• Anatomical Position
  • Body Planes
  • Terms of Movement
  • Terms of Location
  • Embryology Terms
  • Classification
  • Synovial Joint
  • Joint Stability
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Blood Vessels
  • Head and Neck
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Respiratory System
  • Urinary System
  • Reproductive System
  • Central Nervous System
  • Cranial Fossae
  • Pterygopalatine Fossa
  • Infratemporal Fossa
  • Mastoid Fossa
  • Frontal Bone
  • Sphenoid Bone
  • Ethmoid Bone
  • Temporal Bone
  • Occipital Bone
  • Nasal Skeleton
  • Cranial Foramina
  • Facial Expression
  • Extraocular
  • Mastication
  • Sympathetic Innervation
  • Parasympathetic Innervation
  • Ophthalmic Nerve
  • Maxillary Nerve
  • Mandibular Nerve
  • Nose and Sinuses
  • Salivary Glands
  • Oral Cavity
  • Arterial Supply
  • Venous Drainage
  • Lacrimal Gland
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Pineal Gland
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Spinal Cord (Grey Matter)
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Ascending Tracts
  • Descending Tracts
  • Visual Pathway
  • Auditory Pathway
  • Olfactory Nerve (CN I)
  • Optic Nerve (CN II)
  • Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)
  • Trochlear Nerve (CN IV)
  • Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)
  • Abducens Nerve (CN VI)
  • Facial Nerve (CN VII)
  • Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII)
  • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX)
  • Vagus Nerve (CN X)
  • Accessory Nerve (CN XI)
  • Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII)
  • Dural Venous Sinuses
  • Cavernous Sinus
  • Anterior Triangle
  • Posterior Triangle
  • Cervical Spine
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Parathyroid Glands
  • Suboccipital
  • Suprahyoids
  • Infrahyoids
  • Phrenic Nerve
  • Cervical Plexus
  • Fascial Layers
  • Tonsils (Waldeyer's Ring)
  • Superior Mediastinum
  • Anterior Mediastinum
  • Middle Mediastinum
  • Posterior Mediastinum
  • Thoracic Spine
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  • Vertebral Column
  • Superficial
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  • Quadrangular Space
  • Triangular Interval
  • Triangular Space
  • Cubital Fossa
  • Ulnar Tunnel
  • Extensor Compartments
  • Ulnar Canal
  • Carpal Tunnel
  • Anatomical Snuffbox
  • Pectoral Region
  • Shoulder Region
  • Anterior Forearm
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  • Brachial Plexus
  • Axillary Nerve
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  • Median Nerve
  • Radial Nerve
  • Ulnar Nerve
  • Acromioclavicular Joint
  • Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Shoulder Joint
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  • Proximal Interphalangeal Joint
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  • Superficial Fibular Nerve
  • Deep Fibular Nerve
  • Tibiofibular Joints
  • Ankle Joint
  • Subtalar Joint
  • Foot Arches
  • Walking and Gaits
  • Abdominal Cavity
  • Calot’s Triangle
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  • Anterolateral Abdominal Wall
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  • Small Intestine
  • Gallbladder
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  • Sacroiliac Joint
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  • Spermatic Cord
  • Prostate Gland
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  • Seminal Vesicles
  • Fallopian (Uterine) Tubes
  • Supporting Ligaments
  • Pudendal Nerve
  • Female Body
  • Female Pelvis
  • Male Pelvis
  • Cardiovascular
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  • Female Reproductive
  • Male Reproductive

The Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint

Original Author(s): Oliver Jones Last updated: November 2, 2023 Revisions: 40

  • 1.1 Articulating Surfaces
  • 1.2 Joint Capsule 
  • 1.3 Ligaments
  • 2 Movements 
  • 3 Mobility and Stability
  • 4 Blood Supply
  • 5 Innervation
  • 6.1 Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint
  • 6.2 Rotator Cuff Tendonitis

The shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) is an articulation between the scapula and the humerus .

It is a ball and socket -type synovial joint, and one of the most mobile joints in the human body.

