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Hungarian Algorithm for Assignment Problem  Set 1 (Introduction)
 For each row of the matrix, find the smallest element and subtract it from every element in its row.
 Do the same (as step 1) for all columns.
 Cover all zeros in the matrix using minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines.
 Test for Optimality: If the minimum number of covering lines is n, an optimal assignment is possible and we are finished. Else if lines are lesser than n, we haven’t found the optimal assignment, and must proceed to step 5.
 Determine the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract this entry from each uncovered row, and then add it to each covered column. Return to step 3.
Try it before moving to see the solution
Explanation for above simple example:
An example that doesn’t lead to optimal value in first attempt: In the above example, the first check for optimality did give us solution. What if we the number covering lines is less than n.
Time complexity : O(n^3), where n is the number of workers and jobs. This is because the algorithm implements the Hungarian algorithm, which is known to have a time complexity of O(n^3).
Space complexity : O(n^2), where n is the number of workers and jobs. This is because the algorithm uses a 2D cost matrix of size n x n to store the costs of assigning each worker to a job, and additional arrays of size n to store the labels, matches, and auxiliary information needed for the algorithm.
In the next post, we will be discussing implementation of the above algorithm. The implementation requires more steps as we need to find minimum number of lines to cover all 0’s using a program. References: http://www.math.harvard.edu/archive/20_spring_05/handouts/assignment_overheads.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQDZNHwuuOY
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Hungarian Maximum Matching Algorithm
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The Hungarian matching algorithm , also called the KuhnMunkres algorithm, is a \(O\big(V^3\big)\) algorithm that can be used to find maximumweight matchings in bipartite graphs , which is sometimes called the assignment problem . A bipartite graph can easily be represented by an adjacency matrix , where the weights of edges are the entries. Thinking about the graph in terms of an adjacency matrix is useful for the Hungarian algorithm.
A matching corresponds to a choice of 1s in the adjacency matrix, with at most one 1 in each row and in each column.
The Hungarian algorithm solves the following problem:
In a complete bipartite graph \(G\), find the maximumweight matching. (Recall that a maximumweight matching is also a perfect matching.)
This can also be adapted to find the minimumweight matching.
Say you are having a party and you want a musician to perform, a chef to prepare food, and a cleaning service to help clean up after the party. There are three companies that provide each of these three services, but one company can only provide one service at a time (i.e. Company B cannot provide both the cleaners and the chef). You are deciding which company you should purchase each service from in order to minimize the cost of the party. You realize that is an example of the assignment problem, and set out to make a graph out of the following information: \(\quad\) Company\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Cost for Musician\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Cost for Chef\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Cost for Cleaners\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Company A\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $108\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $125\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $150\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Company B\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $150\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $135\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $175\(\quad\) \(\quad\) Company C\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $122\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $148\(\quad\) \(\quad\) $250\(\quad\) Can you model this table as a graph? What are the nodes? What are the edges? Show Answer The nodes are the companies and the services. The edges are weighted by the price.
What are some ways to solve the problem above? Since the table above can be thought of as a \(3 \times 3\) matrix, one could certainly solve this problem using brute force, checking every combination and seeing what yields the lowest price. However, there are \(n!\) combinations to check, and for large \(n\), this method becomes very inefficient very quickly.
The Hungarian Algorithm Using an Adjacency Matrix
The hungarian algorithm using a graph.
With the cost matrix from the example above in mind, the Hungarian algorithm operates on this key idea: if a number is added to or subtracted from all of the entries of any one row or column of a cost matrix, then an optimal assignment for the resulting cost matrix is also an optimal assignment for the original cost matrix.
The Hungarian Method [1] Subtract the smallest entry in each row from all the other entries in the row. This will make the smallest entry in the row now equal to 0. Subtract the smallest entry in each column from all the other entries in the column. This will make the smallest entry in the column now equal to 0. Draw lines through the row and columns that have the 0 entries such that the fewest lines possible are drawn. If there are \(n\) lines drawn, an optimal assignment of zeros is possible and the algorithm is finished. If the number of lines is less than \(n\), then the optimal number of zeroes is not yet reached. Go to the next step. Find the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract this entry from each row that isn’t crossed out, and then add it to each column that is crossed out. Then, go back to Step 3.
Solve for the optimal solution for the example in the introduction using the Hungarian algorithm described above. Here is the initial adjacency matrix: Subtract the smallest value in each row from the other values in the row: Now, subtract the smallest value in each column from all other values in the column: Draw lines through the row and columns that have the 0 entries such that the fewest possible lines are drawn: There are 2 lines drawn, and 2 is less than 3, so there is not yet the optimal number of zeroes. Find the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract this entry from each row that isn’t crossed out, and then add it to each column that is crossed out. Then, go back to Step 3. 2 is the smallest entry. First, subtract from the uncovered rows: Now add to the covered columns: Now go back to step 3, drawing lines through the rows and columns that have 0 entries: There are 3 lines (which is \(n\)), so we are done. The assignment will be where the 0's are in the matrix such that only one 0 per row and column is part of the assignment. Replace the original values: The Hungarian algorithm tells us that it is cheapest to go with the musician from company C, the chef from company B, and the cleaners from company A. We can verify this by brute force. 108 + 135 + 250 = 493 108 + 148 + 175 = 431 150 + 125 + 250 = 525 150 + 148 + 150 = 448 122 + 125 + 175 = 422 122 + 135 + 150 = 407. We can see that 407 is the lowest price and matches the assignment the Hungarian algorithm determined. \(_\square\)
The Hungarian algorithm can also be executed by manipulating the weights of the bipartite graph in order to find a stable, maximum (or minimum) weight matching. This can be done by finding a feasible labeling of a graph that is perfectly matched, where a perfect matching is denoted as every vertex having exactly one edge of the matching.
How do we know that this creates a maximumweight matching?
