Refine Your Final Word With 10 Alternatives To “In Conclusion”

  • Alternatives To In Conclusion

Wrapping up a presentation or a paper can be deceptively difficult. It seems like it should be easy—after all, your goal is to summarize the ideas you’ve already presented and possibly make a call to action. You don’t have to find new information; you just have to share what you already know.

Here’s where it gets tricky, though. Oftentimes, it turns out that the hardest part about writing a good conclusion is avoiding repetition.

That’s where we can help, at least a little bit. When it comes to using a transition word or phrase to kick off your conclusion, the phrase in conclusion is frequently overused. It’s easy to understand why—it is straightforward. But there are far more interesting and attention-grabbing words and phrases you can use in your papers and speeches to signal that you have reached the end.

One of the simplest  synonyms  of in conclusion is  in summary .  This transition phrase signals that you are going to briefly state the main idea or conclusion of your research. Like  in conclusion , it is formal enough to be used both when writing an academic paper and when giving a presentation.

  • In summary,  despite multiple experimental designs, the research remains inconclusive.
  • In summary , there is currently unprecedented interest in our new products.

A less formal version of  in summary  is  to sum up . While this phrase expresses the same idea, it's more commonly found in oral presentations rather than written papers in this use.

  • To sum up,  we have only begun to discover the possible applications of this finding.

let's review or to review

A conclusion doesn't simply review the main idea or argument of a presentation. In some cases, a conclusion includes a more complete assessment of the evidence presented. For example, in some cases, you might choose to briefly review the chain of logic of an argument to demonstrate how you reached your conclusion. In these instances, the expressions  let's review  or  to review  are good signposts.

The transition phrases  let's review  and  to review  are most often used in spoken presentations, not in written papers. Unlike the other examples we have looked at,  let's review  is a complete sentence on its own.

  • Let's review.  First, he tricked the guard. Then, he escaped out the front door.
  • To review:  we developed a special kind of soil, and then we planted the seeds in it.

A classy alternative to in conclusion , both in papers and presentations, is in closing . It is a somewhat formal expression, without being flowery. This transition phrase is especially useful for the last or penultimate sentence of a conclusion. It is a good way to signal that you are nearly at the bitter end of your essay or speech. A particularly common way to use in closing is to signal in an argumentative piece that you are about to give your call to action (what you want your audience to do).

  • In closing, we should all do more to help save the rainforest.
  • In closing, I urge all parties to consider alternative solutions such as the ones I have presented.

in a nutshell

The expression in a nutshell is a cute and informal metaphor used to indicate that you are about to give a short summary. (Imagine you're taking all of the information and shrinking it down so it can fit in a nutshell.) It's appropriate to use in a nutshell both in writing and in speeches, but it should be avoided in contexts where you're expected to use a serious, formal register .

  • In a nutshell, the life of this artist was one of great triumph and great sadness.
  • In a nutshell, the company spent too much money and failed to turn a profit.

The expression in a nutshell can also be used to signal you've reached the end of a summarized story or argument that you are relating orally, as in "That's the whole story, in a nutshell."

[To make a] long story short

Another informal expression that signals you're about to give a short summary is to make a long story short , sometimes abbreviated to simply long story short. The implication of this expression is that a lengthy saga has been cut down to just the most important facts. (Not uncommonly, long story short is used ironically to indicate that a story has, in fact, been far too long and detailed.)

Because it is so casual, long story short is most often found in presentations rather than written papers. Either the full expression or the shortened version are appropriate, as long as there isn't an expectation that you be formal with your language.

  • Long story short, the explorers were never able to find the Northwest Passage.
  • To make a long story short, our assessments have found that there is a large crack in the foundation.

If using a transitional expression doesn't appeal to you, and you would rather stick to a straightforward transition word, you have quite a few options. We are going to cover a couple of the transition words you may choose to use to signal you are wrapping up, either when giving a presentation or writing a paper.

The first term we are going to look at is ultimately . Ultimately is an adverb that means "in the end; at last; finally." Typically, you will want to use it in the first or last sentence of your conclusion. Like in closing , it is particularly effective at signaling a call to action.

  • Ultimately, each and every single person has a responsibility to care about this issue.
  • Ultimately, the army beat a hasty retreat and the war was over.

Another transition word that is good for conclusions is lastly , an adverb meaning "in conclusion; in the last place; finally." Lastly can be used in informational or argumentative essays or speeches. It is a way to signal that you are about to provide the last point in your summary or argument. The word lastly is most often used in the first or last sentence of a conclusion.

  • Lastly, I would like to thank the members of the committee and all of you for being such a gracious audience.
  • Lastly, it must be noted that the institution has not been able to address these many complaints adequately.

The word overall is particularly good for summing up an idea or argument as part of your conclusion. Meaning "covering or including everything," overall is a bit like a formal synonym for "in a nutshell."

Unlike the other examples we have looked at in this slideshow, it is not unusual for overall to be found at the end of a sentence, rather than only at the beginning.

  • Overall, we were very pleased with the results of our experiment.
  • The findings of our study indicate that there is a lot of dissatisfaction with internet providers overall.

asking questions

Using traditional language like the options we have outlined so far is not your only choice when it comes to crafting a strong conclusion. If you are writing an argumentative essay or speech, you might also choose to end with one or a short series of open-ended or leading questions. These function as a creative call to action and leave the audience thinking about the arguments you have made.

In many cases, these questions begin with a WH-word , such as who or what. The specifics will vary spending on the argument being made, but here are a few general examples:

  • When it comes to keeping our oceans clean, shouldn't we be doing more?
  • Who is ultimately responsible for these terrible mistakes?

on a final note

Before we wrap up, we want to leave you with one last alternative for in conclusion . The expression on a final note signals that you are about to give your final point or argument. On a final note is formal enough to be used both in writing and in speeches. In fact, it can be used in a speech as a natural way to transition to your final thank yous.

  • On a final note, thank you for your time and attention.
  • On a final note, you can find more synonyms for in conclusion here.

The next time you are working on a conclusion and find yourself stuck for inspiration, try out some of these expressions. After all, there is always more than one way to write an ending.

No matter how you wrap up your project, keep in mind there are some rules you don't always have to follow! Let's look at them here.

Ways To Say

words that can be used to conclude an essay

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35 Transition Words for Conclusions

35 Transition Words for Conclusions

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

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transition words for conclusion, explained below

When transitioning to conclusions, we can simply use the term “In conclusion”, but over time, this word starts to feel tedious and repetitive. There are better ways to do it.

Transition words help your essays flow more easily and act as signposts for your reader so they know when you’re moving from one part of an essay to another.

So, for your next essay conclusion , consider the following transition words which can help you to improve your vocabulary and academic writing skills .

I’ve saved five bonus transition words for the very end which are my personal favorites. These are for advanced students who really want to demonstrate an academic tone – don’t miss them! They’re at the very end.

Transition Words for Conclusions

1. in conclusion.

This phrase is typically used to signal the final remarks in a piece of writing. It helps summarize the main points or findings that have been discussed throughout the text. It is still generally appropriate to use, but can sometimes appear rudimentary use of the English language.

Sample Sentences:

“ In conclusion , implementing green technology in our daily lives can significantly reduce carbon footprints.”
“The research findings were quite revealing. In conclusion , more emphasis should be put on early childhood education.”

2. To sum up

This is often used to encapsulate the main points of a discussion or argument in a succinct way. It is used almost as frequently as ‘in conclusion’.

“ To sum up , a balanced diet and regular exercise are crucial for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.”
“The evidence points towards the need for more environmental protections. To sum up , without immediate action, our natural resources may become irreversibly damaged.”

3. In summary

Similar to “to sum up”, this phrase is used to provide a brief overview of the main points or findings discussed in the writing.

“ In summary , the research suggests a strong correlation between air pollution and respiratory diseases.”
“ In summary , the novel is a fascinating exploration of human resilience in the face of adversity.”

4. All in all

This phrase is used to express a final general statement or judgment considering everything that has been said. It is somewhat more colloquial than the three phrases above, making it potentially less valuable for an essay. However, in reflective pieces, it may be used. See the reflective examples below.

“ All in all , the team performed well despite the challenging circumstances.”
“ All in all , the benefits of recycling outweigh any potential disadvantages.”

5. Ultimately

This word is used to indicate the final result or fundamental reason after considering everything.

“ Ultimately , the success of the project depends on the dedication of the team members.”
“Despite initial hurdles, the venture was successful. Ultimately , perseverance and commitment were key to our success.”

6. Therefore

This word is used to introduce a logical conclusion from the evidence or reasons previously stated. It is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.

“The cost of production has significantly decreased. Therefore , we can expect an increase in profit margins.”
“He didn’t meet the eligibility criteria. Therefore , his application was rejected.”

This is similar to “therefore” and is used to introduce a conclusion, a result or an implication. As with ‘therefore’, ‘It ‘hence’ is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.

“He was late for his interview. Hence , he didn’t make a good impression.”
“The data was incomplete. Hence , the results of the study may not be entirely accurate.”

8. Consequently

This word is used to express a result or effect of a previous statement. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion.

“There was heavy rainfall throughout the night. Consequently , the match was postponed.”
“The company didn’t adapt to the changing market trends. Consequently , they faced heavy losses.”

This is used to denote the conclusion or summary of something previously stated. It indicates that what follows is a result or inference from what has been stated before. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion. While I quite like this term, some teachers see it as a bit old-timey.

“She didn’t study hard. Thus , she failed the exam.”
“The evidence is clearly inadmissible. Thus , the case should be dismissed.”

10. This essay’s final analysis is…

This phrase is used to introduce the ultimate conclusion that has been reached after consideration of all the facts.

“ This essay’s final analysis is that it is the lowest earners in society who have been hit hardest by this economic downturn.”
“ This essay’s final analysis is that it’s clear that the policy has had a positive impact on the community.”

11. On the whole

This phrase is often used when you want to make a general summary statement about a larger body of information or arguments. It implies that the statement accounts for all the details and complexities discussed previously. Generally, this is more colloquial so should only be used in less formal essay styles.

“On the whole” can help to simplify complex arguments, and it can signal that the writer has given due consideration to different perspectives or evidence before arriving at their conclusion.

“ On the whole , the company’s strategy has been effective, leading to an increase in profits and customer satisfaction.”
“Despite some negative feedback, on the whole , the policy has received wide public approval.”

12. To conclude

Similar to “In conclusion,” this phrase is a clear signal that the writer is about to wrap up their argument or findings.

“To conclude” can provide a sense of closure for the reader and it reaffirms the significance of the arguments or findings that have been presented.

“ To conclude , the study revealed that regular exercise can significantly reduce stress levels.”
“ To conclude , it is evident from the data that our marketing strategies have significantly boosted sales.”

13. To recap

This phrase is used when the writer wants to summarize the key points of their argument or discussion.

“To recap” can help to reinforce the importance of these points for the reader and it also serves as a quick reference or summary.

“ To recap , our findings suggest that the new drug can effectively alleviate symptoms in 80% of patients.”
“ To recap , our team achieved all project milestones on time and under budget.”

14. In essence

This phrase is often used when the writer wants to encapsulate the fundamental nature or core idea of their argument or discussion.

“In essence” can help to distill complex ideas or arguments down to their most basic and important elements.

“ In essence , the concept of freedom is at the heart of democratic societies.”
“ In essence , our project aims to develop sustainable solutions for waste management.”

15. In retrospect

This phrase is typically used when the writer wants to look back on a situation, decision, or period of time and make a summary statement or conclusion about it. Use it in reflective essays.

“In retrospect” can be useful for conveying a sense of learned wisdom or insight gained after the fact. It often suggests that the writer’s perspective has evolved or deepened over time.

“ In retrospect , investing in renewable energy technologies was a wise business decision.”
“ In retrospect , we could have implemented additional measures to ensure the safety of our staff during the pandemic.”

16. Overall

This is commonly used to indicate a consideration of all factors or an assessment of the situation in its entirety.

“Overall” is often used to summarize complex scenarios involving multiple elements. It represents a comprehensive viewpoint that takes into account all the variables discussed.

“ Overall , our company’s performance this year has been exceptional, with growth in nearly all sectors.”
“While the program faced some obstacles initially, overall , it has been successful in achieving its main objectives.”