In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the shoulder joint – its structure, blood supply, and clinical correlations.

Anatomical Structure

Articulating surfaces.

The shoulder joint is formed by an articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity (or fossa) of the scapula. This gives rise to the alternate name for the shoulder joint – the glenohumeral joint.

Like most synovial joints, the articulating surfaces are covered with  hyaline cartilage .

The head of the humerus is much larger than the glenoid fossa, giving the joint a wide range of movement at the cost of instability. To reduce the disproportion in surfaces, the glenoid fossa is deepened by a fibrocartilage rim –  called the glenoid labrum .

shoulder presentation slideshare

Fig 1 – The articulating surfaces of the shoulder joint.

Joint Capsule 

The  joint capsule  is a fibrous sheath which encloses the structures of the joint.

It extends from the  anatomical neck of the humerus to the border or ‘rim’ of the glenoid fossa. The joint capsule is lax – permitting greater mobility (particularly abduction).

The  synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the joint capsule and produces synovial fluid to reduce friction between the articular surfaces.

Ligaments play an important role in stabilising the shoulder joint:

  • Glenohumeral ligaments  (superior, middle and inferior) – extend from the humerus to the glenoid fossa, reinforcing the joint capsule. They act to stabilise the anterior aspect of the joint.
  • Coracohumeral ligament  – extends from the base of the coracoid process to the greater tubercle of the humerus. It supports the superior part of the joint capsule.
  • Transverse humeral ligament  – extends between the two tubercles of the humerus. It holds the tendon of the long head of the biceps in the intertubercular groove.
  • Coracoacromial ligament – extends between the acromion and coracoid process of the scapula, forming an arch-like structure over the shoulder joint (coracoacromial arch). This resists superior displacement of the humeral head.

Fig 1.2 - The ligaments of the shoulder joint. The transverse humeral ligament is not shown on this diagram.

Fig 2 – The ligaments of the shoulder joint. The transverse humeral ligament is not shown on this diagram

A bursa is a sac-like structure containing a small amount of synovial fluid . It functions to decrease friction between tendons, bone, and skin during movement. There are several bursae present in the shoulder joint:

  • It reduces friction beneath the deltoid, promoting free motion of the rotator cuff tendons.
  • It reduces friction on the tendon during movement at the shoulder joint.

There are other minor bursae present between the tendons of the muscles around the joint.

Fig 1.1 - The major bursae of the shoulder joint.

Fig 3 – The major bursae of the shoulder joint.

The shoulder joint is an extremely mobile joint, with a wide range of movement possible:

  • Extension (upper limb backwards in sagittal plane) – posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi and teres major.
  • Flexion (upper limb forwards in sagittal plane) – pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and coracobrachialis. Biceps brachii weakly assists in forward flexion.
  • The first 0-15 degrees of abduction is produced by the supraspinatus.
  • The middle fibres of the deltoid are responsible for the next 15-90 degrees.
  • Past 90 degrees, the scapula needs to be rotated to achieve abduction – that is carried out by the trapezius and serratus anterior.
  • Adduction (upper limb towards midline in coronal plane)  – pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and teres major.
  • Internal rotation (rotation towards the midline, so that the thumb is pointing medially)  – subscapularis, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major and anterior deltoid.
  • External rotation (rotation away from the midline, so that the thumb is pointing laterally)  – infraspinatus and teres minor.
  • Circumduction (moving the upper limb in a circle)  – produced by a combination of the movements described above.

Mobility and Stability

The shoulder joint is one of the most mobile in the body, at the expense of stability. Here, we shall consider the factors the permit movement, and those that contribute towards joint structure.

  • Type of joint  – ball and socket joint.
  • Bony surfaces – shallow glenoid cavity and large humeral head – there is a 1:4 disproportion in surfaces. A commonly used analogy is the golf ball and tee.
  • Joint capsule –  lax
  • Rotator cuff muscles  – surround the shoulder joint, attaching to the tuberosities of the humerus, whilst also fusing with the joint capsule. The resting tone of these muscles act to compress the humeral head into the glenoid cavity.
  • Glenoid labrum – a fibrocartilaginous ridge surrounding the glenoid cavity. It deepens the cavity and creates a seal with the head of humerus, reducing the risk of dislocation.
  • Ligaments – act to reinforce the joint capsule and form the coracoacromial arch.
  • Biceps tendon – it acts as a minor humeral head depressor, thereby contributing to stability.