A feasible labeling on a perfect match returns a maximumweighted matching. Suppose each edge \(e\) in the graph \(G\) connects two vertices, and every vertex \(v\) is covered exactly once. With this, we have the following inequality: \[w(M’) = \sum_{e\ \epsilon\ E} w(e) \leq \sum_{e\ \epsilon\ E } \big(l(e_x) + l(e_y)\big) = \sum_{v\ \epsilon\ V} l(v),\] where \(M’\) is any perfect matching in \(G\) created by a random assignment of vertices, and \(l(x)\) is a numeric label to node \(x\). This means that \(\sum_{v\ \epsilon\ V}\ l(v)\) is an upper bound on the cost of any perfect matching. Now let \(M\) be a perfect match in \(G\), then \[w(M) = \sum_{e\ \epsilon\ E} w(e) = \sum_{v\ \epsilon\ V}\ l(v).\] So \(w(M’) \leq w(M)\) and \(M\) is optimal. \(_\square\)
Start the algorithm by assigning any weight to each individual node in order to form a feasible labeling of the graph \(G\). This labeling will be improved upon by finding augmenting paths for the assignment until the optimal one is found.
A feasible labeling is a labeling such that
\(l(x) + l(y) \geq w(x,y)\ \forall x \in X, y \in Y\), where \(X\) is the set of nodes on one side of the bipartite graph, \(Y\) is the other set of nodes, \(l(x)\) is the label of \(x\), etc., and \(w(x,y)\) is the weight of the edge between \(x\) and \(y\).
A simple feasible labeling is just to label a node with the number of the largest weight from an edge going into the node. This is certain to be a feasible labeling because if \(A\) is a node connected to \(B\), the label of \(A\) plus the label of \(B\) is greater than or equal to the weight \(w(x,y)\) for all \(y\) and \(x\).
A feasible labeling of nodes, where labels are in red [2] .
Imagine there are four soccer players and each can play a few positions in the field. The team manager has quantified their skill level playing each position to make assignments easier.
How can players be assigned to positions in order to maximize the amount of skill points they provide?
The algorithm starts by labeling all nodes on one side of the graph with the maximum weight. This can be done by finding the maximumweighted edge and labeling the adjacent node with it. Additionally, match the graph with those edges. If a node has two maximum edges, don’t connect them.
Although Eva is the best suited to play defense, she can't play defense and mid at the same time!
If the matching is perfect, the algorithm is done as there is a perfect matching of maximum weights. Otherwise, there will be two nodes that are not connected to any other node, like Tom and Defense. If this is the case, begin iterating.
Improve the labeling by finding the nonzero label vertex without a match, and try to find the best assignment for it. Formally, the Hungarian matching algorithm can be executed as defined below:
The Hungarian Algorithm for Graphs [3] Given: the labeling \(l\), an equality graph \(G_l = (V, E_l)\), an initial matching \(M\) in \(G_l\), and an unmatched vertex \(u \in V\) and \(u \notin M\) Augmenting the matching A path is augmenting for \(M\) in \(G_l\) if it alternates between edges in the matching and edges not in the matching, and the first and last vertices are free vertices , or unmatched, in \(M\). We will keep track of a candidate augmenting path starting at the vertex \(u\). If the algorithm finds an unmatched vertex \(v\), add on to the existing augmenting path \(p\) by adding the \(u\) to \(v\) segment. Flip the matching by replacing the edges in \(M\) with the edges in the augmenting path that are not in \(M\) \((\)in other words, the edges in \(E_l  M).\) Improving the labeling \(S \subseteq X\) and \(T \subseteq Y,\) where \(S\) and \(T\) represent the candidate augmenting alternating path between the matching and the edges not in the matching. Let \(N_l(S)\) be the neighbors to each node that is in \(S\) along edges in \(E_l\) such that \(N_l(S) = \{v\forall u \in S: (u,v) \in E_l\}\). If \(N_l(S) = T\), then we cannot increase the size of the alternating path (and therefore can't further augment), so we need to improve the labeling. Let \(\delta_l\) be the minimum of \(l(u) + l(v)  w(u,v)\) over all of the \(u \in S\) and \(v \notin T\). Improve the labeling \(l\) to \(l'\): If \(r \in S,\) then \(l'(r) = l(r)  \delta_l,\) If \(r \in T,\) then \(l'(r) = l(r) + \delta_l.\) If \(r \notin S\) and \(r \notin T,\) then \(l'(r) = l(r).\) \(l'\) is a valid labeling and \(E_l \subset E_{l'}.\) Putting it all together: The Hungarian Algorithm Start with some matching \(M\), a valid labeling \(l\), where \(l\) is defined as the labelling \(\forall x \in X, y \in Y l(y) = 0, l(x) = \text{ max}_{y \in Y}(w\big(x, y)\big)\). Do these steps until a perfect matching is found \((\)when \(M\) is perfect\():\) (a) Look for an augmenting path in \(M.\) (b) If an augmenting path does not exist, improve the labeling and then go back to step (a).
Each step will increase the size of the matching \(M\) or it will increase the size of the set of labeled edges, \(E_l\). This means that the process will eventually terminate since there are only so many edges in the graph \(G\). [4]
When the process terminates, \(M\) will be a perfect matching. By the KuhnMunkres theorem , this means that the matching is a maximumweight matching.
The algorithm defined above can be implemented in the soccer scenario. First, the conflicting node is identified, implying that there is an alternating tree that must be reconfigured.
There is an alternating path between defense, Eva, mid, and Tom.
To find the best appropriate node, find the minimum \(\delta_l\), as defined in step 4 above, where \(l_u\) is the label for player \(u,\) \(l_v\) is the label for position \(v,\) and \(w_{u, v}\) is the weight on that edge.
The \(\delta_l\) of each unmatched node is computed, where the minimum is found to be a value of 2, between Tom playing mid \((8 + 0 – 6 = 2).\)
The labels are then augmented and the new edges are graphed in the example. Notice that defense and mid went down by 2 points, whereas Eva’s skillset got back two points. However, this is expected as Eva can't play in both positions at once.
Augmenting path leads to relabeling of nodes, which gives rise to the maximumweighted path.
These new edges complete the perfect matching of the graph, which implies that a maximumweighted graph has been found and the algorithm can terminate.
The complexity of the algorithm will be analyzed using the graphbased technique as a reference, yet the result is the same as for the matrixbased one.
Algorithm analysis [3] At each \(a\) or \(b\) step, the algorithm adds one edge to the matching and this happens \(O\big(V\big)\) times. It takes \(O\big(V\big)\) time to find the right vertex for the augmenting (if there is one at all), and it is \(O\big(V\big)\) time to flip the matching. Improving the labeling takes \(O\big(V\big)\) time to find \(\delta_l\) and to update the labelling accordingly. We might have to improve the labeling up to \(O\big(V\big)\) times if there is no augmenting path. This makes for a total of \(O\big(V^2\big)\) time. In all, there are \(O\big(V\big)\) iterations each taking \(O\big(V\big)\) work, leading to a total running time of \(O\big(V^3\big)\).
