing, Tolstoy abandoned his school and the pedagogical magazine at the end of 1862. But his concern for the education of the young, which soon revived when his own children came along, remained with him for the rest of his life, as frequent references to it in letters and in his diary indicate. For example, in 1872 he published his first ABC Book, in which, he said, he had put more work and love than in anything else he had done. It contained a complete curriculum for beginning pupils. There are sections on reading and writing, with drawings, exercises, and various typographical devices to aid in spelling and pronunciation; there are also sections on natural sciences and arithmetic. He realized the importance of effective examples and exercises, and his selections are original and often reveal rare artistic taste. The frame of reference is restricted by the limitations of the students and their daily lives.

"From the natural sciences," he wrote a friend, "I did not choose what may be found in books or anything that I by chance knew or what appeared to me necessary to know, but only that which was clear and beautiful, and when it seemed to me insufficiently clear and beautiful, I tried to express it in my own way."

Several of the stories used as examples in the ABC Book are entirely Tolstoy's own; others are drawn from various folk sources.

The ABC Book, based upon pedagogical theories that Tolstoy had developed and put into practice in his village school was designed, as he said, for the teacher who loved both his calling and his pupils. The work firmly eschews useless or erudite knowledge, or facts beyond the comprehension or experience of beginners. For the chief significance of teaching, he maintained, was not in the assimilation of a known quantity of information, but in awakening in students an interest in knowledge.

Tolstoy was sadly disappointed at the reception of the ABC Book, in which he had deliberately tried to avoid extremes in his theorizing. However, the innovations infuriated pedagogues, and a deluge of sharp, even vicious, reviews resulted. The reviewers charged that the work was an attack on accepted methods of instruction, that he had opposed to a pedagogical system of reason one of faith, to a system of science one of instinct and imagination, and to a system of conviction and ideas one of moral principles. Stubbornly he turned once again to teaching peasant children in his district, in order to demonstrate the methods he advocated in his ABC Book.

In 1873 an invitation from the Moscow Committee on Literacy to explain his educational system to them again aroused Tolstoy's conviction that he had a national public service to perform in education. One result of the meeting was a request to test his ideas on teaching, in several subjects, against the conventional methods employed in the schools. Two groups of Moscow children of similar ages and social backgrounds were provided. One of Tolstoy's experienced Yasnaya Polyana teachers instructed a group, and a teacher designated by the Moscow Committee on Literacy the other. At the conclusion of seven weeks of teaching, six members of the committee examined both groups of students. Although there was no unanimity among the examiners, a majority decided that the pupils taught by Tolstoy's opponent had excelled in all three subjects — reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Tolstoy felt that the test had failed to prove anything because it had been conducted under the worst possible conditions. And he submitted the article previously mentioned, " On National Education ," to the popular magazine, ' Notes of the Fatherland '. It is in the form of a letter addressed to the head of the Moscow Committee on Literacy. The article (September, 1874) is largely a reaffirmation of the views Tolstoy expressed in the pages of his own pedagogical magazine twelve years before. With ruthless dogmatism he condemns outright the phonetic and visual methods of teaching then used in Russian elementary schools. And those native teachers who burned incense to German pedagogical theory he sharply criticized for failing to understand or respect the educational needs of the Russian masses. All a teacher has to know, he declares, is what to teach and how to teach. To find out what to teach, one must go to the people, to the students and their parents. At present, he asserts, the people demand that their children learn how to read and write and to cipher. Until they demand something more, teachers have no right to teach more. As for how to teach, he sums it up in his old phrase: the only criterion for pedagogy is freedom, the only method is experience.

The article created a great stir among the public, infinitely more so than all of Tolstoy's publications on educational themes in the past. To be sure, the work was attractively written, but now it had also come from the pen of the famous author of ' war and peace ', and he had had the good sense to print it in a widely read periodical. In a real sense the effort suddenly made the public pedagogically minded and inspired a surprisingly large number of articles and letters in a variety of magazines. Although the experts, with few exceptions, vigorously attacked him, his views elicited widespread sympathetic response among laymen. After years of striving he at last had the satisfaction of knowing that his theories had reached the general public.