17. Finally

This word is often used to indicate the last point or idea in a list or sequence.

“Finally” is a transition word that suggests the end of a discussion. It can also indicate the final and often most important point in an argument or discussion.

“ Finally , the most compelling evidence for climate change is the consistent rise in global temperatures over the past century.”
“ Finally , it’s worth mentioning the commitment and dedication of our team, which played a significant role in the project’s success.”

18. Accordingly

This word is used to express the idea that something is a logical result of something else.

“Accordingly” signifies that the statement that follows is based on what was previously mentioned. It reflects a cause-effect relationship between two points or arguments.

“We have noticed a significant increase in demand for our product. Accordingly , we have decided to increase our production capacity.”
“The weather forecast predicts heavy snowfall. Accordingly , we have postponed the event.”

19. As a result

Similar to “accordingly”, this phrase is used to indicate that something is a consequence of a previous action or situation.

“As a result” introduces the outcome of a given circumstance or set of circumstances, signifying a cause-effect relationship.

“Our competitors have lowered their prices. As a result , we have also decided to adjust our pricing strategy.”
“The new policies were not well received. As a result , the company faced significant backlash from the public.”

20. In short

This phrase is used when you want to summarize a complex idea, argument, or discussion in a concise way.

“In short” helps to condense complex or lengthy explanations into a simpler and shorter summary. It indicates a concise conclusion.

“ In short , the environmental benefits of renewable energy make it a vital component of our fight against climate change.”
“ In short , the project was a success, meeting all its goals and objectives within the allocated time and budget.”

21. In brief

This phrase is used to provide a concise summary of information or to draw a quick conclusion.

“In brief” helps to distill longer discussions or complex arguments into their most critical points. It aims to convey the gist of the matter succinctly.

“ In brief , adopting sustainable practices is not just beneficial for the environment, but it also makes economic sense.”
“ In brief , our research findings confirm the hypothesis that regular exercise can improve mental health.”

22. To summarize

This phrase helps encapsulate the key points discussed in the conversation or writing.

“To summarize” allows the writer to highlight the most important points or findings, reaffirming them for the reader. It reinforces the primary arguments or conclusions.

“ To summarize , we believe investing in renewable energy is a strategic decision that will yield long-term benefits.”
“ To summarize , the data clearly shows an upward trend in consumer demand for eco-friendly products.”

This word is often used to introduce a conclusion or a result based on the previous discussion.

“So” is a simple and effective way to link cause and effect, or problem and solution. It leads the reader directly to the outcome or conclusion.

“The experiment failed to produce the expected results, so we’ll need to revise our approach.”
“Our marketing campaign has been highly successful, so we plan to increase our advertising budget.”

24. Clearly

This word is often used to express that something is obvious or noticeable, especially after analyzing the data or arguments presented.

“Clearly” can emphasize the strength of the evidence or arguments, and it signals confidence in the conclusion.

“ Clearly , our efforts to improve customer service have resulted in higher client satisfaction rates.”
“After reviewing the data, it’s clearly evident that our sales have significantly increased since launching the new product line.”

25. After all

This phrase can be used to emphasize a decisive argument or fact that should be considered.

“After all” often introduces a compelling reason or justification that supports the conclusion. It can help stress the importance of the points previously mentioned.

“We should move forward with the merger, after all , it presents a unique opportunity to expand our market reach.”
“The committee decided to fund the project, after all , it aligns with our goals and has significant potential.”

26. As mentioned earlier

This phrase refers back to something that was stated previously in the conversation or text.

“As mentioned earlier” can be used to re-emphasize an important point or piece of evidence that supports the conclusion. It can reinforce the argument by reminding the reader of what has been discussed previously.

One downside of this is it seems redundant – why are you repeating what you said earlier rather than doing what a conclusion should do: summarizing and synthesizing your points.

“ As mentioned earlier , the correlation between the variables is strong, indicating a significant relationship.”
“ As mentioned earlier , our success is largely due to our dedicated and talented team.”

27. As has been noted

This phrase is often used to restate something important that has been pointed out in the discussion.

“As has been noted” functions similarly to “as mentioned earlier,” serving to underscore a significant point or detail previously discussed. It strengthens the conclusion by referencing crucial information.

As with the phrase “as mentioned earlier”, this one may come across as a redundant phrase and could even signal that you’re repeating yourself rather than adding value through an evaluation or revision exercise.

“ As has been noted , the high turnover rate in the company is a significant concern that requires immediate attention.”
“ As has been noted , the initiative has resulted in substantial benefits for our community.”

28. As has been shown

This phrase is used to reference evidence or arguments that have been presented earlier.

“As has been shown” emphasizes the proof or reasoning that led to the conclusion. It reaffirms the legitimacy of the conclusion based on the presented evidence.

This can also come across as redundant, though.

“ As has been shown , our new marketing strategies have significantly boosted our brand visibility.”
“ As has been shown , the new policy has had a substantial positive impact on our employees’ work-life balance.”

29. As we have seen

Similar to the above, this phrase refers to the evidence or arguments discussed earlier in the text.

“As we have seen” serves to revisit important details or arguments that have been presented. It strengthens the conclusion by directly linking it to the evidence discussed.

“ As we have seen , the implementation of stricter environmental regulations has led to significant improvements in air quality.”
“ As we have seen , investing in staff training and development leads to increased productivity and employee satisfaction.”

30. Given the above points

This phrase is used to draw a conclusion from the arguments or points that have been presented.

“Given these points” signals that the following statement is based on the information discussed earlier. It helps establish a logical connection between the conclusion and the supporting points.

“ Given the above points , it’s clear that we must take immediate action to address the climate crisis.”
“ Given the above points , our company should continue to prioritize customer service as a key aspect of our business strategy.”

31. By and large

This phrase is often used to indicate a general conclusion, considering all the information.

“By and large” is used to sum up general trends or themes that have been discussed. It signals that the conclusion takes into account all the points made, rather than focusing on one particular point.

However, it can come across as a bit informal.

“ By and large , our team’s performance this quarter has exceeded expectations.”
“ By and large , customer feedback about our new product line has been positive.”

32. For the most part

Similar to “by and large”, this phrase indicates that the conclusion drawn applies broadly but allows for exceptions.

“For the most part” suggests a nuanced conclusion that covers the majority of situations or cases but acknowledges that there may be exceptions. It indicates a balanced and fair summary.

This one’s formality level is also quite low

“ For the most part , the new legislation has been successful, though there are a few areas that require further refinement.”
“ For the most part , our employees have embraced the new remote working arrangements, though a small number have experienced challenges.”

33. As has been demonstrated

This phrase refers to the evidence or arguments presented in the body of the text that support the conclusion.

“As has been demonstrated” underscores the points or evidence that have been made and connects them directly to the conclusion. It is a way of affirming the strength of the presented arguments or evidence.

“ As has been demonstrated , the innovative design features of our product set us apart from the competition.”
“ As has been demonstrated , implementing green initiatives in our operations has both environmental and economic benefits.”

34. With this in mind

This phrase suggests that the conclusion follows logically from the information or arguments that have been presented.

“With this in mind” sets up the conclusion as a direct response or reaction to the evidence or points made. It indicates that the conclusion is informed by these considerations.

“ With this in mind , we propose an expansion of our research and development department to drive future innovation.”
“ With this in mind , it’s crucial that we continue our efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable practices.”

35. Taking everything into account

This phrase is used to express a comprehensive conclusion that considers all the arguments, evidence, or factors presented.

“Taking everything into account” shows a thorough and thoughtful conclusion that takes into account all aspects of the discussion. It signifies a balanced and careful consideration of all the relevant information.

“ Taking everything into account , we recommend a strategic pivot towards digital marketing in order to reach a broader audience.”
“ Taking everything into account , our analysis suggests that investing in renewable energy sources would be beneficial for our long-term growth.”

Advanced Transition Phrases for Conclusions

The following are five phrases I personally use in my own academic conclusions, especially for argumentative essays. They’re for advanced students aiming to show depth of knowledge!

36. Based on the available evidence

This phrase is demonstrating that you’re about to sum up the essay’s key arguments. You are saying that you’re making an evaluation after examining all of the evidence and research on the topic. It helps to show your argument is based on evidence , which is good to show in an academic paper.

“ Based on the available evidence , it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“ Based on the available evidence , teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”

37. According to the key literature outlined in this paper

Similar to the above example, this one demonstrates that your final decision and thesis statement in your argumentative essay is based on real evidence and research, not just your opinion. So, you could begin your conclusion like this!

“ According to the key literature outlined in this paper , it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“ According to the key literature outlined in this paper , teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”

38. From an evaluation of the above arguments

This point doesn’t lean on evidence for your conclusion directly, but it does lean on the culminated evidence of the arguments you’ve put forward. You’re saying that you have put forward a range of arguments, and now, you’re going to powerfully sum them up and present your final thesis statement.

“ From an evaluation of the above arguments , the most compelling argument is that students should still be given homework, despite the fact there is evidence on both sides of the homework argument.”
“ From an evaluation of the above arguments , it is the position of this paper that schools should start later to allow children to sleep in and therefore be more rested when it is time to study.”

39. The balance of evidence finds

This statement highlights that you have looked at both the pros and cons of your topic before coming to a position. The metaphor of ‘balance’ makes us think of someone holding the points for one side of the argument in one hand, the opposing points in the other hand, and they’re weighing each up before deciding which is heavier.

“ The balance of evidence finds that essays help students to reinforce their knowledge, learn more deeply, and develop academic skills.”
“ The balance of evidence finds that taxation should be lowered in order to stimulate economic growth which, on balance, will lead to a more prosperous and thriving society.”

40. The research compellingly indicates

Lastly, the phrase “the research compellingly indicates” can be used in a transition to a conclusion because it demonstrates that you’re about to sum up all the research you’ve just made and you’re going to make a final evaluation.

“ The research compellingly indicates that visiting the doctor for a yearly check-up saves money overall, prevents backlog in hospitals, and prolongs life.”
“ The research compellingly indicates that essay writing helps students to learn their topics more deeply, develop critical thinking skills, and improve long-term retention of knowledge.”

Other Types Of Transition Words

  • Compare and Contrast: In comparison, In contrast, However, Despite this, Other researchers argue, Unlike the above point, Conflicting research finds
  • Cause and Effect : Therefore, Thus, As a result, This has led to, As a result, Because, Consequently, For that reason, Hence, For that reason
  • List Order: First, Second, Third, Forth, In the first instance, In the second instance, Firstly, Secondly, Next, Lastly, Finally
  • Time Order: Afterwards, Concurrently, Later, Meanwhile, Following, In the meantime, Simultaneously, Concomitantly, Subsequently
  • Evidence Transition Words : As can be seen in, To demonstrate, Evidence of this fact can be seen in, Proof of this point is found in, For instance, For one thing, Compelling evidence shows
  • Transitioning to examples : For example, for instance, as illustrated by, take the following case in point.
  • Emphasis and addition : In fact, Indeed, Furthermore, Particularly, Surely, Undeniably, Indesputably, Confirms, Certifies, Proves
  • Similarity: Similarly, In a similar way, Concurring research finds, likewise, equivalently, also, significantly

Well, how would someone conclude an article about how to write a good conclusion? I’ll finish up like this: every conclusion is unique. Work on your own writerly voice, come up with your own transition words for conclusions, and be creative with it. The biggest challenge you will face is staying within the formal guidelines of an academic essay. For this, rely on your teacher. Keep asking for feedback, and even specifically ask for feedback on your transition words. This will help you learn what your teacher prefers and help you to keep refining your writing style.


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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay: 10 Examples of Conclusion Paragraphs

How to write a conclusion for an essay? When it comes to writing an essay, the conclusion is often overlooked as just a summary of the main points. However, a strong conclusion can leave a lasting impression on the reader and tie together all the ideas presented in the essay. In this article, we will explore different strategies for writing an effective conclusion and provide some examples to help you get started.

How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay

How To Write a Conclusion for an Essay: 10 Examples of Conclusion Paragraphs

Understanding the Purpose of a Conclusion

A conclusion is an essential part of any essay, and it serves a crucial role in summarizing your arguments and providing closure to your readers. In this section, we will discuss the role and importance of a conclusion in an essay.