 Matching Algorithms
 Bruff, D. The Assignment Problem and the Hungarian Method . Retrieved June 26, 2016, from http://www.math.harvard.edu/archive/20_spring_05/handouts/assignment_overheads.pdf
 Golin, M. Bipartite Matching &amp; the Hungarian Method . Retrieved Retrieved June 26th, 2016, from http://www.cse.ust.hk/~golin/COMP572/Notes/Matching.pdf
 Grinman, A. The Hungarian Algorithm for Weighted Bipartite Graphs . Retrieved June 26, 2016, from http://math.mit.edu/~rpeng/18434/hungarianAlgorithm.pdf
 Golin, M. Bipartite Matching & the Hungarian Method . Retrieved June 26, 2016, from http://www.cse.ust.hk/~golin/COMP572/Notes/Matching.pdf
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Linear assignment with nonperfect matching
Dec 8, 2020
The linear assignment problem (or simply assignment problem) is the problem of finding a matching between two sets that minimizes the sum of pairwise assignment costs. This can be expressed as finding a matching (or independent edge set) in a bipartite graph \(G = (U, V, E)\) that minimizes the sum of edge weights. The edge weights may be positive or negative and the bipartite graph does not need to be complete : if there is no edge between two vertices then they cannot be associated. Note that a maximumweight assignment can be obtained by negating the weights and finding a minimumweight assignment.
The simplest form of the assignment problem assumes that the bipartite graph is balanced (the two sets of vertices are the same size) and that there exists a perfect matching (in which every vertex has a match). Let \(n\) be the number of elements in each set and let \(C\) be a square matrix of size \(n \times n\) that contains the edge weights. Missing edges are represented by \(\infty\), such that \(C_{i j} < \infty \Leftrightarrow (i, j) \in E\). The assignment problem can then be clearly expressed as an integer linear program : (note that the problem is not actually solved using a generalpurpose ILP solver, it is just a convenient framework in which to express the problem)
The constraint that the sum of each row and column is equal to one ensures that each element has exactly one match. However, what happens when the graph is not balanced or does not contain a perfect matching? We cannot enforce the sums to be equal to one. Which problem should be solved?
I recommend reading the tech report “On MinimumCost Assignments in Unbalanced Bipartite Graphs” by Lyle Ramshaw and Robert E. Tarjan. I will summarize some of the main points here.
Let us consider a more general, rectangular problem of size \(r \times n\) and assume (without loss of generality) that \(r \le n\). If \(r = n\) then the problem is balanced, if \(r < n\) it is unbalanced.
Clearly an unbalanced probem cannot have a perfect matching, since there will be at least \(n  r\) unmatched elements in the larger set. However, it may be possible to find a matching in which every vertex in the smaller set has a match. This is referred to as a onesided perfect matching and the optimization problem can be expressed:
The inequality constraints enforce that each element in the smaller set has exactly one match while each element in the larger set has at most one match. Ramshaw and Tarjan outline a method to reduce from an unbalanced problem to a balanced problem while preserving sparsity. A simple alternative is to add \(n  r\) rows of zeros and then exclude these edges from the eventual solution. Most libraries for the assignment problem solve either the balanced or unbalanced version of this problem (see the later section).
However, whether balanced or unbalanced, it may still occur that the constraint set is infeasible, meaning that there does not exist a (onesided) perfect matching. Let \(\nu(W) \le r\) denote the size of the largest matching in the graph. If \(\nu(W) < r\), then there does not exist a onesided perfect matching and all possible matchings are imperfect.
Ramshaw and Tarjan actually outline three different versions of the assignment problem:
 perfect matching
 imperfect matching
 minimumweight matching
The imperfect matching problem is to find the matching of size \(\nu(G)\) with the minimum cost. The minimumweight matching problem is to find the matching of any size with the minimum cost. If \(\nu(G) = r = n\), then perfect and imperfect matching coincide. Otherwise, when \(\nu(G) < n\), there does not exist a perfect matching.
The imperfect matching problem can be expressed
and the minimumweight matching problem can be expressed
Ramshaw and Tarjan show that both of these problems can be reduced to finding a perfect matching in a balanced graph. When using linear assignment, we should carefully consider which of the three problems we actually want to solve.
In support of minimumweight matching
The minimumweight matching problem is often the most natural choice, since it puts no constraint on the size of the matching. To illustrate the difference between this and the other problems, consider the following balanced problem:
The solution to perfect (or imperfect) matching is to choose 1 and 2 for a total score of 3 and a cardinality of 2. The solution to minimumweight matching is to choose 4 with a cardinality of 1.
Minimumweight matching will never select an edge with positive cost: it is better to simply leave it unselected. Edges with zero cost have no impact.
It may be more natural to consider the maximization of positive weights than the minimization of negative costs.
Mincost imperfect matching with positive weights
Be careful when solving imperfect matching problems with positive edge weights! I would avoid this situation altogether due to the tension that exists between maximizing the number of matches and minimizing the sum of (positive) costs. This may result in the unexpected behaviour that adding an edge to the graph increases the minimum cost. For example, compare the following two problems:
Quick and dirty transformations
Ramshaw and Tarjan above describes some clever techniques to transform imperfect and minimumweight matching problems into perfect matching problems while preserving sparsity. Here we describe some quick and dirty alternatives.
We can always transform an unbalanced (and therefore imperfect) problem into a balanced problem by adding \(n  r\) rows of zeros. The resulting balanced graph has a perfect matching if and only if the original unbalanced graph had a matching of size \(r\) (in which every vertex in the smaller set is matched).
If we need to solve imperfect matching but we only have a solver for perfect matching, it suffices to replace the infinite edge weights with a large, finite cost (e.g. larger than the total absolute value of all weights). The resulting graph must contain a perfect matching since it is a complete bipartite graph, and each highcost edge is worth more than all original edges combined. The highcost edges can be excluded at the end.