With such encouragement, Tolstoy felt impelled to try for further success. In February, 1875, he published his New ABC Book. It was shorter, cheaper, more practical, and as he remarked in the foreword, adaptable to any method of teaching. Here, too, he now won success, for the Ministry of National Education recommended the work. It was widely adopted by schools and ran into many large editions (100,000 copies were printed for the 1900 edition).

At the same time, Tolstoy published four children's Readers, which contained material taken mostly from his first ABC Book. The excellence and variety of the selections, the artistic simplicity of the narratives, and no doubt the inexpensive price gained an enormous market for these little books, and over the years they sold in tens of thousands.

Tolstoy's old dream seemed on the point of realization — he was beginning to exercise a pronounced influence on the course of elementary education in Russia. And the dream expanded. He wanted to take a prominent place in the larger field of national education, and he wrote to the minister to inquire whether the government would consider a detailed program that he was contemplating on instruction in the schools and another for training teachers. Although the reply was favourable, it was delayed so long that the impatient Tolstoy had already charged off in another direction. Breaking a rule he had set up for himself, he accepted election to the County Council and an appointment to its Education Committee.

One naturally thinks of the poet Matthew Arnold, inspector of schools in England at this time. With Arnold, however, the post was a means of livelihood and a most unpoetic business. Tolstoy, in his more restricted sphere, found a world of poetry in the work of inspecting local schools. He agitated with some success for inexpensive instruction in the district, and he launched his pet project of establishing at Yasnaya Polyana a teachers' training seminary, for he wished to train peasant teachers to take their place in the milieu in which they had grown up and to provide the kind of education for peasant children that would not instill in them alien desires or render them unfit for the performance of duties to which they would be called by their position in life. This was to be, he remarked, a " university in bast shoes ."

In 1874 the Ministry of Education approved Tolstoy's carefully prepared plan for a teachers' training seminary. And his request to the Tula government for financial assistance in return for a certain number of tuition teaching scholarships was granted. But for some unexplained reason, perhaps because educational centers in the Tula government did not favour the idea, only twelve candidates applied for the program. This poor showing discouraged Tolstoy and he refused to open his " university in bast shoes ." It was his last constructive effort to improve formal education in Russia. A long and arduous chapter in the history of Tolstoy's civic conscience had come to an end.

Despite hostility to Tolstoy's educational practices and writings during his lifetime, since then there has been a tendency to acclaim him a brilliant innovator and one of the most significant of educational reformers. Experimental schools in America and abroad have profited from the full accounts he left of his own experiences. His methods of teaching the alphabet and reading, his insistence on self-reliance by obliging students to do manual labor, and his belief that the child should be allowed as much freedom as possible in the classroom — these features of his system have had their influence in later progressive education. And one of his principal theses, that the school should always remain a kind of pedagogical laboratory to keep it from falling behind universal progress, has found wide acceptance as an educational premise.

In one respect it may be said that his first absorbing educational experiment between 1859 and 1862 fulfilled another purpose: the school at Yasnaya Polyana contributed as much to the historical development of Tolstoy as it had to the education of peasant children — it brought him back to the career of fiction writing. It was as though a kind of catharsis had been effected that once again left his mind and spirit free for artistic work.

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Calendar showing four-day work week schedule and long weekend.

Four-day week made permanent for most UK firms in world’s biggest trial

Research shows 51% that took part permanently adopted the change, while 89% still operating policy one year on

Most of the UK companies that took part in the world’s biggest ever four-day working week trial have made the policy permanent, research shows.

Of the 61 organisations that took part in a six-month UK pilot in 2022, 54 (89%) are still operating the policy a year later, and 31 (51%) have made the change permanent.

More than half (55%) of project managers and CEOs said a four-day week – in which staff worked 100% of their output in 80% of their time – had a positive impact on their organisation, the report found.

For 82% this included positive effects on staff wellbeing, 50% found it reduced staff turnover, while 32% said it improved job recruitment. Nearly half (46%) said working and productivity improved.

The report’s author, Juliet Schor, professor of sociology at Boston College, said the results showed “real and long lasting” effects. “Physical and mental health, and work-life balance are significantly better than at six months. Burnout and life satisfaction improvements held steady,” she said.

But Matthew Percival, a director at the Confederation of British Industry, said the four-day week was not a “one size fits all answer” and would be “unlikely to pay for itself in many industries”.

He said: “If businesses have the budget to add to their offer to employees, then they will be considering the relative merits of reducing working hours compared to increasing pay, pensions or paid parental leave, as well as better supporting health and wellbeing.”