Role of a Conclusion

The primary role of a conclusion is to bring closure to your essay by summarizing your arguments and restating your thesis statement. It is the final opportunity to leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic.

Additionally, a conclusion can also provide a sense of completion to your essay by tying up any loose ends and addressing any counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. It should leave your readers with a clear understanding of your position and the significance of your arguments.

Importance of a Strong Conclusion

A strong conclusion can make a significant impact on the overall effectiveness of your essay. It can leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic.

A weak or poorly written conclusion, on the other hand, can undermine the credibility of your arguments and leave your readers with a sense of confusion or dissatisfaction. It can also fail to provide closure to your essay and leave your readers with unanswered questions or unresolved issues.

To ensure that your conclusion is strong and effective, you should consider the following tips:

  • Restate your thesis statement in a new and compelling way.
  • Summarize your main arguments and provide a clear and concise summary of your essay.
  • Address any counterarguments or opposing viewpoints and explain why your position is the most valid.
  • Provide a call to action or suggest further research or exploration on the topic.

In conclusion, a conclusion is an essential part of any essay, and it serves a crucial role in summarizing your arguments and providing closure to your readers. A strong conclusion can leave a lasting impression on your readers and persuade them to take action or think differently about the topic. By following the tips provided in this section, you can ensure that your conclusion is strong and effective.

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

Restating the thesis.

One of the most important elements of your conclusion is restating your thesis. This means that you should rephrase your thesis statement in a way that reminds the reader of the main point of your essay. By doing so, you can help ensure that your reader leaves with a clear understanding of your argument.

Summarizing Main Points

In addition to restating your thesis, it can be helpful to summarize the main points of your essay. This can help tie together any loose ends and ensure that your reader understands the full scope of your argument. When summarizing your main points, be sure to be concise and avoid repeating information that you have already covered.

Closing Statement

Finally, you should include a closing statement in your conclusion. This should be a sentence or two that leaves a lasting impression on your reader. You may want to consider ending with a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a memorable quote. Whatever you choose, make sure that it is relevant to your essay and leaves a lasting impression.

Writing Techniques for Effective Conclusions

Using a quote.

One way to add impact to your conclusion is to use a relevant quote. This can be a quote from a famous person, a line from a poem or song, or even a quote from one of the sources you’ve used in your essay. The key is to choose a quote that adds depth and meaning to your conclusion.

For example, if you’re writing an essay about the importance of education, you might conclude with a quote from Nelson Mandela : “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” This quote not only reinforces the importance of education but also adds a powerful emotional element to your conclusion.

Posing a Question

Another effective technique for writing a conclusion is to pose a thought-provoking question. This can be a rhetorical question or a question that requires further exploration. The goal is to leave your reader thinking about the topic long after they’ve finished reading your essay.

For example, if you’re writing an essay about climate change, you might conclude with a question like: “What kind of world do we want to leave for future generations?” This question encourages your reader to consider the long-term implications of climate change and can leave a lasting impact.

Making a Prediction

Finally, you can use your conclusion to make a prediction about the future. This can be a prediction about the topic you’ve been discussing or a prediction about the impact your essay will have on the reader. The goal is to leave your reader with a sense of hope or inspiration.

For example, if you’re writing an essay about the importance of volunteer work, you might conclude with a prediction like: “As more people become involved in volunteer work, we can look forward to a brighter, more compassionate future.” This prediction not only reinforces the importance of volunteer work but also leaves the reader feeling inspired to make a difference.

Conclusion Paragraph Examples

Example from a literary essay.

In a literary essay, your conclusion should tie together the various themes and motifs that you’ve explored throughout your essay. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from a literary essay:

“Overall, the use of symbolism in ‘The Great Gatsby’ highlights the stark contrast between the facade of the American Dream and the harsh reality of life in the 1920s. Through the use of the green light, the valley of ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg, Fitzgerald demonstrates the emptiness and corruption that lies at the heart of the American Dream. By exposing the hollowness of this ideal, Fitzgerald challenges us to consider what truly gives our lives meaning.”

Example from a Research Paper

In a research paper, your conclusion should summarize your findings and explain the implications of your research. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from a research paper:

“In conclusion, our study provides evidence that regular exercise can have a significant impact on reducing the risk of heart disease. Our findings suggest that individuals who engage in regular physical activity are more likely to maintain healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels, as well as reduce their risk of developing other chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These findings have important implications for public health policy and highlight the need for increased efforts to promote physical activity.”

Example from an Argumentative Essay

In an argumentative essay, your conclusion should summarize your main argument and leave your reader with a clear understanding of your position. Here’s an example of a strong conclusion from an argumentative essay:

“Based on the evidence presented, it is clear that the use of performance-enhancing drugs in professional sports is both unethical and dangerous. While some argue that these drugs are necessary to remain competitive in today’s sports landscape, the risks associated with their use far outweigh any potential benefits. It is up to us as a society to take a stand against this practice and demand that our athletes compete on a level playing field, free from the influence of performance-enhancing drugs.”

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some effective ways to end a conclusion?

One effective way to end a conclusion is to restate the thesis statement in a different way. You can also summarize the main points of your essay and leave the reader with a final thought or a call to action.

How can I write a strong conclusion for a research paper?

To write a strong conclusion for a research paper, you should briefly summarize the main points of the paper and restate the thesis statement. You can also suggest avenues for further research or provide a final thought that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

What are some words or phrases that can be used to conclude an essay?

Some words and phrases that can be used to conclude an essay include “in conclusion,” “to sum up,” “therefore,” “thus,” “finally,” and “in summary.” However, it’s important to use these words and phrases appropriately and not overuse them.

Can you provide some examples of a conclusion paragraph for a project?

Sure, here’s an example of a conclusion paragraph for a project:

“In conclusion, this project has shown that renewable energy is a viable alternative to fossil fuels. By harnessing the power of wind, solar, and hydroelectricity, we can reduce our dependence on non-renewable resources and mitigate the effects of climate change. While there are still challenges to be overcome, such as cost and infrastructure, the potential benefits of renewable energy make it a promising option for the future.”

How do you write a conclusion for an argumentative essay?

To write a conclusion for an argumentative essay, you should summarize the main points of your argument and restate your thesis statement. You can also provide a final thought or call to action that encourages the reader to take a particular course of action or consider a different perspective.

What is the purpose of a conclusion paragraph in an essay?

The purpose of a conclusion paragraph in an essay is to provide a sense of closure and completeness to the reader. It should summarize the main points of the essay and restate the thesis statement in a different way. Additionally, it can leave the reader with a final thought or a call to action.

Last Updated on August 28, 2023

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How to Write an Essay Conclusion

How to Write an Essay Conclusion

4-minute read

  • 1st October 2022

Regardless of what you’re studying, writing essays is probably a significant part of your work as a student . Taking the time to understand how to write each section of an essay (i.e., introduction, body, and conclusion) can make the entire process easier and ensure that you’ll be successful.

Once you’ve put in the hard work of writing a coherent and compelling essay, it can be tempting to quickly throw together a conclusion without the same attention to detail. However, you won’t leave an impactful final impression on your readers without a strong conclusion.

We’ve compiled a few easy steps to help you write a great conclusion for your next essay . Watch our video, or check out our guide below to learn more!

1. Return to Your Thesis

Similar to how an introduction should capture your reader’s interest and present your argument, a conclusion should show why your argument matters and leave the reader with further curiosity about the topic.

To do this, you should begin by reminding the reader of your thesis statement. While you can use similar language and keywords when referring to your thesis, avoid copying it from the introduction and pasting it into your conclusion.

Try varying your vocabulary and sentence structure and presenting your thesis in a way that demonstrates how your argument has evolved throughout your essay.

2. Review Your Main Points

In addition to revisiting your thesis statement, you should review the main points you presented in your essay to support your argument.

However, a conclusion isn’t simply a summary of your essay . Rather, you should further examine your main points and demonstrate how each is connected.

Try to discuss these points concisely, in just a few sentences, in preparation for demonstrating how they fit in to the bigger picture of the topic.

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3. Show the Significance of Your Essay

Next, it’s time to think about the topic of your essay beyond the scope of your argument. It’s helpful to keep the question “so what?” in mind when you’re doing this. The goal is to demonstrate why your argument matters.

If you need some ideas about what to discuss to show the significance of your essay, consider the following:

  • What do your findings contribute to the current understanding of the topic?
  • Did your findings raise new questions that would benefit from future research?
  • Can you offer practical suggestions for future research or make predictions about the future of the field/topic?
  • Are there other contexts, topics, or a broader debate that your ideas can be applied to?

While writing your essay, it can be helpful to keep a list of ideas or insights that you develop about the implications of your work so that you can refer back to it when you write the conclusion.

Making these kinds of connections will leave a memorable impression on the reader and inspire their interest in the topic you’ve written about.

4. Avoid Some Common Mistakes

To ensure you’ve written a strong conclusion that doesn’t leave your reader confused or lacking confidence in your work, avoid:

  • Presenting new evidence: Don’t introduce new information or a new argument, as it can distract from your main topic, confuse your reader, and suggest that your essay isn’t organized.
  • Undermining your argument: Don’t use statements such as “I’m not an expert,” “I feel,” or “I think,” as lacking confidence in your work will weaken your argument.
  • Using generic statements: Don’t use generic concluding statements such as “In summary,” “To sum up,” or “In conclusion,” which are redundant since the reader will be able to see that they’ve reached the end of your essay.

Finally, don’t make the mistake of forgetting to proofread your essay ! Mistakes can be difficult to catch in your own writing, but they can detract from your writing.

Our expert editors can ensure that your essay is clear, concise, and free of spelling and grammar errors. Find out more by submitting a free trial document today!

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10 Other Ways To Say “In Conclusion”

The phrase “in conclusion” is often overused. We’ll go over synonyms for “in conclusion” (five formal and five casual) and provide examples showing how to use them.

Writing an essay and need an in conclusion synonym? Here are ten other words for in conclusion.

What’s Another Way To Say “In Conclusion”?

There are many other phrases that can be used in place of in conclusion when writing an essay, report, or any other type of text.

A formal synonym you can use instead is in summary .

  • In summary , the results of the experiment supported our hypothesis.

A casual way of saying in conclusion is to wrap things up .

  • To wrap things up , that’s everything we had to deal with today.

Need Another Way of Saying “In Conclusion”?

The mighty conclusion : along with the introduction, it’s the most vital piece of your writing. It’s what readers will remember the most, what will be branded into their brains. Do you really want to start this vital paragraph with a lackluster phrase like in conclusion?

Some writers may see no problem with using this phrase, as it might be the one that fits their writing best. But if you’re looking for synonyms for in conclusion, you’ve come to the right place.

Synonyms for “In Conclusion”: Formal Phrases

Below, you’ll find five synonyms for in conclusion that are best suited for formal settings, such as professional and academic writing.

1) In summary

Like in conclusion , the phrase in summary serves as a transition phrase that signals you are starting the last paragraph of your writing. When using in summary , you should briefly review the main points of your text.

In summary , the destruction of natural habitats will soon become a problem not just for the animals but for humans, too.

2) Ultimately

Ultimately is an effective transition word you can use in place of in conclusion. It indicates that you’ve clearly expressed the central idea of your writing, but it’s particularly useful for declaring the importance of a specific call to action.

Ultimately , the decision is up to humans on whether saving the ecosystem is on our list of priorities.

3) As has been demonstrated

As has been demonstrated is a great transition expression that shows that as a writer, you are confident that you’ve thoroughly presented enough evidence or reasoning to prove your point.

As has been demonstrated in this paper, if corporations aren’t held accountable for their role in plastic pollution, millions of different species of fish, dolphins, corals, and more will become endangered.

4) In closing

In closing is another effective transition expression to let your readers know you are at the end of your writing. After using this synonym for in conclusion , you can either summarize the central principle of your text or write a call to action.

In closing , everyone can benefit from transitioning from single-use plastics to eco-friendly alternatives, like stainless steel.

This synonym for in conclusion is especially useful in argumentative or informative essays when you are about to make the last point. It is commonly found in the first or last sentence of the conclusion.

Lastly , you should remember that no change is insignificant. Small changes make a big difference.

Need an in conclusion synonyn for an essay? Try using the synonyms above.