Most existing packages either solve perfect, onesided perfect or imperfect matching. To use one of these solvers for the minimumweight matching problem, it suffices to replace all positive edges (including infinite edges) with zero. If using a solver that leverages sparsity, it is better to use the technique described by Ramshaw and Tarjan.
Python packages
The table below outlines the different behaviour of several popular packages. The code that was used to determine the behaviour is available as a Jupyter notebook .
Module  Function  Behaviour 

Requires that problem is balanced (or else raises an exception). Requires that a perfect matching exists (or else returns infinite cost).  
Supports unbalanced problems (with ; although check issues , ). Requires that a onesided perfect matching exists (or else returns infinite cost).  
Supports unbalanced problems. Requires that a onesided perfect matching exists (or else raises an exception).  
Supports unbalanced problems. Supports imperfect matching.  
Requires problem is balanced. Requires that a perfect matching exists (or else raises an exception). Requires that costs are integervalued. 
Assignment Problem: Maximization
There are problems where certain facilities have to be assigned to a number of jobs, so as to maximize the overall performance of the assignment.
The Hungarian Method can also solve such assignment problems , as it is easy to obtain an equivalent minimization problem by converting every number in the matrix to an opportunity loss.
The conversion is accomplished by subtracting all the elements of the given matrix from the highest element. It turns out that minimizing opportunity loss produces the same assignment solution as the original maximization problem.
 Unbalanced Assignment Problem
 Multiple Optimal Solutions
Example: Maximization In An Assignment Problem
At the head office of www.universalteacherpublications.com there are five registration counters. Five persons are available for service.
Person  

Counter  A  B  C  D  E 
1  30  37  40  28  40 
2  40  24  27  21  36 
3  40  32  33  30  35 
4  25  38  40  36  36 
5  29  62  41  34  39 
How should the counters be assigned to persons so as to maximize the profit ?
Here, the highest value is 62. So we subtract each value from 62. The conversion is shown in the following table.
On small screens, scroll horizontally to view full calculation
Person  

Counter  A  B  C  D  E 
1  32  25  22  34  22 
2  22  38  35  41  26 
3  22  30  29  32  27 
4  37  24  22  26  26 
5  33  0  21  28  23 
Now the above problem can be easily solved by Hungarian method . After applying steps 1 to 3 of the Hungarian method, we get the following matrix.
Person  

Counter  A  B  C  D  E 
1  10  3  8  
2  16  13  15  4  
3  8  7  6  5  
4  15  2  4  
5  33  21  24  23 
Draw the minimum number of vertical and horizontal lines necessary to cover all the zeros in the reduced matrix.
Select the smallest element from all the uncovered elements, i.e., 4. Subtract this element from all the uncovered elements and add it to the elements, which lie at the intersection of two lines. Thus, we obtain another reduced matrix for fresh assignment. Repeating step 3, we obtain a solution which is shown in the following table.
Final Table: Maximization Problem
Use Horizontal Scrollbar to View Full Table Calculation
Person  

Counter  A  B  C  D  E 
1  14  3  8  
2  12  9  11  
3  4  3  2  1  
4  19  2  4  
5  37  21  24  23 
The total cost of assignment = 1C + 2E + 3A + 4D + 5B
Substituting values from original table: 40 + 36 + 40 + 36 + 62 = 214.
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Algorithms: The Assignment Problem
One of the interesting things about studying optimization is that the techniques show up in a lot of different areas. The “assignment problem” is one that can be solved using simple techniques, at least for small problem sizes, and is easy to see how it could be applied to the real world.
Assignment Problem
Pretend for a moment that you are writing software for a famous ride sharing application. In a crowded environment, you might have multiple prospective customers that are requesting service at the same time, and nearby you have multiple drivers that can take them where they need to go. You want to assign the drivers to the customers in a way that minimizes customer wait time (so you keep the customers happy) and driver empty time (so you keep the drivers happy).
The assignment problem is designed for exactly this purpose. We start with m agents and n tasks. We make the rule that every agent has to be assigned to a task. For each agenttask pair, we figure out a cost associated to have that agent perform that task. We then figure out which assignment of agents to tasks minimizes the total cost.
Of course, it may be true that m != n , but that’s OK. If there are too many tasks, we can make up a “dummy” agent that is more expensive than any of the others. This will ensure that the least desirable task will be left to the dummy agent, and we can remove that from the solution. Or, if there are too many agents, we can make up a “dummy” task that is free for any agent. This will ensure that the agent with the highest true cost will get the dummy task, and will be idle.
If that last paragraph was a little dense, don’t worry; there’s an example coming that will help show how it works.
There are special algorithms for solving assignment problems, but one thing that’s nice about them is that a generalpurpose solver can handle them too. Below is an example, but first it will help to cover a few concepts that we’ll be using.
Optimization Problems
Up above, we talked about making “rules” and minimizing costs. The usual name for this is optimization. An optimization problem is one where we have an “objective function” (which tells us what our goals are) and one or more “constraint functions” (which tell us what the rules are). The classic example is a factory that can make both “widgets” and “gadgets”. Each “widget” and “gadget” earns a certain amount of profit, but it also uses up raw material and time on the factory’s machines. The optimization problem is to determine exactly how many “widgets” and how many “gadgets” to make to maximize profit (the objective) while fitting within the material and time available (the constraints).
If we were to write this simple optimization problem out, it might look like this:
In this case, we have two variables: g for the number of gadgets we make and w for the number of widgets we make. We also have three constraints that we have to meet. Note that they are inequalities; we might not use all the available material or time in our optimal solution.
Just to unpack this a little: in English, the above is saying that we make 45 dollars / euros / quatloos per gadget we make. However, to make a gadget needs 120 lbs of raw material 1, 80 lbs of raw material 2, and 3.8 hours of machine time. So there is a limit on how many gadgets we can make, and it might be a better use of resources to balance gadgets with widgets.
Of course, real optimization problems have many more than two variables and many constraint functions, making them much harder to solve. The easiest kind of optimization problem to solve is linear, and fortunately, the assignment problem is linear.
Linear Programming
A linear program is a kind of optimization problem where both the objective function and the constraint functions are linear. (OK, that definition was a little selfreferential.) We can have as many variables as we want, and as many constraint functions as we want, but none of the variables can have exponents in any of the functions. This limitation allows us to apply very efficient mathematical approaches to solve the problem, even for very large problems.