Fig 1.2 - The rotator cuff muscles, which act to stabilise the shoulder joint.

Fig 4 – The rotator cuff muscles, which act to stabilise the shoulder joint.

Blood Supply

The shoulder joint is supplied by the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries – which are both branches of the axillary artery.

There are also contributions from the suprascapular artery (itself a branch of the thyrocervical trunk).

Innervation

Sensory innervation to the shoulder joint is from the axillary and suprascapular  nerves.

Clinical Relevance: Common Injuries

Dislocation of the shoulder joint.

Clinically, dislocations at the shoulder are described by where the humeral head lies in relation to the  glenoid fossa . Anterior dislocations are the most prevalent (95%), although posterior (4%) and inferior (1%) dislocations can sometimes occur. Superior displacement of the humeral head is generally prevented by the coraco-acromial arch .

An anterior dislocation is usually caused by excessive  extension  and  lateral rotation  of the  humerus . The humeral head is forced anteriorly and inferiorly – into the weakest part of the joint capsule. Tearing of the joint capsule is associated with an increased risk of future dislocations. Hill-Sachs lesions (impaction fracture of posterolateral humeral head against anteroinferior glenoid) and Bankart lesions (detachment of antero-inferior labrum with or without an avulsion fracture) can also occur following anterior dislocation.

Indeed, so-called ‘reverse Hill-Sachs lesions’ (impaction fracture of anteromedial humeral head) and ‘reverse Bankart lesions’ (detachment of posteroinferior labrum) can be seen in posterior dislocations.

The  axillary nerve  runs in close proximity to the shoulder joint and around the surgical neck of the humerus, and so it can be damaged in the dislocation or with attempted reduction. Injury to the axillary nerve causes paralysis of the deltoid, and loss of sensation over regimental badge area . 

Fig 1.4 - Anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint.

Fig 5 – Anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis

The rotator cuff  muscles have a very important role in  stabilising  the glenohumeral joint. They are often under heavy strain, and therefore injuries of these muscles are relatively common.

The spectrum of rotator cuff pathology comprises tendinitis, shoulder impingement and sub-acromial bursitis. Tendinitis refers to  inflammation  of the muscle tendons – usually due to overuse.  Over time, this causes  degenerative changes  in the subacromial bursa and the supraspinatus tendon, potentially causing bursitis and impingement.

The characteristic sign of supraspinatus tendinitis is the ‘ painful arc ’ – pain in the middle of abduction between 60-120 degrees, where the affected area comes into contact with the acromion. This sign may also suggest a partial tear of supraspinatus.

In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the shoulder joint - its structure, blood supply, and clinical correlations.

The head of the humerus is much larger than the glenoid fossa, giving the joint a wide range of movement at the cost of instability. To reduce the disproportion in surfaces, the glenoid fossa is deepened by a fibrocartilage rim -  called the glenoid labrum .

It extends from the  anatomical neck of the humerus to the border or 'rim' of the glenoid fossa. The joint capsule is lax - permitting greater mobility (particularly abduction).

  • Coracoacromial ligament - extends between the acromion and coracoid process of the scapula, forming an arch-like structure over the shoulder joint (coracoacromial arch). This resists superior displacement of the humeral head.
  • Extension (upper limb backwards in sagittal plane) - posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi and teres major.
  • Flexion (upper limb forwards in sagittal plane) - pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and coracobrachialis. Biceps brachii weakly assists in forward flexion.
  • Adduction (upper limb towards midline in coronal plane)  - pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi and teres major.
  • Internal rotation (rotation towards the midline, so that the thumb is pointing medially)  - subscapularis, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major and anterior deltoid.
  • External rotation (rotation away from the midline, so that the thumb is pointing laterally)  - infraspinatus and teres minor.
  • Circumduction (moving the upper limb in a circle)  - produced by a combination of the movements described above.
  • Joint capsule -  lax
  • Glenoid labrum - a fibrocartilaginous ridge surrounding the glenoid cavity. It deepens the cavity and creates a seal with the head of humerus, reducing the risk of dislocation.
  • Ligaments - act to reinforce the joint capsule and form the coracoacromial arch.
  • Biceps tendon - it acts as a minor humeral head depressor, thereby contributing to stability.