The four-day working week report, by the thinktank Autonomy and researchers from the University of Cambridge, the University of Salford and Boston College in the US, found that “many of the significant benefits found during the initial trial have persisted 12 months on”, although they noted that it was a small sample size.

Almost all (96%) of staff said their personal life had benefited, and 86% felt they performed better at work, while 38% felt their organisation had become more efficient, and 24% said it had helped with caring responsibilities.

Organisations reduced working hours by an average of 6.6 hours to reach a 31.6-hour week. Most gave their staff one full day off a week, either universal or staggered. The report found that protected days off were more effective than those on which staff were “on call” or sometimes expected to work.

The most successful companies made their four-day week “clear, confident and well-communicated”, and co-designed their policies between staff and management, thinking carefully about how to adapt work processes, the authors wrote.

Challenges encountered by some companies included working with clients and stakeholders where four-day weeks were not the norm, or where the policy was implemented unevenly, leading to resentment among some staff.

This month, the Scottish government launched a four-day working week trial for some public services. Autonomy is calling for the Westminster government to introduce policies that would enable its wider take-up, including giving workers the right to request a four-day week with no loss of pay, a public sector trial, and funding to support the shift in the private sector.

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Paul Oliver, chief operating officer at Citizens Advice Gateshead, said that a four-day week helped his employees cope with a “demanding role”, and improved retention as the charity was unable to pay high salaries. “We wanted to see a way to improve staff conditions so they would be better rested and could give more to work,” he added.

The greater efficiency introduced by the pilot meant it exceeded its targets, including improving the quality of advice and the number of clients spoken to, expanding to a seven-day service thanks to greater flexibility, increasing profitability and reducing levels of staff sickness. “We’re breaking out of the nine to five model, which doesn’t work for our society or our clients,” Oliver said.

Mark Downs, chief executive of the Royal Society of Biology, said his organisation was keeping the policy – in which staff divvied up Mondays and Fridays off between them – because it had been positively received by staff and external partners.

One unexpected benefit he encountered was that days when he was working and most other staff were off were much more productive. He also felt it made RSB a more attractive employer, with applicants citing the four-day week as a draw.

Anthony Painter, director of policy at the Chartered Management Institute, said he was “following the four-day week trials with interest” since CMI research had shown that employees valued flexible working above all else, including pay rises.

He added that managers would need to be better trained to implement the changes. “They will need the very best managers in place to ensure that flexibility and productivity can be two sides of the same coin – better ways of working,” Painter said.

A government spokesperson said: “We have no plans to introduce a four-day working week. Ultimately it is for employers and employees to agree what working arrangements work best for them, and we will be making changes to our flexible working legislation in April, including the right to request flexible working from day 1 of a new job.”

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Qatar condemns ‘double standards’ at ICJ hearing on Israeli occupation

Qatar says international law must apply to all countries on day five of the hearing at the World Court.

world reading day essay

Qatar tells the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that it rejects the “double standards” when international law applies to some but not to others during a hearing on Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian territories.

“Some children are deemed worthy of protection while others are killed in their thousands,” senior Qatari diplomat Mutlaq al-Qahtani said on Friday in The Hague.

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“Qatar rejects such double standards. International law must be upheld in all circumstances. It must be applied to all, and there must be accountability”.

Al-Qahtani added that Israel had implemented an “apartheid regime” to maintain the “domination of Jewish Israelis over Palestinians”.

He also said the occupation is “illegal” due to it violating the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination.

The court has the “clear mandate and indeed the responsibility to remedy this unacceptable situation. The credibility of the international legal order depends on your opinion, and the stakes cannot be higher.”

Qatar, the United States and Egypt are currently mediating negotiations for a ceasefire between Israel and Hamas to stop the current war, which is taking a devastating toll on Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip.

INTERACTIVE - ICJ hearing on Israel occupation of Palestine

Over the past week, the ICJ has been hearing the opinion of more than 50 countries on the legal implications of Israel’s occupation ahead of the court issuing a nonbinding opinion.

The 15-judge panel has been asked to review Israel’s “occupation, settlement and annexation, … including measures aimed at altering the demographic composition, character and status of the Holy City of Jerusalem, and from its adoption of related discriminatory legislation and measures”.