We can state the assignment problem as a linear programming problem. First, we choose to make “i” represent each of our agents (drivers) and “j” to represent each of our tasks (customers). Now, to write a problem like this, we need variables. The best approach is to use “indicator” variables, where xij = 1 means “driver i picks up customer j” and xij = 0 means “driver i does not pick up customer j”.
We wind up with:
This is a compact mathematical way to describe the problem, so again let me put it in English.
First, we need to figure out the cost of having each driver pick up each customer. Then, we can calculate the total cost for any scenario by just adding up the costs for the assignments we pick. For any assignment we don’t pick, xij will equal zero, so that term will just drop out of the sum.
Of course, the way we set up the objective function, the cheapest solution is for no drivers to pick up any customers. That’s not a very good business model. So we need a constraint to show that we want to have a driver assigned to every customer. At the same time, we can’t have a driver assigned to mutiple customers. So we need a constraint for that too. That leads us to the two constraints in the problem. The first just says, if you add up all the assignments for a given driver, you want the total number of assignments for that driver to be exactly one. The second constraint says, if you add up all the assignments to a given customer, you want the total number of drivers assigned to the customer to be one. If you have both of these, then each driver is assigned to exactly one customer, and the customers and drivers are happy. If you do it in a way that minimizes costs, then the business is happy too.
Solving with Octave and GLPK
The GNU Linear Programming Kit is a library that solves exactly these kinds of problems. It’s easy to set up the objective and constraints using GNU Octave and pass these over to GLPK for a solution.
Given some madeup sample data, the program looks like this:
Start with the definition of “c”, the cost information. For this example, I chose to have four drivers and three customers. There are sixteen numbers there; the first four are the cost of each driver to get the first customer, the next four are for the second customer, and the next four are for the third customer. Because we have an extra driver, we add a “dummy” customer at the end that is zero cost. This represents one of the drivers being idle.
The next definition is “b”, the righthand side of our constraints. There are eight constraints, one for each of the drivers, and one for each of the customers (including the dummy). For each constraint, the righthand side is 1.
The big block in the middle defines our constraint matrix “a”. This is the most challenging part of taking the mathematical definition and putting it into a form that is usable by GLPK; we have to expand out each constraint. Fortunately, in these kinds of cases, we tend to get pretty patterns that help us know we’re on the right track.
The first line in “a” says that the first customer needs a driver. To see why, remember that in our cost information, the first four numbers are the cost for each driver to get the first customer. With this constraint, we are requiring that one of those four costs be included and therefore that a driver is “selected” for the first customer. The other lines in “a” work similarly; the last four ensure that each driver has an assignment.
Note that the number of rows in “a” matches the number of items in “b”, and the number of columns in “a” matches the number of items in “c”. This is important; GLPK won’t run if this is not true (and our problem isn’t stated right in any case).
Compared to the above, the last few lines are easy.
 “lb” gives the lower bound for each variable.
 “ub” gives the upper bound.
 “ctype” tells GLPK that each constraint is an equality (“strict” as opposed to providing a lower or upper bound).
 “vartype” tells GLPK that these variables are all integers (can’t have half a driver showing up).
 “s” tells GLPK that we want to minimize our costs, not maximize them.
We push all that through a function call to GLPK, and what comes back are two values (along with some other stuff I’ll exclude for clarity):
The first item tells us that our best solution takes 27 minutes, or dollars, or whatever unit we used for cost. The second item tells us the assignments we got. (Note for pedants: I transposed this output to save space.)
This output tells us that customer 1 gets driver 2, customer 2 gets driver 3, customer 3 gets driver 4, and driver 1 is idle. If you look back at the cost data, you can see this makes sense, because driver 1 had some of the most expensive times to the three customers. You can also see that it managed to pick the least expensive pairing for each customer. (Of course, if I had done a better job making up cost data, it might not have picked the least expensive pairing in all cases, because a suboptimal individual pairing might still lead to an overall optimal solution. But this is a toy example.)
Of course, for a real application, we would have to take into consideration many other factors, such as the passage of time. Rather than knowing all of our customers and drivers up front, we would have customers and drivers continually showing up and being assigned. But I hope this simple example has revealed some of the concepts behind optimization and linear programming and the kinds of realworld problems that can be solved.
Hungarian Method
The Hungarian method is a computational optimization technique that addresses the assignment problem in polynomial time and foreshadows following primaldual alternatives. In 1955, Harold Kuhn used the term “Hungarian method” to honour two Hungarian mathematicians, Dénes Kőnig and Jenő Egerváry. Let’s go through the steps of the Hungarian method with the help of a solved example.
Hungarian Method to Solve Assignment Problems
The Hungarian method is a simple way to solve assignment problems. Let us first discuss the assignment problems before moving on to learning the Hungarian method.
What is an Assignment Problem?
A transportation problem is a type of assignment problem. The goal is to allocate an equal amount of resources to the same number of activities. As a result, the overall cost of allocation is minimised or the total profit is maximised.
Because available resources such as workers, machines, and other resources have varying degrees of efficiency for executing different activities, and hence the cost, profit, or loss of conducting such activities varies.
Assume we have ‘n’ jobs to do on ‘m’ machines (i.e., one job to one machine). Our goal is to assign jobs to machines for the least amount of money possible (or maximum profit). Based on the notion that each machine can accomplish each task, but at variable levels of efficiency.
Hungarian Method Steps
Check to see if the number of rows and columns are equal; if they are, the assignment problem is considered to be balanced. Then go to step 1. If it is not balanced, it should be balanced before the algorithm is applied.
Step 1 – In the given cost matrix, subtract the least cost element of each row from all the entries in that row. Make sure that each row has at least one zero.
Step 2 – In the resultant cost matrix produced in step 1, subtract the least cost element in each column from all the components in that column, ensuring that each column contains at least one zero.
Step 3 – Assign zeros
 Analyse the rows one by one until you find a row with precisely one unmarked zero. Encircle this lonely unmarked zero and assign it a task. All other zeros in the column of this circular zero should be crossed out because they will not be used in any future assignments. Continue in this manner until you’ve gone through all of the rows.
 Examine the columns one by one until you find one with precisely one unmarked zero. Encircle this single unmarked zero and cross any other zero in its row to make an assignment to it. Continue until you’ve gone through all of the columns.