The shoulder joint is supplied by the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries - which are both branches of the axillary artery.

[start-clinical]

[end-clinical]

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NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-.

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StatPearls [Internet].

Shoulder dislocations overview.

Rachel Abrams ; Halleh Akbarnia .

Affiliations

Last Update: August 8, 2023 .

  • Continuing Education Activity

Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable joint due to a shallow glenoid that only articulates with a small part of the humeral head. The shoulder joint is the most regularly dislocated joint in the body. The shoulder can dislocate forward, backward, or downward, and completely or partially, though most occur anteriorly. Fibrous tissue that joins the bones can be stretched or torn, complicating a dislocation. It takes a strong force, such as a blow to the shoulder to pull the bones out of place. Extreme rotation can pop the shoulder out of its socket. Contact sports injuries often cause a dislocated shoulder. Trauma from motor vehicle accidents and falls are also a common source of dislocation. This activity describes the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of shoulder dislocations and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in the care of affected patients.

  • Describe the etiology of shoulder dislocations.
  • Describe the presentation of a patient with a shoulder dislocation.
  • Explain the treatment and management options available for shoulder dislocation.
  • Explain why careful planning and discussion amongst interprofessional team members involved in the management of patients with shoulder dislocation will improve outcomes.
  • Introduction

Shoulder dislocations represent 50% of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable joint due to a shallow glenoid that only articulates with a small part of the humeral head. [1] [2] [3]

The shoulder joint is the most regularly dislocated joint in the body. The shoulder can dislocate forward, backward, or downward, and completely or partially, though most occur anteriorly. Fibrous tissue that joins the bones can be stretched or torn, complicating a dislocation. It takes a strong force, such as a blow to the shoulder to pull the bones out of place. Extreme rotation can pop the shoulder out of its socket. Contact sports injuries often cause a dislocated shoulder. Trauma from motor vehicle accidents and falls are also a common source of dislocation. [4] [5] [6] [7]

  • Epidemiology

The shoulder is the most regularly dislocated joint in the body; the dislocation may anteriorly, posteriorly, inferiorly, or anterior-superiorly. Anterior locations are the most common. Patients with prior shoulder dislocation are more prone to redislocation. Reoccurance occurs because the tissue does not heal properly or it becomes lax. Younger patients have a much higher frequency of redislocation; most like due to higher activity level. Patients who tear their rotator cuffs or fracture the glenoid also have a higher incidence of redislocation.

  • Pathophysiology

Types of Dislocation [5] [8] [9] [10]

Anterior dislocation is the most common, accounting for up to 97% of all shoulder dislocations.

  • Mechanism of injury is usually a blow to an abducted, externally rotated and extended extremity.
  • It may also occur with posterior humerus force or fall on an outstretched arm.
  • On exam, the arm is usually abducted and externally rotated, and the acromion appears prominent
  • There are associated injuries in up 40% of anterior dislocations including nerve damage, or tears and fractures associated with the labrum, glenoid fossa, and/or humeral head.

Posterior dislocations account for 2% to 4% of shoulder dislocations.

  • Usually, the injury is caused by a hit to the anterior shoulder and axial loading of the adducted internally rotated arm.
  • It may also be a result of violent muscle contractions (seizures, electrocution).
  • On exam, the arm is usually held in adduction, and internal rotation and patient is unable to rotate externally.
  • Higher risk of associated injuries such as fractures of surgical neck or tuberosity, reverse Hill-Sachs lesions (also called a McLaughlin lesion which is an impaction fracture of anteromedial aspect of humeral head), and injuries of the labrum or rotator cuff.