Synonyms for “In Conclusion”: Casual Phrases

Sometimes in conclusion is too lofty for the topic you’re writing about. Here are five casual synonyms you could use instead :

6) In a nutshell

This phrase is a friendly and informal equivalent of to summarize . After this transition expression, you’d review the prominent points of your text.

In a nutshell , the beach clean-up was a fun yet important activity for the kids.

7) Long story short

This synonym for in conclusion is best reserved for writing that carries a conversational tone. It also signals that you will briefly state the essence of what you’ve written.

Long story short , the field trip to the beach was a success, and I’d highly recommend other teachers try it.

8) To sum up

This transition phrase is another informal synonym of to summarize. Again, this phrase is best used for casual writing and signals you’ve reached the end of your text.

To sum up , all the activities showed the kids that living an eco-friendly life is both easy and important.

9) At the end of the day

This is the informal way of saying ultimately . Similarly, it’s helpful in pointing out a call to action.

At the end of the day , it’s up to the adults to teach the children how to live a sustainable life.

10) To wrap things up

Another informal synonym of in conclusion is to wrap things up. These linking words illustrate that you’ve reached the end of your writing and will briefly summarize the main idea.

To wrap things up , a beach clean-up was an effective way of letting the students have fun while learning about the importance of taking care of nature.

Commas are necessary in almost every synonym to in conclusion ; where they are placed depends on the wording.

All In All, Conclusions Are Important

Regardless of how you decide to conclude your writing, the most significant aspect of the conclusion is proper spelling and grammar. A simple typo or incorrect placement of a comma can make readers forget about everything you’ve written.

LanguageTool helps you avoid this by checking for spelling and grammar errors as you type. This intelligent, multilingual text editor will also enhance your writing by providing synonyms and suggesting stylistic improvements. Ultimately, it’s up to you to decide whether you want flawless writing or not.


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How to Conclude an Essay (with Examples)

Last Updated: May 24, 2024 Fact Checked

Writing a Strong Conclusion

What to avoid, brainstorming tricks.

This article was co-authored by Jake Adams and by wikiHow staff writer, Aly Rusciano . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,214,561 times.

So, you’ve written an outstanding essay and couldn’t be more proud. But now you have to write the final paragraph. The conclusion simply summarizes what you’ve already written, right? Well, not exactly. Your essay’s conclusion should be a bit more finessed than that. Luckily, you’ve come to the perfect place to learn how to write a conclusion. We’ve put together this guide to fill you in on everything you should and shouldn’t do when ending an essay. Follow our advice, and you’ll have a stellar conclusion worthy of an A+ in no time.

Tips for Ending an Essay

  • Rephrase your thesis to include in your final paragraph to bring the essay full circle.
  • End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful.
  • Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don’t lose a reader’s attention.
  • Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you’ve already made in your essay.

Step 1 Start with a small transition.

  • “All in all”
  • “Ultimately”
  • “Furthermore”
  • “As a consequence”
  • “As a result”

Step 2 Briefly summarize your essay’s main points.

  • Make sure to write your main points in a new and unique way to avoid repetition.

Step 3 Rework your thesis statement into the conclusion.

  • Let’s say this is your original thesis statement: “Allowing students to visit the library during lunch improves campus life and supports academic achievement.”
  • Restating your thesis for your conclusion could look like this: “Evidence shows students who have access to their school’s library during lunch check out more books and are more likely to complete their homework.”
  • The restated thesis has the same sentiment as the original while also summarizing other points of the essay.

Step 4 End with something meaningful.

  • “When you use plastic water bottles, you pollute the ocean. Switch to using a glass or metal water bottle instead. The planet and sea turtles will thank you.”
  • “The average person spends roughly 7 hours on their phone a day, so there’s no wonder cybersickness is plaguing all generations.”
  • “Imagine walking on the beach, except the soft sand is made up of cigarette butts. They burn your feet but keep washing in with the tide. If we don’t clean up the ocean, this will be our reality.”
  • “ Lost is not only a show that changed the course of television, but it’s also a reflection of humanity as a whole.”
  • “If action isn’t taken to end climate change today, the global temperature will dangerously rise from 4.5 to 8 °F (−15.3 to −13.3 °C) by 2100.”

Step 5 Keep it short and sweet.

  • Focus on your essay's most prevalent or important parts. What key points do you want readers to take away or remember about your essay?

Step 1 Popular concluding statements

  • For instance, instead of writing, “That’s why I think that Abraham Lincoln was the best American President,” write, “That’s why Abraham Lincoln was the best American President.”
  • There’s no room for ifs, ands, or buts—your opinion matters and doesn’t need to be apologized for!

Step 6 Quotations

  • For instance, words like “firstly,” “secondly,” and “thirdly” may be great transition statements for body paragraphs but are unnecessary in a conclusion.

Step 1 Ask yourself, “So what?”

  • For instance, say you began your essay with the idea that humanity’s small sense of sense stems from space’s vast size. Try returning to this idea in the conclusion by emphasizing that as human knowledge grows, space becomes smaller.

Step 4 Think about your essay’s argument in a broader “big picture” context.

  • For example, you could extend an essay on the television show Orange is the New Black by bringing up the culture of imprisonment in America.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Always review your essay after writing it for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation, and don’t be afraid to revise. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

Tips from our Readers

  • Have somebody else proofread your essay before turning it in. The other person will often be able to see errors you may have missed!

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About This Article

Jake Adams

To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then, use a few sentences to briefly summarize the main points of your essay by rephrasing the topic sentences of your body paragraphs. Finally, end your conclusion with a call to action that encourages your readers to do something or learn more about your topic. In general, try to keep your conclusion between 5 and 7 sentences long. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing an essay conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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words that can be used to conclude an essay

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay - Tips and Examples

words that can be used to conclude an essay

The conclusion of your essay is like the grand finale of a fireworks display. It's the last impression you leave on your reader, the moment that ties everything together and leaves them with a lasting impact. 

But for many writers, crafting a conclusion can feel like an afterthought, a hurdle to jump after the excitement of developing the main body of their work. Fear not! This article will equip you with the tools and techniques regarding how to write a conclusion for an essay that effectively summarizes your main points, strengthens your argument, and leaves your reader feeling satisfied and engaged.

What Is a Conclusion

In an essay, the conclusion acts as your final curtain call. It's where you revisit your initial claim (thesis), condense your main supporting arguments, and leave the reader with a lasting takeaway. 

Imagine it as the bridge that connects your ideas to a broader significance. A well-crafted conclusion does more than simply summarize; it elevates your points and offers a sense of closure, ensuring the reader leaves with a clear understanding of your argument's impact. In the next section, you will find conclusion ideas that you could use for your essay.

Please note that our online paper writing service can provide you not only with a stand-alone conclusion but with a fully new composition as well!

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Types of Conclusion

Here's a breakdown of various conclusion types, each serving a distinct purpose:

Technique Description Example
📣 Call to Action Encourage readers to take a specific step. "Let's work together to protect endangered species by supporting conservation efforts."
❓ Provocative Question Spark curiosity with a lingering question. "With artificial intelligence rapidly evolving, will creativity remain a uniquely human trait?"
💡 Universal Insight Connect your argument to a broader truth. "The lessons learned from history remind us that even small acts of courage can inspire change."
🔮 Future Implications Discuss the potential consequences of your topic. "The rise of automation may force us to redefine the concept of work in the coming decades."
🌍 Hypothetical Scenario Use a "what if" scenario to illustrate your point. "Imagine a world where everyone had access to clean water. How would it impact global health?"

How Long Should a Conclusion Be

The ideal length of a conclusion depends on the overall length of your essay, but there are some general guidelines:

  • Shorter Essays (500-750 words): Aim for 3-5 sentences. This ensures you effectively wrap up your points without adding unnecessary content.
  • Medium Essays (750-1200 words): Here, you can expand to 5-8 sentences. This provides more space to elaborate on your concluding thought or call to action.
  • Longer Essays (1200+ words): For these, you can have a conclusion of 8-10 sentences. This allows for a more comprehensive summary or a more nuanced exploration of the future implications or broader significance of your topic.

Here are some additional factors to consider:

  • The complexity of your argument: If your essay explores a multifaceted topic, your conclusion might need to be slightly longer to address all the points adequately.
  • Type of conclusion: A call to action or a hypothetical scenario might require a few extra sentences for elaboration compared to a simple summary.

Remember: The most important aspect is ensuring your conclusion effectively summarizes your main points, leaves a lasting impression, and doesn't feel rushed or tacked on.

Here's a helpful rule of thumb:

  • Keep it proportional: Your conclusion should be roughly 5-10% of your total essay length.

How many sentences should a conclusion be?

Essay Length 📝 Recommended Sentence Range 📏
Shorter Essays (500-750 words) 🎈 3-5 sentences
Medium Essays (750-1200 words) 📚 5-8 sentences
Longer Essays (1200+ words) 🏰 8-10 sentences

Conclusion Transition Words

Transition words for conclusion act like signposts for your reader. They smoothly guide them from the main body of your essay to your closing thoughts, ensuring a clear and logical flow of ideas. Here are some transition words specifically suited for concluding your essay:

Technique 🎯 Examples 📝
Summarizing & Restating 📋
Leaving the Reader with a Lasting Impression 🎨
Looking to the Future 🔮
Leaving the Reader with a Question ❓
Adding Emphasis 💡

Remember, the best transition word will depend on the specific type of conclusion you're aiming for.

How to Write a Conclusion

Every essay or dissertation writer knows that the toughest part of working on a conclusion can be striking the right balance. You want to effectively summarize your main points without redundancy, leaving a lasting impression that feels fresh and impactful, all within a concise and focused section. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you write a stunning essay conclusion:

How to Write a Conclusion

Restate Your Thesis

Briefly remind your reader of your essay's central claim. This doesn't have to be a word-for-word repetition but a concise restatement that refreshes their memory.

Summarize Key Points

In a few sentences, revisit the main arguments you used to support your thesis. When writing a conclusion, don't get bogged down in details, but offer a high-level overview that reinforces your essay's focus.

Leave a Lasting Impression

This is where your knowledge of how to write a good conclusion can shine! Consider a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a connection to a broader truth—something that lingers in the reader's mind and resonates beyond the final sentence.

Avoid Introducing New Information

The conclusion paragraph shouldn't introduce entirely new ideas. Stick to wrapping up your existing arguments and leaving a final thought.

Ensure Flow and Readability

Transition smoothly from the main body of your essay to the conclusion. Use transition words like "in conclusion," "finally," or "as a result," and ensure your closing sentences feel natural and well-connected to the rest of your work.

Note that you can simply buy essay at any time and focus on other more important assignments or just enjoy your free time.

Conclusion Paragraph Outline

Here's an outline to help you better understand how to write a conclusion paragraph:

Step 🚶 Description 📝
1. Revisit Your Thesis (1-2 sentences) 🎯
2. Summarize Key Points (1-2 sentences) 🔑
3. Lasting Impression (2-3 sentences) 💡 This is where you leave your reader with a final thought. Choose one or a combination of these options: Urge readers to take a specific action related to your topic. Spark curiosity with a lingering question that encourages further exploration. Connect your arguments to a broader truth or principle. Discuss the potential long-term consequences of your topic. Evoke a strong feeling (sadness, anger, hope) for a lasting impact. Conclude with a relevant quote that reinforces your key points or offers a new perspective.
4. Final Touch (Optional - 1 sentence) 🎀 This is not essential but can be a powerful way to end your essay. Consider a: that summarizes your main point in a memorable way. (simile, metaphor) that leaves a lasting impression. that invites the reader to ponder the topic further.
  • Tailor the length of your conclusion to your essay's overall length (shorter essays: 3-5 sentences, longer essays: 8-10 sentences).
  • Ensure a smooth transition from the main body using transition words.
  • Avoid introducing new information; focus on wrapping up your existing points.
  • Proofread for clarity and ensure your conclusion ties everything together and delivers a final impactful statement.

Read more: Persuasive essay outline . 