But Qatar echoed similar statements from several countries in calling out Israel’s policy as a breach of international law, including South Africa , which also referred to the occupation as “apartheid”.

Representatives from several other countries, including Pakistan, Norway, Indonesia and the United Kingdom, spoke at Friday’s hearing.

Pakistani Minister for Law and Justice Ahmed Irfan Aslam said that while Israel had tried to make its occupation of the Palestinian territories irreversible, history has shown that change is possible, referring to the withdrawal of French settlers from Algeria in 1962.

He added that a two-state solution “must be the basis for peace”.

Norway’s representative said developments on the ground “give reason to ask whether the occupation is turning into a de facto annexation”, which is prohibited under international law.

Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi, who said she left the G20 meeting in Brazil to address the ICJ personally, stated: “I stand before you to defend justice against a blatant violation of international humanitarian law that is being committed by Israel.”

Marsudi added that Israel’s “unlawful occupation” should not be normalised or recognised, all actions that stop the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination “shall be unlawful” and it is clear that its “apartheid regime” is in breach of international law.

The British representative was the only person to divert from what other countries had said on Friday and instead aligned with the US , who called on the court to reject issuing an advisory opinion.

The representative said that while Israel’s occupation is illegal, it is a “bilateral dispute”, and issuing an opinion would affect the security framework led by the United Nations Security Council.

The hearings are, in part, a push by Palestinian officials to get international legal institutions to investigate Israel’s occupation, especially in light of the current war on Gaza.

During the past four months and after Hamas’s October 7 attacks in southern Israel, which killed 1,139 Israelis, Israel has conducted a military campaign in Gaza, which has resulted in the deaths of more than 29,000 Palestinians.

In the occupied West Bank, settler violence has increased, and world leaders have issued sanctions to try to penalise and curb the attacks.

Israel, which is not attending the hearing, has said the court proceedings could be harmful to achieving some kind of negotiated settlement.

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Today’s word is APART, an adverb. According to Webster’s New World College Dictionary, it refers to “distance in place, position or time.”

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What is Presidents Day and how is it celebrated? What to know about the federal holiday

Many will have a day off on monday in honor of presidents day. consumers may take advantage of retail sales that proliferate on the federal holiday, but here's what to know about the history of it..

world reading day essay

Presidents Day is fast approaching, which may signal to many a relaxing three-day weekend and plenty of holiday sales and bargains .

But next to Independence Day, there may not exist another American holiday that is quite so patriotic.

While Presidents Day has come to be a commemoration of all the nation's 46 chief executives, both past and present, it wasn't always so broad . When it first came into existence – long before it was even federally recognized – the holiday was meant to celebrate just one man: George Washington.

How has the day grown from a simple celebration of the birthday of the first president of the United States? And why are we seeing all these ads for car and furniture sales on TV?

Here's what to know about Presidents Day and how it came to be:

When is Presidents Day 2024?

This year, Presidents Day is on Monday, Feb. 19.

The holiday is celebrated on the third Monday of every February because of a bill signed into law in 1968 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Taking effect three years later, the Uniform Holiday Bill mandated that three holidays – Memorial Day, Presidents Day and Veterans Day – occur on Mondays to prevent midweek shutdowns and add long weekends to the federal calendar, according to Britannica .

Other holidays, including Labor Day and Martin Luther King Jr. Day , were also established to be celebrated on Mondays when they were first observed.

However, Veterans Day was returned to Nov. 11 in 1978 and continues to be commemorated on that day.

What does Presidents Day commemorate?

Presidents Day was initially established in 1879 to celebrate the birthday of the nation's first president, George Washington. In fact, the holiday was simply called Washington's Birthday, which is still how the federal government refers to it, the Department of State explains .

Following the death of the venerated American Revolution leader in 1799, Feb. 22, widely believed to be Washington's date of birth , became a perennial day of remembrance, according to History.com .

The day remained an unofficial observance for much of the 1800s until Sen. Stephen Wallace Dorsey of Arkansas proposed that it become a federal holiday. In 1879, President Rutherford B. Hayes signed it into law, according to History.com.

While initially being recognized only in Washington D.C., Washington's Birthday became a nationwide holiday in 1885. The first to celebrate the life of an individual American, Washington's Birthday was at the time one of only five federally-recognized holidays – the others being Christmas, New Year's, Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July.