Inferior dislocations (also known as luxatio erecta) are the most uncommon type (less than 1%).

  • Usually caused by hyperabduction or with axial loading on the abducted arm.
  • On exam, the arm is held above and behind the head and patient is unable to adduct arm.
  • Often associated with nerve injury, rotator cuff injury, tears in the internal capsule, and the highest incidence of axillary nerve and artery injury of all shoulder injuries.
  • History and Physical

Patients may report:

  • A popping sensation
  • Sudden onset of pain with decreased range of motion
  • The sensation of joint rolling out of the socket.

Remember to ask about any previous dislocations. When the shoulder dislocates, the nerves can get stretched out. Some patients report stinging and numbness in the arm at the time of the dislocation.

The physical examination should confirm a suspected dislocation.

  • Range of motion is diminished and painful
  • Anterior dislocation, the anterior arm is abducted and externally rotated In thin patients, there may be a prominent humeral head felt anteriorly, and the void can be seen posteriorly in the shoulder
  • Posterior dislocations are easy to miss because the arm is in internal rotation and adduction. In thin patients, the prominent head can be palpated posteriorly. Practitioners can miss posterior shoulder dislocations because the patient appears only to be guarding the extremity.

Performing a detailed neurovascular examination before reduction is imperative. Injury to the axillary nerve during shoulder dislocation is as high as 40%. Practitioners should record the neuromuscular examination before and after any dislocated shoulder.

Diagnosis and Management

Carefully examine the patient for neurovascular compromise. Axillary nerve injury is most common. The axillary nerve innervates deltoid and teres minor and provides sensation to lateral shoulder. Axillary nerve compromise presents in over 40% of dislocations, but usually, resolves with reduction. Although dislocation is often obvious, pre-reduction imaging for associated fractures can be useful and should be done when trauma is known. Clinically important fractures occur in about 25% of dislocations. [11] [12]

  • Fractures of tuberosity, surgical neck fractures may occur and should not be reduced in emergency department
  • Bankart lesion develops when the glenoid labrum is disrupted with or without the addition of avulsed bone fragment (bony Bankart). Soft Bankart lesions involving the inferior anterior labrum are more common.
  • Hill-Sachs deformity is a compression fracture of the posterolateral humeral head primarily with anterior dislocations.
  • Reverse Hill-Sachs lesions seen in posterior dislocations (also called a McLaughlin lesion) which is an impaction fracture of the anteromedial aspect of the humeral head.

Reduction of the Dislocated Shoulder

Often conscious sedation with fentanyl, midazolam, ketamine, etomidate, or propofol used. This is done with continuous monitoring with capnography. If conscious sedation not needed, an intraarticular injection of 10 cc of local lidocaine or similar anesthetic may be helpful.

Contraindications to reduction in ED

Anterior Dislocation

  • Fractures of humeral neck can lead to avascular necrosis
  • Subclavicular and/or intrathoracic dislocations include a subacute dislocation in an elderly patient and an associated surgical neck fracture
  • Avoid multiple attempts in injuries that include neurovascular compromise (including brachial plexus involvement, axillary nerve, a musculocutaneous nerve, etc.).  If prompt reduction cannot occur without further injury, may need surgical help.  
  • The suspected arterial injury may need urgent angiography first.

Posterior Dislocation

  • Delayed presentation to the emergency department (more than 6 weeks)
  • Multipart or displaced fracture/dislocations

Inferior Dislocation

  • Humeral neck or shaft fractures should be done in a surgical setting
  • Any potential of vascular injury
  • Treatment / Management

Reduction techniques for anterior shoulder dislocation

Scapular Manipulation   (80% to 100% successful)

  • Upright or prone
  • In upright position, the patient is sitting up, may rest unaffected shoulder against upright head of bed
  • Stand behind patient and use one thumb over tip of scapula and push medially while pushing acromion inferiorly with the other thumb
  • Assistant simultaneously provided traction by grabbing patient’s wrist with one hand and flexed elbow with other hand and pushing down on elbow
  • The reduction may be subtle, without obvious “clunk.”
  • Reduced risk of associated fractures

External Rotation Technique  

The external rotation technique reduces anterior glenohumeral dislocation by overcoming spasm of the internal rotators of the humerus, unwinding the joint capsule, and enabling the external rotators of the rotator cuff to pull the humerus posteriorly.