Do’s and Don’ts of Essay Conclusion Writing

According to professional term paper writers , a strong conclusion is essential for leaving a lasting impression on your reader. Here's a list of action items you should and shouldn’t do when writing an essay conclusion:

Dos ✅ Don'ts ❌
Restate your thesis in a new way. 🔄 Remind the reader of your central claim, but rephrase it to avoid redundancy. Simply repeat your thesis word-for-word. This lacks originality and doesn't offer a fresh perspective.
Summarize your key points concisely. 📝 Briefly revisit the main arguments used to support your thesis. Rehash every detail from your essay. 🔍 Focus on a high-level overview to reinforce your essay's main points.
Leave a lasting impression. 💡 Spark curiosity with a question, propose a call to action, or connect your arguments to a broader truth. End with a bland statement. 😐 Avoid generic closings like "In conclusion..." or "This is important because...".
Ensure a smooth transition. 🌉 Use transition words like "finally," "as a result," or "in essence" to connect your conclusion to the main body. Introduce entirely new information. ⚠️ The conclusion should wrap up existing arguments, not introduce new ideas.
Proofread for clarity and flow. 🔍 Ensure your conclusion feels natural and well-connected to the rest of your work. Leave grammatical errors or awkward phrasing. 🚫 Edit and revise for a polished final sentence.

Conclusion Examples

A strong conclusion isn't just an afterthought – it's the capstone of your essay. Here are five examples of conclusion paragraphs for essays showcasing different techniques to craft a powerful closing to make your essay stand out.

1. Call to Action: (Essay About the Importance of Recycling)

In conclusion, the environmental impact of our waste is undeniable. We all have a responsibility to adopt sustainable practices. We can collectively make a significant difference by incorporating simple changes like recycling into our daily routines. Join the movement – choose to reuse, reduce, and recycle.

2. Provocative Question: (Essay Exploring the Potential Consequences of Artificial Intelligence)

As artificial intelligence rapidly evolves, it's crucial to consider its impact on humanity. While AI holds immense potential for progress, will it remain a tool for good, or will it eventually surpass human control? This question demands our collective attention, as the decisions we make today will shape the future of AI and its impact on our world.

3. Universal Insight: (Essay Analyzing a Historical Event)

The study of history offers valuable lessons that transcend time. The events of the [insert historical event] remind us that even small acts of defiance can have a ripple effect, inspiring change and ultimately leading to a brighter future. Every voice has the power to make a difference, and courage can be contagious.

4. Future Implications: (Essay Discussing the Rise of Social Media)

Social media's explosive growth has transformed how we connect and consume information. While these platforms offer undeniable benefits, their long-term effects on social interaction, mental health, and political discourse require careful consideration. As social media continues to evolve, we must remain vigilant and ensure it remains a tool for positive connection and not a source of division.

5. Hypothetical Scenario: (Essay Arguing for the Importance of Space Exploration)

Imagine a world where our understanding of the universe is limited to Earth. We miss out on the potential for groundbreaking discoveries in physics, medicine, and our place in the cosmos. By continuing to venture beyond our planet, we push the boundaries of human knowledge and inspire future generations to reach for the stars.

Recommended for reading: Nursing essay examples .

Difference Between Good and Weak Conclusions

Not all conclusions are created equal. A weak ending can leave your reader feeling stranded, unsure of where your essay has taken them. Conversely, writing a conclusion that is strong acts as a landing pad, summarizing your key points and leaving a lasting impression.

⚠️ Weak Conclusion ❓ What's Wrong with It? ✅ Good Conclusion
In conclusion, exercise is good for you. It helps you stay healthy and fit. By incorporating regular exercise into our routines, we boost our physical health and energy levels and enhance our mental well-being and resilience. (Rephrased thesis & highlights benefits.)
This event was very significant and had a big impact on history. The [name of historical event] marked a turning point in [explain the historical period]. Its impact resonates today, influencing [mention specific consequences or ongoing effects]. (Connects to specifics & broader significance.)
Throughout this essay, we've discussed the good and bad sides of social media. While social media offers undeniable benefits like connection and information sharing, its impact on mental health, privacy, and political discourse necessitates responsible use and ongoing discussions about its role in society. (Connects arguments to broader issues & future implications.)

Nailed that essay? Don't blow it with a lame ending! A good conclusion is like the mic drop at the end of a rap song. It reminds the reader of your main points but in a cool new way. Throw in a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a connection to something bigger, and you'll leave them thinking long after they turn the page.

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How To Write A Conclusion For An Essay?

How to write a good conclusion, how to write a conclusion for a college essay.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

words that can be used to conclude an essay

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

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  • Essay Conclusions | UMGC. (n.d.). University of Maryland Global Campus.
  • How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay | BestColleges. (n.d.).
  • Ending the Essay: Conclusions | Harvard College Writing Center. (n.d.).

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  • 40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays

words that can be used to conclude an essay

To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered.

Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them.

It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills.

If you’re interested in developing your language and persuasive skills, Oxford Royale offers summer courses at its Oxford Summer School , Cambridge Summer School , London Summer School , San Francisco Summer School and Yale Summer School . You can study courses to learn english , prepare for careers in law , medicine , business , engineering and leadership.

General explaining

Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points.

1. In order to

Usage: “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example: “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

2. In other words

Usage: Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example: “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.”

3. To put it another way

Usage: This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example: “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”

4. That is to say

Usage: “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example: “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”

5. To that end

Usage: Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example: “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”

Adding additional information to support a point

Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

6. Moreover

Usage: Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example: “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”

7. Furthermore

Usage:This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example: “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”

8. What’s more

Usage: This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example: “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

9. Likewise

Usage: Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example: “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

10. Similarly

Usage: Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example: “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”

11. Another key thing to remember

Usage: Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example: “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

12. As well as

Usage: Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example: “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”

13. Not only… but also

Usage: This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example: “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

14. Coupled with

Usage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example: “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”

15. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

Usage: This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example: “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.

16. Not to mention/to say nothing of

Usage: “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example: “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”

Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast

When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting.

17. However

Usage: Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example: “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.”

18. On the other hand

Usage: Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”

19. Having said that

Usage: Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example: “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.”

20. By contrast/in comparison

Usage: Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example: “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”

21. Then again

Usage: Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example: “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”

22. That said

Usage: This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example: “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.”

Usage: Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example: “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.”

Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations

Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so.

24. Despite this

Usage: Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example: “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.”

25. With this in mind

Usage: Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example: “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.”

26. Provided that

Usage: This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example: “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”

27. In view of/in light of

Usage: These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example: “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…”

28. Nonetheless

Usage: This is similar to “despite this”. Example: “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

29. Nevertheless

Usage: This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example: “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.”

30. Notwithstanding

Usage: This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example: “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.”

Giving examples

Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing.

31. For instance

Example: “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…”

32. To give an illustration

Example: “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…”

Signifying importance

When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.

33. Significantly

Usage: Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example: “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

34. Notably

Usage: This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example: “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.”

35. Importantly

Usage: Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example: “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”


You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you.

36. In conclusion

Usage: Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example: “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.”

37. Above all

Usage: Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example: “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…”

38. Persuasive

Usage: This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example: “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.”

39. Compelling

Usage: Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example: “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.”

40. All things considered

Usage: This means “taking everything into account”. Example: “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…”

How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below, or get in touch here to find out more about courses that can help you with your essays.

At Oxford Royale Academy, we offer a number of  summer school courses for young people who are keen to improve their essay writing skills. Click here to apply for one of our courses today, including law , business , medicine  and engineering .

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80 In Conclusion Examples! + Translation

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List of ways to say in conclusion with Translation. Use these synonyms for in conclusion to be a better writer.

What does In Conclusion mean?

In conclusion means to provide a final argument . It is used to prepare the people listening or reading for your final statement . In conclusion is used at the end of essays, speeches, dissertations, books, etc.

Sentences with In Conclusion Examples

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In Summary vs In Conclusion

In summary is used when you want to announce your conclusion , but you present that conclusion as a summary of all the facts previously mentioned.

To Conclude or In Conclusion

In conclusion transition words.

In conclusion, is a transitional phrase in of itself. It denotes the final argument, so it is a transition between evidence and statement.

In conclusion, is also always divided by a comma . The phrase can only be used the start of a sentence , and cannot appear anywhere else. Therefore, it is a transitional phrase.

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In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.

So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”

In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Highlight the “so what”  

At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.

In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”

She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Leave your readers with the “now what”  

After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.

In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”

To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:

  • What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?  
  • What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?  
  • Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?  
  • What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?  
  • What larger context might my argument be a part of?  

What to avoid in your conclusion  

  • a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.  
  • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.  
  • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.  
  • fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
  • picture_as_pdf Conclusions

Improving Your English

Conclusion transition words: Phrases for summarizing and ending

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Transition words help us structure our thoughts and guide the reader or listener through what we are saying. When it’s time to summarize your message or end a paragraph, conclusion transition words let you signal this closing.

It’s good to know some synonyms for ‘in conclusion’ and ‘to conclude’, because although these are good examples of concluding words, they can get repetitive.

Our comprehensive list of transition words for conclusion and summary should give you all the inspiration you need, whether you are writing an essay or speech, or just want to become more confident forming an argument. These signal words can also be helpful for restating ideas, drawing attention to key points as you conclude.

We have included plenty of examples of how you can use these transition words for concluding paragraphs or sentences, so by the end of this article, you should be clear on how to use them properly.

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Conclusion transition words with examples

We have grouped these summarizing and concluding transition words according to how and where they can be used. For example, some should only be used when forming a final conclusion, whereas others can be used to summarize sections mid-way through your speech or writing.

First, let’s be clear about the difference between a summary and a conclusion .

Summary vs conclusion

A conclusion comes at the end of a speech, chapter, or piece of text, and it brings together all of the points mentioned. A summary, however, can be placed anywhere (even at the beginning). A summary gives a brief outline of the main points but is not as in-depth as a conclusion.

If you are giving a presentation or writing a blog, you may wish to summarize the main points in your introduction so that people know what you are going to cover. You could also summarize a section part-way through before moving on to another angle or topic.

In contrast, the conclusion always comes at the end, and you should only use specific conclusion transition words as you are drawing to a close.

Transition words for conclusion paragraphs

Let’s begin with some discourse markers that signal you are moving to the concluding paragraph in your presentation, speech, essay, or paper. These can all be used to start a conclusion paragraph.

  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • We can conclude that
  • Given these points
  • In the final analysis
  • As can be seen
  • In the long run
  • When all is said and done
  • I’ll end by
  • As we draw to a close

The last three on this list, the ‘closing’ transition words, would generally only be used in spoken discourse.

Some transition words for order and sequencing should also help with structuring what you want to say, including the ending.

Example conclusion sentences

The following sentences show how to use conclusion words correctly:

  • In conclusion , we can say that plan A will be of greater benefit to the company.
  • When all is said and done , it’s clear that we should steer clear of this investment strategy.
  • Given these points , I believe the trial was a great success.
  • I’ll end by reminding you all that this experiment was just the beginning of a much larger project.
  • To wrap up , let’s look at how this learning can be applied.
  • In the long run , we will make more profit by investing heavily in new machinery.
  • Having analyzed seven of our competitors in detail, we can conclude that our content marketing strategy should be updated.

Transition words for summary

The following summary transition words may be used as part of a conclusion paragraph, but they are especially helpful for concisely drawing together several points.

  • To summarize
  • On the whole
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • In a nutshell (informal)
  • In any case

Note that although you can insert summary transition words anywhere, the specific phrases ‘In summary’, ‘To summarize’ and ‘To sum up’ are generally only used at the end, similar to conclusion phrases.

Example summary sentences

  • In brief , this presentation is going to cover the pros and cons of the device and how we can apply this to our own product development.
  • This new technology is, in a word , revolutionary.
  • All things considered , we found that Berlin was a great city for a weekend break.
  • To summarize , we can say that Shakespeare’s writing continues to have a global influence.
  • We can say that the combustion engine was, on the whole , a good invention.
  • In any case , we should put the necessary precautions in place.
  • Generally speaking , girls are more thoughtful than boys.

Transition words to end a paragraph

You may wish to add ending transition words in the final sentence of a paragraph to conclude the ideas in that section of text, before moving on to another point.

Here are some transition words to conclude a paragraph:

  • This means that
  • With this in mind
  • By and large
  • For the most part

Note that some of these could equally be used to begin a new paragraph, so long as that paragraph is summarizing the points previously mentioned.

Cause and effect transition words could also be helpful in this context.