Step 4 – Perform the Optimal Test
 The present assignment is optimal if each row and column has exactly one encircled zero.
 The present assignment is not optimal if at least one row or column is missing an assignment (i.e., if at least one row or column is missing one encircled zero). Continue to step 5. Subtract the least cost element from all the entries in each column of the final cost matrix created in step 1 and ensure that each column has at least one zero.
Step 5 – Draw the least number of straight lines to cover all of the zeros as follows:
(a) Highlight the rows that aren’t assigned.
(b) Label the columns with zeros in marked rows (if they haven’t already been marked).
(c) Highlight the rows that have assignments in indicated columns (if they haven’t previously been marked).
(d) Continue with (b) and (c) until no further marking is needed.
(f) Simply draw the lines through all rows and columns that are not marked. If the number of these lines equals the order of the matrix, then the solution is optimal; otherwise, it is not.
Step 6 – Find the lowest cost factor that is not covered by the straight lines. Subtract this leastcost component from all the uncovered elements and add it to all the elements that are at the intersection of these straight lines, but leave the rest of the elements alone.
Step 7 – Continue with steps 1 – 6 until you’ve found the highest suitable assignment.


Hungarian Method Example
Use the Hungarian method to solve the given assignment problem stated in the table. The entries in the matrix represent each man’s processing time in hours.
\(\begin{array}{l}\begin{bmatrix} & I & II & III & IV & V \\1 & 20 & 15 & 18 & 20 & 25 \\2 & 18 & 20 & 12 & 14 & 15 \\3 & 21 & 23 & 25 & 27 & 25 \\4 & 17 & 18 & 21 & 23 & 20 \\5 & 18 & 18 & 16 & 19 & 20 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array} \)
With 5 jobs and 5 men, the stated problem is balanced.
\(\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}20 & 15 & 18 & 20 & 25 \\18 & 20 & 12 & 14 & 15 \\21 & 23 & 25 & 27 & 25 \\17 & 18 & 21 & 23 & 20 \\18 & 18 & 16 & 19 & 20 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array} \)
Subtract the lowest cost element in each row from all of the elements in the given cost matrix’s row. Make sure that each row has at least one zero.
\(\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}5 & 0 & 3 & 5 & 10 \\6 & 8 & 0 & 2 & 3 \\0 & 2 & 4 & 6 & 4 \\0 & 1 & 4 & 6 & 3 \\2 & 2 & 0 & 3 & 4 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array} \)
Subtract the least cost element in each Column from all of the components in the given cost matrix’s Column. Check to see if each column has at least one zero.
\(\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}5 & 0 & 3 & 3 & 7 \\6 & 8 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\0 & 2 & 4 & 4 & 1 \\0 & 1 & 4 & 4 & 0 \\2 & 2 & 0 & 1 & 1 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array} \)
When the zeros are assigned, we get the following:
The present assignment is optimal because each row and column contain precisely one encircled zero.
Where 1 to II, 2 to IV, 3 to I, 4 to V, and 5 to III are the best assignments.
Hence, z = 15 + 14 + 21 + 20 + 16 = 86 hours is the optimal time.
Practice Question on Hungarian Method
Use the Hungarian method to solve the following assignment problem shown in table. The matrix entries represent the time it takes for each job to be processed by each machine in hours.
\(\begin{array}{l}\begin{bmatrix}J/M & I & II & III & IV & V \\1 & 9 & 22 & 58 & 11 & 19 \\2 & 43 & 78 & 72 & 50 & 63 \\3 & 41 & 28 & 91 & 37 & 45 \\4 & 74 & 42 & 27 & 49 & 39 \\5 & 36 & 11 & 57 & 22 & 25 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array} \)
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Frequently Asked Questions on Hungarian Method
What is hungarian method.
The Hungarian method is defined as a combinatorial optimization technique that solves the assignment problems in polynomial time and foreshadowed subsequent primal–dual approaches.
What are the steps involved in Hungarian method?
The following is a quick overview of the Hungarian method: Step 1: Subtract the row minima. Step 2: Subtract the column minimums. Step 3: Use a limited number of lines to cover all zeros. Step 4: Add some more zeros to the equation.
What is the purpose of the Hungarian method?
When workers are assigned to certain activities based on cost, the Hungarian method is beneficial for identifying minimum costs.
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Solved assignment problems – algorithms and flowcharts.
An algorithm is defined as sequence of steps to solve a problem (task) . The steps must be finite, well defined and unambiguous. Writing algorithm requires some thinking. Algorithm can also be defined as a plan to solve a problem and represents its logic. Note that an algorithm is of no use if it does not help us arrive at the desired solution
Algorithm characteristics
 It should have finite number of steps . No one can be expected to execute infinite number of steps.
 The steps must be in order and simple
 Each step should be defined clearly i.e. without unambiguity (without doubtfulness)
 Must include all required information
 Should exhibit at least one output
A flowchart is a pictorial (graphical) representation of an algorithm . A flowchart is drawn using different kinds of symbols. A symbol is used for a specific purpose. Each symbol has name.
An algorithm is defined as .  .  Set of instructions. Instruction is a command to the computer to do some task. 
Algorithm can also be defined as a plan to solve a problem and represents its logic.  A picture is worth of 1000 words. We can understand more from picture than words.  Implementation of Algorithm or flowchart 
Different algorithms have different performance characteristics to solve the same problem. Some algorithms are fast. Some are slow. Some occupy more memory space. Some occupy less memory space. Some are complex and some algorithms are simple.
Logically algorithm, flowchart and program are the same.
Q1 . Create a program to compute the volume of a sphere. Use the formula: V = (4/3) *pi*r 3 where pi is equal to 3.1416 approximately. The r is the radius of sphere. Display the result.
Q2 . Write a program the converts the input Celsius degree into its equivalent Fahrenheit degree. Use the formula: F = (9/5) *C+32.
Q3 . Write a program that converts the input dollar to its peso exchange rate equivalent. Assume that the present exchange rate is 51.50 pesos against the dollar. Then display the peso equivalent exchange rate.
Q4 . Write a program that converts an input inch(es) into its equivalent centimeters. Take note that one inch is equivalent to 2.54cms.
Q5 . Write a program that exchanges the value of two variables: x and y. The output must be: the value of variable y will become the value of variable x, and vice versa.