  • Easy and can do alone
  • With patient supine, elbow flexed to 90 degrees, elbow held with one hand, and wrist is held with another hand
  • Slowly, have patient allow the arm to fall to the side, externally rotating forearm. The patient pauses with pain and allows muscles to relax. Over 5 to 10 minutes, the arm externally rotates, and reduction occurs
  • Reduction usually occurs with arm externally rotated between 70 to 110 degrees

Cunningham Technique

  • Patient is seated with examiner seated in front of patient, and the patient places ipsilateral hand on top of examiner’s shoulder
  • The clinician rests one arm in patient’s elbow crease and uses the other hand to massage the patient’s biceps, deltoid, and trapezius muscles
  • Have patient relax and instruct to pull their shoulder blades together and straighten their back
  • Popular technique now since rarely conscious sedation needed

Milch Technique   (add Milch technique if external rotation unsuccessful)

  • Patient is supine, fingers over the shoulder with thumb in axilla to stabilize
  • Arm is externally rotated and then abducted over patient’s head while maintaining external rotation with simultaneously placing direct pressure over the humeral head

Stimson Technique

  • No assistant needed and no need for conscious sedation
  • Patient is prone with affected arm hanging off the side of bed with 5 lb (2.3 kg) to  15 lb (6.8 kg) of weight
  • Reduction is usually achieved within 30 minutes

Traction Countertraction

  • A sheet is wrapped under the axilla, and one assistant provides continuous traction at the wrist or elbow while the other provides countertraction with the sheet from the opposite side

Spaso Technique

  • Patient is supine while examiner grasps wrist or distal forearm and lifts vertically with gentle vertical traction and external rotation

Fares Technique

  • Patient is supine with upper extremity at their side
  • The examiner holds patient’s wrist and gently pulls the arm to provide traction
  • The arm is abducted while continuously moving arm in anteriorly and posteriorly in small oscillating movements (about 10 cm)
  • If shoulder has not reduced by 90 degrees of abduction, add external reduction

Fulcrum Technique

  • Patient is supine or sitting, and a rolled towel or sheet is placed in axilla
  • The distal humerus is adducted with simultaneous posterolateral force on the humeral head
  • Requires increased force, may have increased complications

Kocher’s and Hippocratic Techniqueoot placed in patient’s axilla before traction) no longer recommended due to higher risk of complications

Posterior Shoulder Reduction

  • The patient is in the supine position. An assistant applies anterior pressure to humeral head while examiner applies axial traction to the humerus with internal and external rotation of humerus

Disposition After Shoulder Reduction

  • Place patient in a sling
  • Neurovascular exam
  • Post-reduction imaging
  • Follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Acromioclavicular joint injury
  • Bicipital tendonitis
  • Clavicle fracture
  • Rotator cuff injury
  • Shoulder dislocation
  • Swimmer’s shoulder
  • Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Shoulder dislocations are best managed by an interprofessional team that also includes therapists and orthopedic nurses. When evaluating patients with shoulder dislocations, clinicians need to be aware of the potential of associated neurovascular injury. Carefully examine the patient for neurovascular compromise. Axillary nerve injury is the most common. The axillary nerve innervates deltoid and teres minor and provides sensation to lateral shoulder. Axillary nerve compromise presents in over 40% of dislocations, but usually, resolves with reduction. Although dislocation is often obvious, pre-reduction imaging for associated fractures can be useful and should be done when trauma is known. Clinically important fractures occur in about 25% of dislocations.

Conservative treatment does yield good outcomes but recurrences are known to occur in about 1-5% of patients. [13]

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Disclosure: Rachel Abrams declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Disclosure: Halleh Akbarnia declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ ), which permits others to distribute the work, provided that the article is not altered or used commercially. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal.