However, most Americans today likely don't view the federal holiday as a commemoration of just one specific president. Presidents Day has since come to represent a day to recognize and celebrate all of the United States' commanders-in-chief, according to the U.S. Department of State .

When the Uniform Holiday Bill took effect in 1971, a provision was included to combine the celebration of Washington’s birthday with Abraham Lincoln's on Feb. 12, according to History.com. Because the new annual date always fell between Washington's and Lincoln's birthdays, Americans believed the day was intended to honor both presidents.

Interestingly, advertisers may have played a part in the shift to "Presidents Day."

Many businesses jumped at the opportunity to use the three-day weekend as a means to draw customers with Presidents Day sales and bargain at stores across the country, according to History.com.

How is the holiday celebrated?

Because Presidents Day is a federal holiday , most federal workers will have the day off .

Part of the reason Johnson made the day a uniform holiday was so Americans had a long weekend "to travel farther and see more of this beautiful land of ours," he wrote. As such, places like the Washington Monument in D.C. and Mount Rushmore in South Dakota – which bears the likenesses of Presidents Washington, Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt – are bound to attract plenty of tourists.

Similar to Independence Day, the holiday is also viewed as a patriotic celebration . As opposed to July, February might not be the best time for backyard barbecues and fireworks, but reenactments, parades and other ceremonies are sure to take place in cities across the U.S.

Presidential places abound across the U.S.

Opinions on current and recent presidents may leave Americans divided, but we apparently love our leaders of old enough to name a lot of places after them.

In 2023, the U.S. Census Bureau pulled information from its databases showcasing presidential geographic facts about the nation's cities and states.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, the census data shows that as of 2020 , the U.S. is home to plenty of cities, counties and towns bearing presidential names. Specifically:

  • 94 places are named "Washington."
  • 72 places are named "Lincoln."
  • 67 places are named for Andrew Jackson, a controversial figure who owned slaves and forced thousands of Native Americans to march along the infamous Trail of Tears.

Contributing: Clare Mulroy

Eric Lagatta covers breaking and trending news for USA TODAY. Reach him at [email protected]

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In historians' Presidents Day survey, Biden vs. Trump is not a close call

Bill Chappell

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President Biden is rated highly in a survey of historians on presidential greatness — but he's in a tight election race with former President Donald Trump, who is ranked last. Jim Watson and Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

President Biden is rated highly in a survey of historians on presidential greatness — but he's in a tight election race with former President Donald Trump, who is ranked last.

President Biden is in a tight race to keep former President Donald Trump from reclaiming the White House, recent polls show . But that's not how 154 historians and presidential experts see it: They rate Biden in the top third of U.S. presidents, while Trump ranks dead last.

The 2024 edition of the Presidential Greatness Project Expert Survey has Biden in 14th place, just ahead of Woodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan. Trump comes in 45th, behind fellow impeachee Andrew Johnson and James Buchanan, the perennial cellar-dweller in such ratings due to his pre-Civil War leadership.

"While partisanship and ideology don't tend to make a major difference overall, there are a few distinctions worth noting," said political scientists Brandon Rottinghaus of the University of Houston and Justin S. Vaughn of Coastal Carolina University, who first published their greatness survey in 2015 .

Experts responding to the survey who self-identified as conservatives rated Biden No. 30, while liberals put him 13th and moderates ranked him 20th. All three of those same groups ranked Trump, whose presidency was marked by his flouting of historical norms, in the bottom five.

Trump ordered to pay over $355M for fraudulent business practices in New York

Trump ordered to pay over $355M for fraudulent business practices in New York

On the survey's 0-100 scale of "overall greatness," a rating of 50 means a president was average, while zero means a president is considered a failure. Only the top three presidents — Abraham Lincoln at No. 1, followed by Franklin D. Roosevelt and then George Washington — scored above 90. The drop-off was sharp from there, with no one else above an 80 rating. Roughly half the presidents were rated below 50.

Trump's overall rating was 10.92, easily the worst showing, while Biden's 62.66 had him tied with John Adams. Some of Biden's appeal could be due to the person he followed in the Oval Office: Trump was seen as "by far the most polarizing of the ranked presidents, selected by 170 respondents," according to a summary of the survey.