Q6 . Design a program to find the circumference of a circle. Use the formula: C=2πr, where π is approximately equivalent 3.1416.
Q7 . Write a program that takes as input the purchase price of an item (P), its expected number of years of service (Y) and its expected salvage value (S). Then outputs the yearly depreciation for the item (D). Use the formula: D = (P – S) Y.
Q8 . Swapping of 2 variables without using temporary (or 3 rd variable).
Q9 . Determine the most economical quantity to be stocked for each product that a manufacturing company has in its inventory: This quantity, called economic order quantity (EOQ) is calculated as follows: EOQ=2rs/1 where: R= total yearly production requirement S=set up cost per order I=inventory carrying cost per unit.
Q10 . Write a program to compute the radius of a circle. Derive your formula from the given equation: A=πr², then display the output.
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Hey Engineers, welcome to the awardwinning blog,Engineers Tutor. I'm Gopal Krishna. a professional engineer & blogger from Andhra Pradesh, India. Notes and Video Materials for Engineering in Electronics, Communications and Computer Science subjects are added. "A blog to support Electronics, Electrical communication and computer students".
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Index Assignment problem Hungarian algorithm Solve online
The Hungarian algorithm: An example
We consider an example where four jobs (J1, J2, J3, and J4) need to be executed by four workers (W1, W2, W3, and W4), one job per worker. The matrix below shows the cost of assigning a certain worker to a certain job. The objective is to minimize the total cost of the assignment.
82  83  69  92  
77  37  49  92  
11  69  5  86  
8  9  98  23 
Below we will explain the Hungarian algorithm using this example. Note that a general description of the algorithm can be found here .
Step 1: Subtract row minima
We start with subtracting the row minimum from each row. The smallest element in the first row is, for example, 69. Therefore, we substract 69 from each element in the first row. The resulting matrix is:
13  14  0  23  (69)  
40  0  12  55  (37)  
6  64  0  81  (5)  
0  1  90  15  (8) 
Step 2: Subtract column minima
Similarly, we subtract the column minimum from each column, giving the following matrix:
13  14  0  8  
40  0  12  40  
6  64  0  66  
0  1  90  0  
(15) 
Step 3: Cover all zeros with a minimum number of lines
We will now determine the minimum number of lines (horizontal or vertical) that are required to cover all zeros in the matrix. All zeros can be covered using 3 lines:
13  14  0  8  
40  0  12  40  
6  64  0  66  
0  1  90  0  
Step 4: Create additional zeros
First, we find that the smallest uncovered number is 6. We subtract this number from all uncovered elements and add it to all elements that are covered twice. This results in the following matrix:
7  8  0  2  
40  0  18  40  
0  58  0  60  
0  1  96  0 
Now we return to Step 3.
Again, We determine the minimum number of lines required to cover all zeros in the matrix. Now there are 4 lines required:
7  8  0  2  
40  0  18  40  
0  58  0  60  
0  1  96  0 
Because the number of lines required (4) equals the size of the matrix ( n =4), an optimal assignment exists among the zeros in the matrix. Therefore, the algorithm stops.
The optimal assignment
The following zeros cover an optimal assignment:
This corresponds to the following optimal assignment in the original cost matrix:
Thus, worker 1 should perform job 3, worker 2 job 2, worker 3 job 1, and worker 4 should perform job 4. The total cost of this optimal assignment is to 69 + 37 + 11 + 23 = 140.
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Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations  Operations Research
After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations.
Meaning of Assignment Problem:
An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total cost or maximize total profit of allocation.
The problem of assignment arises because available resources such as men, machines etc. have varying degrees of efficiency for performing different activities, therefore, cost, profit or loss of performing the different activities is different.
Thus, the problem is “How should the assignments be made so as to optimize the given objective”. Some of the problem where the assignment technique may be useful are assignment of workers to machines, salesman to different sales areas.
Definition of Assignment Problem:
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Suppose there are n jobs to be performed and n persons are available for doing these jobs. Assume that each person can do each job at a term, though with varying degree of efficiency, let c ij be the cost if the ith person is assigned to the jth job. The problem is to find an assignment (which job should be assigned to which person one onone basis) So that the total cost of performing all jobs is minimum, problem of this kind are known as assignment problem.
The assignment problem can be stated in the form of n x n cost matrix C real members as given in the following table:
Step :4 If each row and each column contains exactly one assignment, then the solution is optimal.
Example 10.7
Solve the following assignment problem. Cell values represent cost of assigning job A, B, C and D to the machines I, II, III and IV.
Here the number of rows and columns are equal.
∴ The given assignment problem is balanced. Now let us find the solution.
Step 1: Select a smallest element in each row and subtract this from all the elements in its row.
Look for atleast one zero in each row and each column.Otherwise go to step 2.
Step 2: Select the smallest element in each column and subtract this from all the elements in its column.
Since each row and column contains atleast one zero, assignments can be made.
Step 3 (Assignment):
Thus all the four assignments have been made. The optimal assignment schedule and total cost is
The optimal assignment (minimum) cost
Example 10.8
Consider the problem of assigning five jobs to five persons. The assignment costs are given as follows. Determine the optimum assignment schedule.
∴ The given assignment problem is balanced.
Now let us find the solution.
The cost matrix of the given assignment problem is
Column 3 contains no zero. Go to Step 2.
Thus all the five assignments have been made. The Optimal assignment schedule and total cost is
The optimal assignment (minimum) cost = ` 9
Example 10.9
Solve the following assignment problem.
Since the number of columns is less than the number of rows, given assignment problem is unbalanced one. To balance it , introduce a dummy column with all the entries zero. The revised assignment problem is
Here only 3 tasks can be assigned to 3 men.
Step 1: is not necessary, since each row contains zero entry. Go to Step 2.
Step 3 (Assignment) :
Since each row and each columncontains exactly one assignment,all the three men have been assigned a task. But task S is not assigned to any Man. The optimal assignment schedule and total cost is
The optimal assignment (minimum) cost = ₹ 35
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The formal definition of the assignment problem (or linear assignment problem) is . Given two sets, A and T, together with a weight function C : A × T → R.Find a bijection f : A → T such that the cost function: (, ())is minimized. Usually the weight function is viewed as a square realvalued matrix C, so that the cost function is written down as: , The problem is "linear" because the cost ...