Examples of transition words for the end of a paragraph

  • Jamie is a vegan and Sheryl has a lot of allergies. This means that we should be careful which restaurant we choose.
  • The weather forecast said it would rain this afternoon. With this in mind , should we postpone our hike?
  • Each of the students has their own opinion about where to go for the field trip. Ultimately , though, it’s the teacher who will decide.

Restating points as you conclude

Conclusion transition words can also signal that you are restating a point you mentioned earlier. This is common practice in both writing and speaking as it draws the reader or listener’s attention back to something you want them to keep in mind. These are, therefore, also examples of transition words for emphasizing a point .

Here are some helpful transition words for concluding or summarizing by restating points:

  • As mentioned previously
  • As stated earlier
  • As has been noted
  • As shown above
  • As I have said
  • As I have mentioned
  • As we have seen
  • As has been demonstrated

You may switch most of these between the passive and active voice, depending on which is most appropriate. For example, ‘As has been demonstrated’ could become ‘As I have demonstrated’ and ‘As shown above’ could become ‘As I have shown’.

Example sentences to restate a point in conclusion or summary

  • As I stated earlier , the only way we can get meaningful results from this survey is by including at least a thousand people.
  • As has been demonstrated throughout this conference, there are exciting things happening in the world of neuroscience.
  • As shown by this study, the trials have been promising.

If you were researching these transition words for concluding an essay, you might find it helpful to read this guide to strong essay conclusions . Of course, there are many ways to use summary transition words beyond essays. They may be a little formal for casual conversation, but they certainly can be used in speech as part of a presentation, debate, or argument.

Can you think of any other concluding words or phrases that should be on this list? Leave a comment below to share them!

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words that can be used to conclude an essay

17 academic words and phrases to use in your essay

(Last updated: 20 October 2022)

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For the vast majority of students, essay writing doesn't always come easily. Writing at academic level is an acquired skill that can literally take years to master – indeed, many students find they only start to feel really confident writing essays just as their undergraduate course comes to an end!

If this is you, and you've come here looking for words and phrases to use in your essay, you're in the right place. We’ve pulled together a list of essential academic words you can use in the introduction, body, and conclusion of your essays .

Whilst your ideas and arguments should always be your own, borrowing some of the words and phrases listed below is a great way to articulate your ideas more effectively, and ensure that you keep your reader’s attention from start to finish.

It goes without saying (but we'll say it anyway) that there's a certain formality that comes with academic writing. Casual and conversational phrases have no place. Obviously, there are no LOLs, LMFAOs, and OMGs. But formal academic writing can be much more subtle than this, and as we've mentioned above, requires great skill.

So, to get you started on polishing your own essay writing ability, try using the words in this list as an inspirational starting point.

Words to use in your introduction

The trickiest part of academic writing often comes right at the start, with your introduction. Of course, once you’ve done your plan and have your arguments laid out, you need to actually put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard) and begin your essay.

You need to consider that your reader doesn’t have a clue about your topic or arguments, so your first sentence must summarise these. Explain what your essay is going to talk about as though you were explaining it to a five year old – without losing the formality of your academic writing, of course! To do this, use any of the below words or phrases to help keep you on track.

1. Firstly, secondly, thirdly

Even though it sounds obvious, your argument will be clearer if you deliver the ideas in the right order. These words can help you to offer clarity and structure to the way you expose your ideas. This is an extremely effective method of presenting the facts clearly. Don’t be too rigid and feel you have to number each point, but using this system can be a good way to get an argument off the ground, and link arguments together.

2. In view of; in light of; considering

These essay phrases are useful to begin your essay. They help you pose your argument based on what other authors have said or a general concern about your research. They can also both be used when a piece of evidence sheds new light on an argument. Here’s an example: The result of the American invasion has severely impaired American interests in the Middle East, exponentially increasing popular hostility to the United States throughout the region, a factor which has proved to be a powerful recruitment tool for extremist terrorist groups (Isakhan, 2015). Considering [or In light of / In view of] the perceived resulting threat to American interests, it could be argued that the Bush administration failed to fully consider the impact of their actions before pushing forward with the war.

3. According to X; X stated that; referring to the views of X

Introducing the views of an author who has a comprehensive knowledge of your particular area of study is a crucial part of essay writing. Including a quote that fits naturally into your work can be a bit of a struggle, but these academic phrases provide a great way in.

Even though it’s fine to reference a quote in your introduction, we don’t recommend you start your essay with a direct quote. Use your own words to sum up the views you’re mentioning, for example:

As Einstein often reiterated, experiments can prove theories, but experiments don’t give birth to theories.

Rather than:

“A theory can be proved by experiment, but no path leads from experiment to the birth of a theory.” {Albert Einstein, 1954, Einstein: A Biography}.

See the difference?

And be sure to reference correctly too, when using quotes or paraphrasing someone else's words.

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Adding information and flow

The flow of your essay is extremely important. You don’t want your reader to be confused by the rhythm of your writing and get distracted away from your argument, do you? No! So, we recommend using some of the following ‘flow’ words, which are guaranteed to help you articulate your ideas and arguments in a chronological and structured order.

4. Moreover; furthermore; in addition; what’s more

These types of academic phrases are perfect for expanding or adding to a point you’ve already made without interrupting the flow altogether. “Moreover”, “furthermore” and “in addition” are also great linking phrases to begin a new paragraph.

Here are some examples: The dissociation of tau protein from microtubules destabilises the latter resulting in changes to cell structure, and neuronal transport. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to further oxidative stress causing increased levels of nitrous oxide, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidases.

On the data of this trial, no treatment recommendations should be made. The patients are suspected, but not confirmed, to suffer from pneumonia. Furthermore, five days is too short a follow up time to confirm clinical cure.

5. In order to; to that end; to this end

These are helpful academic phrases to introduce an explanation or state your aim. Oftentimes your essay will have to prove how you intend to achieve your goals. By using these sentences you can easily expand on points that will add clarity to the reader.

For example: My research entailed hours of listening and recording the sound of whales in order to understand how they communicate.

Dutch tech companies offer support in the fight against the virus. To this end, an online meeting took place on Wednesday...

Even though we recommend the use of these phrases, DO NOT use them too often. You may think you sound like a real academic but it can be a sign of overwriting!

6. In other words; to put it another way; that is; to put it more simply

Complement complex ideas with simple descriptions by using these sentences. These are excellent academic phrases to improve the continuity of your essay writing. They should be used to explain a point you’ve already made in a slightly different way. Don’t use them to repeat yourself, but rather to elaborate on a certain point that needs further explanation. Or, to succinctly round up what just came before.

For example: A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between phenomena. In other words, there is no treatment effect.

Nothing could come to be in this pre-world time, “because no part of such a time possesses, as compared with any other, a distinguishing condition of existence rather than non-existence.” That is, nothing exists in this pre-world time, and so there can be nothing that causes the world to come into existence.

7. Similarly; likewise; another key fact to remember; as well as; an equally significant aspect of

These essay words are a good choice to add a piece of information that agrees with an argument or fact you just mentioned. In academic writing, it is very relevant to include points of view that concur with your opinion. This will help you to situate your research within a research context.

Also , academic words and phrases like the above are also especially useful so as not to repeat the word ‘also’ too many times. (We did that on purpose to prove our point!) Your reader will be put off by the repetitive use of simple conjunctions. The quality of your essay will drastically improve just by using academic phrases and words such as ‘similarly’, ‘as well as’, etc. Here, let us show you what we mean:

In 1996, then-transport minister Steve Norris enthused about quadrupling cycling trips by 2012. Similarly, former prime minister David Cameron promised a “cycling revolution” in 2013…

Or Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI) aims to bridge the gap of access to electricity across the continent (...). Another key fact to remember is that it must expand cost-efficient access to electricity to nearly 1 billion people.

The wording “not only… but also” is a useful way to elaborate on a similarity in your arguments but in a more striking way.

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Comparing and contrasting information

Academic essays often include opposite opinions or information in order to prove a point. It is important to show all the aspects that are relevant to your research. Include facts and researchers’ views that disagree with a point of your essay to show your knowledge of your particular field of study. Below are a few words and ways of introducing alternative arguments.

8. Conversely; however; alternatively; on the contrary; on the other hand; whereas

Finding a seamless method to present an alternative perspective or theory can be hard work, but these terms and phrases can help you introduce the other side of the argument. Let's look at some examples:

89% of respondents living in joint families reported feeling financially secure. Conversely, only 64% of those who lived in nuclear families said they felt financially secure.

The first protagonist has a social role to fill in being a father to those around him, whereas the second protagonist relies on the security and knowledge offered to him by Chaplin.

“On the other hand” can also be used to make comparisons when worded together with “on the one hand.”

9. By contrast; in comparison; then again; that said; yet

These essay phrases show contrast, compare facts, and present uncertainty regarding a point in your research. “That said” and “yet” in particular will demonstrate your expertise on a topic by showing the conditions or limitations of your research area. For example:

All the tests were positive. That said, we must also consider the fact that some of them had inconclusive results.

10. Despite this; provided that; nonetheless

Use these phrases and essay words to demonstrate a positive aspect of your subject-matter regardless of lack of evidence, logic, coherence, or criticism. Again, this kind of information adds clarity and expertise to your academic writing.

A good example is:

Despite the criticism received by X, the popularity of X remains undiminished.

11. Importantly; significantly; notably; another key point

Another way to add contrast is by highlighting the relevance of a fact or opinion in the context of your research. These academic words help to introduce a sentence or paragraph that contains a very meaningful point in your essay.

Giving examples

A good piece of academic writing will always include examples. Illustrating your essay with examples will make your arguments stronger. Most of the time, examples are a way to clarify an explanation; they usually offer an image that the reader can recognise. The most common way to introduce an illustration is “for example.” However, in order not to repeat yourself here are a few other options.

12. For instance; to give an illustration of; to exemplify; to demonstrate; as evidence; to elucidate

The academic essays that are receiving top marks are the ones that back up every single point made. These academic phrases are a useful way to introduce an example. If you have a lot of examples, avoid repeating the same phrase to facilitate the readability of your essay.

Here’s an example:

‘High involvement shopping’, an experiential process described by Wu et al. (2015, p. 299) relies upon the development of an identity-based alliance between the customer and the brand. Celebrity status at Prada, for example, has created an alliance between the brand and a new generation of millennial customers.

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Concluding your essay

Concluding words for essays are necessary to wrap up your argument. Your conclusion must include a brief summary of the ideas that you just exposed without being redundant. The way these ideas are expressed should lead to the final statement and core point you have arrived at in your present research.

13. In conclusion; to conclude; to summarise; in sum; in the final analysis; on close analysis

These are phrases for essays that will introduce your concluding paragraph. You can use them at the beginning of a sentence. They will show the reader that your essay is coming to an end:

On close analysis and appraisal, we see that the study by Cortis lacks essential features of the highest quality quantitative research.

14. Persuasive; compelling

Essay words like these ones can help you emphasize the most relevant arguments of your paper. Both are used in the same way: “the most persuasive/compelling argument is…”.

15. Therefore; this suggests that; it can be seen that; the consequence is

When you’re explaining the significance of the results of a piece of research, these phrases provide the perfect lead up to your explanation.

16. Above all; chiefly; especially; most significantly; it should be noted

Your summary should include the most relevant information or research factor that guided you to your conclusion. Contrary to words such as “persuasive” or “compelling”, these essay words are helpful to draw attention to an important point. For example:

The feasibility and effectiveness of my research has been proven chiefly in the last round of laboratory tests.

Film noir is, and will continue to be, highly debatable, controversial, and unmarketable – but above all, for audience members past, present and to come, extremely enjoyable as a form of screen media entertainment.

17. All things considered

This essay phrase is meant to articulate how you give reasons to your conclusions. It means that after you considered all the aspects related to your study, you have arrived to the conclusion you are demonstrating.

After mastering the use of these academic words and phrases, we guarantee you will see an immediate change in the quality of your essays. The structure will be easier to follow, and the reader’s experience will improve. You’ll also feel more confident articulating your ideas and using facts and examples. So jot them all down, and watch your essays go from ‘good’ to ‘great’!

words that can be used to conclude an essay

Essay exams: how to answer ‘To what extent…’

words that can be used to conclude an essay

How to write a master’s essay

words that can be used to conclude an essay

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List of 50 "In Conclusion" Synonyms—Write Better with ProWritingAid

Alex Simmonds

Alex Simmonds

Cover image for in conclusion article

Table of Contents

Why is it wrong to use "in conclusion" when writing a conclusion, what can i use instead of "in conclusion" for an essay, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in formal writing, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in informal writing, what is another word for "in conclusion", what should a conclusion do in an article or paper.