The survey emerges as these two contenders for the 2024 presidential race are running against distinctly different headwinds. While historians might prefer Biden, polls show a lack of confidence in his handling of key policy areas, and he is routinely criticized over his age. And Trump appears to be romping his way to another Republican nomination to lead the U.S. despite facing 91 felony criminal counts and lingering disapproval over his one-term presidency.

In a sign of partisan divide, the academics wrote, "Republicans and Conservatives rank George Washington as the greatest president," while Democrats, moderates and independents slotted the nation's founding president in second or third place.

"There are also several presidents where partisan polarization is evident — Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Obama, and Biden — but interestingly not for Bill Clinton," the survey's authors said.

In fact, Clinton fared a bit better among right-leaning respondents, who put him at No. 10, than among liberals and moderates, both of whom had Clinton as the 12th-best president.

Here's what matters to voters — and what could change their minds if it's Biden-Trump

Here's what matters to voters — and what could change their minds if it's Biden-Trump

Measuring presidential greatness is, of course, both subjective and selective. Historians routinely reanalyze leaders' successes and failures — and in today's polarized political climate, those qualities can look very different, depending on whom you ask. It can also be difficult to extract distinct criteria for presidential greatness, other than helming the United States during critical moments in history — such as helping found the country or keeping the nation together.

For instance, the survey's greatest leader, Lincoln, is praised for preserving the Union and ending slavery. But Washington, who fell from second to third place in the new survey, was a practitioner of that abomination. Even Roosevelt, credited with both enacting New Deal policies that reshaped the country and leading the U.S. through the bulk of a world war, is also criticized for ordering the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.

The survey's goal is to give historians and experts on the presidency a chance to state their opinion of where today's leaders stand in a broader context. To do so, Rottinghaus and Vaughn sent requests to current and recent members of the Presidents and Executive Politics section of the American Political Science Association .

  • Donald Trump
  • Abraham Lincoln

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  1. International Literacy Day

    8 September Since 1967, International Literacy Day (ILD) celebrations have taken place annually around the world to remind the public of the importance of literacy as a matter of dignity and human rights, and to advance the literacy agenda towards a more literate and sustainable society.

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    In the United Kingdom and Ireland, World Book Day is a charity event in March, held annually on the first Thursday and coinciding with the release of special editions. The annual celebration on 23 April is World Book Night, an event organized by independent charity The Reading Agency.. United States. In Kensington, Maryland, the International Day of the Book is celebrated with a street ...

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  6. International Literacy Day

    International Literacy Day is an international observance, celebrated each year on 8 September, that was declared by UNESCO on 26 October 1966 at the 14th session of UNESCO's General Conference. It was celebrated for the first time in 1967. Its aim is to highlight the importance of literacy to individuals, communities and societies.

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    UNESCO International Days World Book and Copyright Day 23 April - UNESCO's theme for 2023 - Indigenous Languages! Last year saw the start of the International Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022-32) and it's a UN priority to uphold and promote linguistic diversity and multilingualism.

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    And so, World Read Aloud Day (WRAD) was born in 2010, as a celebration of reading aloud, community, literacy and the importance of sharing stories. Since 2010, the celebration has spread like wildfire, with educators, parents, children and community members picking up a book and gathering together to read, listen and connect. ESNAD, Palestine.

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    USA Americans are reading more! 25% more when compared to last year. Those aged between 20 and 34 spend an average of 6.6 minutes reading per day. Although some US citizens are consuming more books, 23% of Americans haven't picked up a single book in the past year. In addition, 29% of rural Americans have never read a book.

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    It keeps your brain engaged and nurtures creativity. Here are a few sample essays on the topic 'reading'. 100 Words Essay On Reading Reading for pleasure is one of the simplest and most underrated forms of relaxation. It's a way to take a break from the world and lose yourself in another place, without ever having to leave your home.

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    Green Economy In addition, people also participated in a digital reading pledge. On top of that, there were many reading competitions arranged specially for school students, such as essay writing, quizzes, open art, etc. Who Is P. N. Panicker? Puthuvayil Narayana Panicker is the founder of the library movement.

  17. World Reading Day: Know When is International Reading Day Celebrated?

    Updated : Mar 6, 2023, 23:40 World Reading Day, popularly known as World Book and Copyright Day, is celebrated on April 23. UNESCO organizes the annual event to promote the enjoyment of reading books. The book industry consists of three major sectors-publishers, booksellers, and libraries.

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