Step 3: Cover all zeroes with minimum number of. horizontal and vertical lines. Step 4: Since we need 3 lines to cover all zeroes, we have found the optimal assignment. 2500 4000 3500. 4000 6000 3500. 2000 4000 2500. So the optimal cost is 4000 + 3500 + 2000 = 9500. An example that doesn't lead to optimal value in first attempt: In the above ...
This problem is known as the assignment problem. The assignment problem is a special case of the transportation problem, which in turn is a special case of the mincost flow problem, so it can be solved using algorithms that solve the more general cases. Also, our problem is a special case of binary integer linear programming problem (which is ...
Solve an assignment problem online. Fill in the cost matrix of an assignment problem and click on 'Solve'. The optimal assignment will be determined and a step by step explanation of the hungarian algorithm will be given. Fill in the cost matrix ():
The Hungarian matching algorithm, also called the KuhnMunkres algorithm, is a \(O\big(V^3\big)\) algorithm that can be used to find maximumweight matchings in bipartite graphs, which is sometimes called the assignment problem.A bipartite graph can easily be represented by an adjacency matrix, where the weights of edges are the entries.Thinking about the graph in terms of an adjacency ...
Linear assignment with nonperfect matching. Dec 8, 2020. The linear assignment problem (or simply assignment problem) is the problem of finding a matching between two sets that minimizes the sum of pairwise assignment costs. This can be expressed as finding a matching (or independent edge set) in a bipartite graph \(G = (U, V, E)\) that minimizes the sum of edge weights.
The Hungarian Method can also solve such assignment problems, as it is easy to obtain an equivalent minimization problem by converting every number in the matrix to an opportunity loss. The conversion is accomplished by subtracting all the elements of the given matrix from the highest element. It turns out that minimizing opportunity loss ...
One of the interesting things about studying optimization is that the techniques show up in a lot of different areas. The "assignment problem" is one that can be solved using simple techniques, at least for small problem sizes, and is easy to see how it could be applied to the real world. Assignment Problem Pretend for a moment that you are writing software for a famous ride sharing ...
Exercise 17 shows that the number of iterations is O(n2). To compare the Hungarian method to the exhaustive search method mentioned above, suppose that each iteration can be performed in one second. Then an assignment problem with n = 30 can be solved in at most 302 = 900 seconds, or 15 minutes of computer time.
The Hungarian method is a computational optimization technique that addresses the assignment problem in polynomial time and foreshadows following primaldual alternatives. In 1955, Harold Kuhn used the term "Hungarian method" to honour two Hungarian mathematicians, Dénes Kőnig and Jenő Egerváry. Let's go through the steps of the Hungarian method with the help of a solved example.
Can solve via reduction to max flow. Flow. During FordFulkerson, all capacities and flows are 0/1. Flow corresponds to edges in a matching M. ... Equivalent Assignment Problem c(x, y) 00312 01015 43330 00110 12204 cp(x, y) 3891510 41071614 913111910 813122013 175119 8 13 11 19 13 5 4 3 0 8 9 + 8  13 10
Program. An algorithm is defined as sequence of steps to solve a problem (task). A flowchart is pictorial (graphical) representation of an algorithm. Set of instructions. Instruction is a command to the computer to do some task. Algorithm can also be defined as a plan to solve a problem and represents its logic. A picture is worth of 1000 words.
assignment algorithm that can accept an R×R matrix. The given NXN cost matrix is partitioned into S 2 RXR (sufficiently small) submatrices. Each one of the R XR submatrices is individually solved for the true optimal assignment value. The assignment value ~ c,x, associated with
The Hungarian method is a combinatorial optimization algorithm that solves the assignment problem in polynomial time and which anticipated later primaldual methods.It was developed and published in 1955 by Harold Kuhn, who gave it the name "Hungarian method" because the algorithm was largely based on the earlier works of two Hungarian mathematicians, Dénes Kőnig and Jenő Egerváry.
These assignments are made in the following order: x 41 = 1, x 33 = 1, x 42 = 0, x 12 = 1, x 24 = 1, x 14 = 0, and x 13 = 0. Notice that a standard feature of any basic feasible solution in an assignment problem is that it is degenerate. Next, we will use the uv method to conduct the optimality test. The modiﬁers associated
1.. IntroductionAlthough the name "assignment problem" seems to have first appeared in a 1952 paper by Votaw and Orden [69], what is generally recognized to be the beginning of the development of practical solution methods for and variations on the classic assignment problem (hereafter referred to as the AP) was the publication in 1955 of Kuhn's article on the Hungarian method for its ...
Problem 4. Job shop needs to assign 4 jobs to 4 workers. The cost of performing a job is a function of the skills of the workers. Table summarizes the cost of the assignments. Worker1 cannot do job3, and worker 3 cannot do job 4. Determine the optimal assignment using the Hungarian method. Job.
The matrix below shows the cost of assigning a certain worker to a certain job. The objective is to minimize the total cost of the assignment. Below we will explain the Hungarian algorithm using this example. Note that a general description of the algorithm can be found here. Step 1: Subtract row minima.
After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations. Meaning of Assignment Problem: An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total ...
UNIT 2. r: IIASSIGNMENT PROBLEMIntroduction:Assignment Problem is a special type of linear programming problem where the objective is to minimise the cost or time of completing a. number of jobs by a number of persons. The assignment problem in the general form can be stated as follows: "Given n facilities, n jobs and the effectiveness of ...
~ Solve assignment problem where cij is some function of the ranks: cij =! f (rank (i,j)) B7 i ` MFb j! B7 i /Q2b MQi ` MF j 6 Locating objects in space Goal. Given n objects in 3d space, locate them with 2 sensors. Solution. ~ Each sensor computes line from it to each particle. ~ Let cij = distance between line i from censor 1 and line j from ...
Step 3. Draw lines through appropriate rows and columns so that all the zero entries of the cost matrix are covered and the minimum number of such lines is used. Step 4. Test for Optimality: (i) If the minimum number of covering lines is n, an optimal assignment of zeros is possible and we are finished.
Solve the following assignment problem. Solution: Since the number of columns is less than the number of rows, given assignment problem is unbalanced one. To balance it , introduce a dummy column with all the entries zero. The revised assignment problem is. Here only 3 tasks can be assigned to 3 men.