The final paragraphs of any paper can be extremely difficult to get right, and yet they are probably the most important. They offer you a chance to summarize the points you have made into a neat package and leave a good impression on the reader.

Many people choose to start the last paragraph with the phrase in conclusion , but this has its downsides.

Firstly, you should only use it once. Any more than that and your essay will sound horribly repetitive. Secondly, there is the question of whether you should even use the phrase at all?

Image showing synonyms for in conclusion

Though it’s okay to use in conclusion in a speech or presentation, when writing an essay it comes across as stating the obvious. The phrase will come across as a bit unnecessary or "on the nose."

Its use in an essay is clichéd, and there are far cleaner and more elegant ways of indicating that you are going to be concluding the paper. Using in conclusion might even irritate and alienate your audience or readers.

Thankfully, there are hundreds of synonyms available in the English language which do a much better (and much more subtle) job of drawing a piece of writing to a close.

The key is to choose ones which suit the tone of the paper. Here we will look at both formal options for an essay or academic paper, and informal options for light-hearted, low key writing, or speeches.

Image showing as has been demonstrated in a sentence

If you are writing an academic essay, a white paper, a business paper, or any other formal text, you will want to use formal transitional expressions that successfully work as synonyms for in conclusion .

The following are some suggestions you could use:

As has been demonstrated

A simple way of concluding all your points and summarizing everything you have said is to confidently state that those points have convincingly proven your case:

As the research has demonstrated , kids really do love chocolate.

As all the above points have demonstrated , Dan Brown really was the most technically gifted writer of the 20th Century.

As has been demonstrated in this paper , the side-effects of the vaccine are mild in comparison to the consequences of the virus.

As has been shown

This is another way of saying as has been demonstrated , but perhaps less scientific and more literary. As has been shown would work well in literature, history, or philosophy essays.

For example:

As has been shown above , the First World War and industrialization were the drivers for a new way of seeing the world, reflected in Pound’s poetry.

In the final analysis

This is a great expression to use in your conclusion, since it’s almost as blunt as in conclusion , but is a more refined and far less clichéd way of starting the concluding paragraph.

Once you have finished your argument and started drawing things to a close, using in the final analysis allows you to tail nicely into your last summation.

In the final analysis , there can be little doubt that Transformers: Dark of the Moon represents a low point in the history of cinema.

Image showing final analysis as a substitute for in conclusion

Along with let’s review , this is short and blunt way of announcing that you intend to recap the points you have made so far, rather than actually drawing a conclusion.

It definitely works best when presenting or reading out a speech, but less well in an essay or paper.

However, it does work effectively in a scientific paper or if you wish to recap a long train of thought, argument, or sequence before getting to the final concluding lines.

To review , of the two groups of senior citizens, one was given a placebo and the other a large dose of amphetamines.

Image showing phrases to use instead of in conclusion

Another phrase you could consider is in closing . This is probably better when speaking or presenting because of how double-edged it is. It still has an in conclusion element to it, but arguably it could also work well when drawing an academic or scientific paper to a conclusion.

For example, it is particularly useful in scientific or business papers where you want to sum up your points, and then even have a call to action:

In closing then, it is clear that as a society, we all need to carefully monitor our consumption of gummy bears.

Or in an academic paper, it offers a slightly less blunt way to begin a paragraph:

In closing , how do we tie all these different elements of Ballard’s writing together?

Perhaps the most similar expression to in conclusion is in summary . In summary offers a clear indication to the reader that you are going to restate the main points of your paper and draw a conclusion from those points:

In summary , Existentialism is the only philosophy that has any real validity in the 21st century.

In summary , we believe that by switching to a subscription model...

On top of those previously mentioned, here are some other phrases that you can use as an alternative to in conclusion :

To summarize

Overall, it may be said

Taking everything into account

On the whole

In general, it can be said that

With this in mind

Considering all this

Everything considered

As a final observation

Considering all of the facts

For the most part

In light of these facts

When it comes to finishing up a speech, a light-hearted paper, blog post, or magazine article, there are a couple of informal phrases you can use rather than in conclusion :

In a nutshell

The phrase in a nutshell is extremely informal and can be used both in speech and in writing. However, it should never be used in academic or formal writing.

It could probably be used in informal business presentations, to let the audience know that you are summing up in a light-hearted manner:

In a nutshell , our new formula Pro Jazzinol shampoo does the same as our old shampoo, but we get to charge 20% more for it!

You can also use it if you want to get straight to the point at the end of a speech or article, without any fluff:

In a nutshell , our new SocialShocka app does what it says on the tin—gives you an electric shock every time you try to access your social media!

At the end of the day

This is a pretty useful expression if you want to informally conclude an argument, having made all your points. It basically means in the final reckoning or the main thing to consider is , but said in a more conversational manner:

At the end of the day , he will never make the national team, but will make a good living as a professional.

At the end of the day , the former President was never destined to unite the country…

Image showing a wedding toast

Long story short

Another informal option when replacing in conclusion is to opt for to make a long story short —sometimes shortened to long story short .

Again, this is not one you would use when writing an academic or formal paper, as it is much too conversational. It’s a phrase that is far better suited to telling a joke or story to your friends:

Long story short , Billy has only gone and started his own religion!

Would you ever use it in writing? Probably not, except for at the end of friendly, low-key presentations:

Long story short , our conclusion is that you are spending far too much money on after work company bowling trips.

And possibly at the end of an offbeat magazine article or blog post:

Long story short , Henry VIII was a great king—not so great a husband though!

Other "In Conclusion" Synonyms for Informal Writing

You can use any of the synonyms in this article when writing informally, but these are particularly useful when you want your writing to sound conversational:

By and large

On a final note

Last but not least

For all intents and purposes

The bottom line is

To put it bluntly

To wrap things up

To come to the point

To wind things up

Image showing list of words to replace in conclusion

Instead of opting for one of the above expressions or idioms, there are several different singular transition words you can use instead. Here are a couple of examples:

The perfect word to tell the reader you are reaching the end of your argument. Lastly is an adverb that means "at the end" or "in summary." It is best used when you are beginning your conclusion:

Lastly , with all the previous points in mind, there is the question of why Philip K Dick was so fascinated with alternate history?

But can also be used at the very end of your conclusion too:

Lastly then, we are left with Eliot’s own words on his inspiration for "The Waste Land."

Finally does exactly the same job as lastly . It lets the reader know that you are at the final point of your argument or are about to draw your conclusion:

Finally , we can see from all the previous points that...

Another word that can be used at beginning of the conclusion is the adverb ultimately . Meaning "in the end" or "at the end of the day," it can be used as a conclusion to both informal and formal papers or articles:

Ultimately , it comes down to whether one takes an Old Testament view of capital punishment or...

It can also be used in more survey, scientific, or charity appeal style articles as a call to action of some sort:

Ultimately , we will all need to put some thought into our own carbon footprints over the next couple of years.

A good word to conclude a scientific, or survey style paper is overall . It can be used when discussing the points, arguments or results that have been outlined in the paper up until that point.

Thus, you can say:

Overall , our survey showed that most people believe you should spread the cream before you add the jam, when eating scones.

Other Transition Words to Replace "In Conclusion"

Here are a few transition word alternatives to add to your arsenal:





Pro tip: You should use transition words throughout your essay, paper, or article to guide your reader through your ideas towards your conclusion. ProWritingAid’s Transitions Report tells you how many transition words you’ve used throughout your document so you can make sure you’re supporting your readers’ understanding.

ProWritingAid transition report shows a conclusion word

It’ll also tell you what type of transitions you’ve used. If there are no conclusion words in your writing, consider using one of the synonyms from this article.

Sign up for a free ProWritingAid account to try the Transitions Report.

One of the most effective ways of finishing up a piece of writing is to ask a question, or return to the question that was asked at the beginning of the paper using. This can be achieved using how , what , why , or who .

This is sometimes referred to as the "so what?" question. This takes all your points and moves your writing (and your reader) back to the broader context, and gets the reader to ask, why are these points important? Your conclusion should answer the question "so what?" .

Image with so what question

To answer that, you circle back to the main concept or driving force of the essay / paper (usually found in the title) and tie it together with the points you have made, in a final, elegant few sentences:

How, then, is Kafka’s writing modernist in outlook?

Why should we consider Dickens’ work from a feminist perspective?

What, then , was Blake referring to, when he spoke of mind forged manacles?

In Conclusion

There are plenty of alternatives for drawing an effective and elegant close to your arguments, rather than simply stating in conclusion .

Whether you ask a question or opt for a transition expression or a single transition word, just taking the time to choose the right synonyms will make all the difference to what is, essentially, the most important part of your paper.

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Alex Simmonds is a freelance copywriter based in the UK and has been using words to help people sell things for over 20 years. He has an MA in English Lit and has been struggling to write a novel for most of the last decade. He can be found at

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Essay conclusion | example words & phrases.

Do you know what people remember most from your essay or speech? It is the beginning and the conclusion.

Our professionals know how to make your report catchy. One can learn helpful tips from our mature writers or order a ready-made captivating text with a strong conclusion.

Why does the conclusion matter?

The last paragraph reflects your ability to select the most important things from the whole flow of information and title . This abstract ends the text; thus, it makes the final impression.

We know from experience that the last phrase forms sort of aftertaste. Rest assured that it will be associated with your paper. So, pay enough attention to your closing words.

Good conclusion for your essay | Tips from experts

A conclusion is a final push to your brilliant essay. You have already spent so many efforts to come up with original ideas, find strong facts, and explain the core points of your project.

Now it is time to sum up your thoughts and reveal key findings. Do not give it up since you are one step away from success. If you feel absolutely exhausted at this stage, turn to our specialists for help.

For those who feel power and enthusiasm to write an essay till the last point, we have selected effective recommendations.

A magic formula to write a conclusion for an essay

For more than ten years of successful writing experience, we have written an unlimited number of conclusions for essays. We have found that the final paragraph should be composed according to the rule.

1. Short and to the point

The final part of the essay is definitely not for long reflections and new suggestions. The point is to recap all the information you have presented above. Do not overload your readers.

2. Memorable

Use eye-catching phrases to conclude your essay. You can reach this goal by selecting the most suitable words.

3. Valuable

The sense of the conclusion boils down to summarizing and, what is more important, analyzing all the above information. Herein lies its value for a reader.

A strong conclusion leaves a lasting impression on the reader. It is what shows the best of your essay.

Essay conclusions: the ultimate list of pro tips

We want to share our experience and, thus, provide this guidance on effective endings for your high school and college essays. Inspiration and in-depth knowledge enable us to write a conclusion in one breath. But what if a muse does not come? Then, one can try some routine ways. Here we emphasize practical advice.

1. Make a list of the core ideas presented in the main part

It will help you concentrate attention around them for summing up. Meantime, having this outline in front of eyes, you avoid repeating the same wordings.

2. Reread the introduction

The conclusion must follow from the first part of the paper. Start with a transition sentence connecting the initial idea to your closing thoughts.

3. Rewrite the main thoughts

Rephrase wordings to avoid duplication. Or ask our rewriter to do it . Wrapping up is essential for this part of the report. Meantime, it cannot be an end in itself.  A conclusion should be much more than a summary.

4. Look one more time at your final abstract

Cross out new arguments and facts from it.

5. “Dig deeper”

What is the sense of my essay? What is my central message? Why is it helpful? What is the value of my suggestions for a reader (field of science, humankind, in general...) Ask yourself similar questions to synthesize and highlight key points of your project.  A professor expects to see a logical flow of thoughts related to each other in your conclusion.

6. Add confidence

If you need a powerful conclusion, eliminate all the doubts from this paragraph. Avoid words: “probably,” “maybe,” “I am not sure,” etc.

7. Give food for thought

If the format of the essay allows, end it on a provocative note. A rhetorical question is remembered since it leaves a reader alone with his/her thoughts.

Are there any alternatives to conclusions?

It happens that an essay has no conclusion in the traditional sense. Yes, sometimes, professors do not require to end a paper according to academic standards. So, you are free to come up with new ideas.

Here are some prompts for inspiration and practical use.

  • Describe only implications of the core issue.
  • Speculate on the further course of events.
  • Pose an unexpected question to the reader. (Still it, should be relevant to the topic.)
  • Go from the particular to the general. Show how the object of your study influences the whole picture.

Rules for writing conclusions may vary depending on the type of the essay. Let’s figure it out in detail.

What is the best conclusion for a critical essay?

A critical essay is a matter of analysis, firstly. Students might associate it with a negative review (critique), yet, it’s not like that. The sense is to study a particular object and give an objective evaluation. Therefore, the final part of these papers must contain the core findings made during this examination.

Some ideas on how to write it:

  • put it all together;
  • find stronger wordings to recap the main suggestions,
  • come up with a succinct phrase reflecting your discovery.

Conclusions for academic papers

Obviously, academic papers require a serious approach to writing. Educational institutions set their rules for composing essays, and their chapters, in particular. Students are restricted with these standards and have to operate within rigid frames. These may vary according to colleges and types of academic papers. Yet, we can reveal the most common of them.

In fact, you need to answer the following questions in a couple phrases.

  • What is the purpose of the paper?
  • What is the best way to prove your thesis statement?
  • Why is your academic paper worth reading? Demonstrate the importance of your insights.
  • Is there any value of your treatise for further research?

Conclusions that irritate

The truth is your teachers and professors read thousands of essays every year. They explain the rules of good conclusions and give practical recommendations. Still, some students go against these principles and common sense, in general.

Our assistants have selected phrases that may spoil the overall impression of your report. However, do take them as the only truth. You could have quite another college policy.

1. “In conclusion,” “the conclusion is...”

If you want to stand out among other multiple applicants and pupils, think about more interesting wording. Stop being Captain Obvious, look for new catchphrases, and get a well-earned A. 

2. “And now let’s talk about a new concept (event, phenomena, theme)...”

Wait, it is the conclusion, not a new chapter. Thus, do not give any new facts and explanations. The reader expects a summary but not a continuation or a beginning, which is even worse. Calculations, clarifications, statistics, and other arguments must be written in the main part.

3. “Look  at this issue from the new angle,” “I have just revealed that, ...”

Unexpected conclusions are good for fiction. An academic field does not appreciate such twists. They definitely need “spoilers” in the body of your paper.

4. “That’ all, folks…”

It’s not a good idea to cite Looney Tunes cartoons in essays for high schools or colleges. The same can be said about jargon and slang.

Here are some more variants on how to annoy a professor.

Typical mistakes in conclusions

We want you to avoid common misconceptions concerning the final paragraph. For this purpose, we have selected some of the most popular remarks from professors.

✓ It is too long

You need to monitor the proportions of this part. Obviously, the conclusion cannot be longer than the main part.

✓ Pupils start a new page to write it

The conclusion is the last part of an essay. It is not the same as a new chapter of a dissertation.

✓ The style of the conclusion differs from the manner of writing of the previous parts

Sometimes we witness this dissonance, and it really comes across as something weird. Your teacher might also think that another person wrote it.

Conclusion in an opinion essay

The purpose of the opinion essay is to express a personal point of view. One can take it as an opportunity to show individuality. Importantly, this principle must be reflected in the final paragraph.

Here is an abstract from an essay by an actor James Franco . He demonstrates his positive attitude to selfies and sums up thoughts in one beautiful abstract.

essay conclusion - example


Some hints from our authors

  • Do not change your attitude in the final part

It is not recommended to write sudden new views. You need to demonstrate a consistent piece of writing.

  • Formulate your viewpoint in one phrase

Learn to be concise. The conclusion is not for repeating the same thoughts that are presented in the body of the essay. What is even more important, it is not about overloading your readers with a bunch of information.

Show the uniqueness of your thoughts and reflections. Your fresh view is what professors will definitely appreciate.

A conclusion from “an essay about knowledge in 2020” (random example from our author):

“In fact, one needs to know only the basic things and principles. Yet, you need to understand much more. The sense is not to memorize encyclopedic data but to comprehend it. Your abilities are unlimited when you are good at observing, analyzing, and predicting.”

How to conclude a problem solution essay?

One clear answer is what a professor wants to read at the end of your problem solution essay. You can come up with various decisions, yet do not forget about a concise manner of the final abstract. Here are some of our variants from our specialists:

✓ reveal preventive measures;

✓ show well-known ways of fight against the issue;

✓ determine the most effective strategies;

✓ demonstrate the effectiveness of your solution;

✓ add your personal recommendations.

General phrases for an essay conclusion

There are numerous synonyms to a banal phrase “in conclusion.”  If you cannot find proper words for your final part, check out our hints.

  • by and large,

A little bit sophisticated :

  • unquestionably,
  • all things considered,
  • in view of all the above aspects,
  • in the final analysis.


  • most would agree that,
  • as a result of,
  • there is general agreement that,
  • the present findings confirm.

In case you need academic wordings:

  • The findings of this essay can be understood as…
  • The research leads to the following findings…
  • The results demonstrate...
  • These outcomes suggest that...

Parts of an essay conclusion

For your convenience, we present a classical structure of the essay conclusion. It could help you put thoughts together and finish your text quickly and efficiently.

1. So, how to start a conclusion?

Formulate the thesis using new words. It could be your first sentence.

2. The main part of the conclusion

“Squeeze” essential moments from the body of the essay.

3. The final concluding sentence

It is a place for the best “polished” thoughts and ideas.

Purposes of conclusions:

  • leave an aftertaste (it is not compulsory to end your essay on a positive note. It depends on the topic of the paper),
  • draw attention to the bottom line of the essay.

Things to avoid in conclusions:

  • new data on your topic,
  • long abstracts,
  • irrelevant information.

Strategies for writing conclusions

1. Three layers of “so-what?”

We know firsthand that “ So-what model ” of analysis is helpful for writing conclusions. The thing is to get to the root of the issue.Let’s consider an example. Say, you are working on an essay “The importance of education in 2020.” You need to answer three questions:

  • What is the core message of the report?

Education is extremely essential for students today.

You cannot get a dream job without a college degree.

Ignoring education, you deprive yourself of opportunities to succeed in life.

In fact, you need to question your takeaway and prove the point. Herein lies the sense of in-depth analysis that forms the basis of a well-considered essay.

2. Tie it to the introduction

A sense of completion is what your conclusion must leave. A reader has to find brief answers to questions posed at the beginning.

3. Analyze, but do not repeat

There is no value in duplicating the same thoughts at the end of the essay. Instead, you need to reveal cause and effect, provide an outlook, interpret the results from your angle. In doing so, you add value to your piece of writing.

4. Find a balance between emotions and rational suggestions

In most cases, sentimental phrases are not acceptable for academic writing. Still, sometimes you can draw emotional images to add sincerity.

Conclusion examples for inspiration

Have you read an essay by Angelina Jolie about so-called “wicked” women?

It is about female power and independence.

how to conclude an essay - example


Expert opinion:

We really appreciate this article for revealing such acute matters. And the conclusion is written perfectly. What do we see here?

1. Summing. It is about the significance of a woman’s self-sufficiency and her active life position, since “there is nothing more attractive and enchanting.”

2. Catchphrase. We like this wording about the love of “wicked” women and, especially, of men who accept them. It comes across as a sincere message.

If you need a similar essay, you can order it from our team of skilled writers . 

George Orwell’s essay on an atomic bomb was the reason for numerous discussions all over the world back in the day.

essay by George Orwell


Expert’s opinion:

It is a classic example of a short-and-to-the-point conclusion. It concisely demonstrates the implications of the atomic bomb, which is a restriction of the savagery and establishing some semblance of peace.

What about your good old friends We cannot share the conclusions we have written for clients due to the Privacy Policy. So, why not consider our pages?

good way to conclude your essay

This conclusion does not contain banal words. Apparently “the bottom line” sounds better than “in conclusion.” One can find an answer to the question “Your services are good, so what?” Here we show obvious benefits you get: better grades and ratings.

conclude an essay with a question

As we see, attention is drawn to the academic level of services, which is the main thought of this post. The last question makes readers ponder on their wishes.

Send us your essay to get a review on your conclusion or order essay writing and related services on our website.

What is it all for?

We are sure this post will be helpful for you sooner or later. If you have read it till the end, you might become a “ guru of conclusions .” Having studied the above tips and examples, you can write the ending for your essay in a snap. If you are stuck with this assignment, our writing agency will do it with skill.

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  • How to Write a Great Motivation Essay Paper
  • Why are Veterans Important Essay Example
  • Do Video Games Cause Violence" Essay

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

Check for common mistakes

Use the best grammar checker available to check for common mistakes in your text.

Fix mistakes for free

There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Addition We found that the mixture was effective. , it appeared to have additional effects we had not predicted. indeed, furthermore, moreover, additionally, and, also, both and , not only but also , , in fact
Introduction Several researchers have previously explored this topic. , Smith (2014) examined the effects of … such as, like, particularly, including, as an illustration, for example, for instance, in particular, to illustrate, especially, notably
Reference The solution showed a high degree of absorption. , it is reasonable to conclude that … considering , regarding , in regard to , as for , concerning , the fact that , on the subject of
Similarity It was not possible to establish a correlation between these variables. , the connection between and remains unclear … similarly, in the same way, by the same token, in like manner, equally, likewise
Clarification The patient suffered several side effects, increased appetite, decreased libido, and disordered sleep. that is (to say), namely, specifically, more precisely, in other words

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Conflict The novel does deal with the theme of family. , its central theme is more broadly political … but, however, although, though, equally, by way of contrast, while, on the other hand, (and) yet, whereas, in contrast, (when) in fact, conversely, whereas
Concession Jones (2011) argues that the novel reflects Russian politics of the time. this is correct, other aspects of the text must also be considered. even so, nonetheless, nevertheless, even though, on the other hand, admittedly, despite , notwithstanding , (and) still, although, , regardless (of ), (and) yet, though, granted
Dismissal It remains unclear which of these hypotheses is correct. , it can be inferred that … regardless, either way, whatever the case, in any/either event, in any/either case, at any rate, all the same
Emphasis The chemical is generally thought to have corrosive properties. , several studies have supported this hypothesis. above all, indeed, more/most importantly
Replacement The character of Godfrey is often viewed as selfish, self-absorbed. (or) at least, (or) rather, instead, or (perhaps) even, if not

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Consequence Hitler failed to respond to the British ultimatum, France and the UK declared war on Germany. therefore, because (of ), as a result (of ), for this reason, in view of , as, owing to x, due to (the fact that), since, consequently, in consequence, as a consequence, hence, thus, so (that), accordingly, so much (so) that, under the/such circumstances, if so
Condition We qualified survey responses as positive the participant selected “agree” or “strongly agree.” , results were recorded as negative. (even/only) if/when, on (the) condition that, in the case that, granted (that), provided/providing that, in case, in the event that, as/so long as, unless, given that, being that, inasmuch/insofar as, in that case, in (all) other cases, if so/not, otherwise
Purpose We used accurate recording equipment our results would be as precise as possible. to, in order to/that, for the purpose of, in the hope that, so that, to the end that, lest, with this in mind, so as to, so that, to ensure (that)

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Function Example sentence Transition words and phrases
Enumeration This has historically had several consequences: , the conflict is not given the weight of other conflicts in historical narratives. , its causes are inadequately understood. , … first, second, third…
Initiation , I want to consider the role played by women in this period. in the first place, initially, first of all, to begin with, at first
Continuation , I discuss the way in which the country’s various ethnic minorities were affected by the conflict. subsequently, previously, eventually, next, before , afterwards, after , then
Conclusion , I consider these two themes in combination. to conclude (with), as a final point, eventually, at last, last but not least, finally, lastly
Resumption my main argument, it is clear that … to return/returning to , to resume, at any rate
Summation Patel (2015) comes to a similar conclusion. , the four studies considered here suggest a consensus that the solution is effective. as previously stated/mentioned, in summary, as I have argued, overall, as has been mentioned, to summarize, briefly, given these points, in view of , as has been noted, in conclusion, in sum, altogether, in short

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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