  • Cite this Page Abrams R, Akbarnia H. Shoulder Dislocations Overview. [Updated 2023 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan-.

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  • Factors related to large bone defects of bipolar lesions and a high number of instability episodes with anterior glenohumeral instability. [J Orthop Surg Res. 2021] Factors related to large bone defects of bipolar lesions and a high number of instability episodes with anterior glenohumeral instability. Matsumura N, Kaneda K, Oki S, Kimura H, Suzuki T, Iwamoto T, Matsumoto M, Nakamura M, Nagura T. J Orthop Surg Res. 2021 Apr 13; 16(1):255. Epub 2021 Apr 13.
  • Posterior Shoulder Instability. [StatPearls. 2024] Posterior Shoulder Instability. Doehrmann R, Frush TJ. StatPearls. 2024 Jan
  • Review Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Locked Posterior Dislocation of the Shoulder Treated with Shoulder Arthroplasty: Improved Outcomes for Total Shoulder Arthroplasty are Associated with Increased Age. [Orthop Surg. 2023] Review Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Locked Posterior Dislocation of the Shoulder Treated with Shoulder Arthroplasty: Improved Outcomes for Total Shoulder Arthroplasty are Associated with Increased Age. Crowley M, Ghattas Y, Collins AP, Levin S, Service BC. Orthop Surg. 2023 Jul; 15(7):1730-1741. Epub 2023 Jun 1.

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Powerpoint Templates and Google slides for Shoulder

Save your time and attract your audience with our fully editable ppt templates and slides..

Customer Care Executives Standing Shoulder To Shoulder Edu Ppt

Presenting Customer Care Executives Standing Shoulder to Shoulder. This slide is well crafted and designed by our PowerPoint experts. You can add or delete the content as per your need.

Shoulder Business Companion Stretching Therapist Providing Customer

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Body therapist providing shoulder massage to customer

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Tattoo on lower part of man shoulder

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Friends sitting on bench with arms on shoulder

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Template with busy businessman with jacket on his shoulder looking at his watch on the airport

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Women with shoulder injury after car accident

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Two star shoulder military icon

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Business man stretching shoulder icon

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Company two employee shoulder icon

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Body builder with shoulder press icon

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Shoulder Bag Colored Icon In Powerpoint Pptx Png And Editable Eps Format

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Empowerment shown by humans shouldering each other

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Biceps Shoulders Colored Icon In Powerpoint Pptx Png And Editable Eps Format

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0914 infraspinatus muscle medical images for powerpoint

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Powerpoint template and background with shoulder with pain point for human body

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Customer Care Executives Standing Shoulder To Shoulder Edu Ppt

This Rock Climbing Bag is the perfect companion for any outdoor adventure. It features a bright, colourful design and is made from durable materials, making it ideal for carrying all your essential climbing gear. It also has adjustable straps and multiple pockets for extra storage. Get ready to take on the outdoors with this stylish and practical bag.

Rock Climbing Shoulder Bag Monotone Icon In Powerpoint Pptx Png And Editable Eps Format

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Biceps Shoulders Colored Icon In Powerpoint Pptx Png And Editable Eps Format

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Shoulder Muscle In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Right Shoulder Pain Causes In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Posterior Shoulder Muscles Diagram In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Pain Cancer Symptoms In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Pain Liver Problems In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Delivery Complications In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Stretches In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Causes Frozen Shoulder Syndrome In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Joint Movements In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Shoulder Nerve Pain Causes In Powerpoint And Google Slides Cpb

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Microsoft PowerPoint Template and Background with a human shoulder with pain

Two star shoulder military icon

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Shoulder Presentation – All You Should Be Aware Of

Shoulder Presentation – All You Should Be Aware Of

When Does the Fetus Move in Birthing Position?

What is shoulder presentation, what is transverse lie, what is the frequency of shoulder presentation, what causes shoulder presentation, how is shoulder presentation diagnosed, complications of shoulder presentation, how is shoulder presentation managed.

Most doctors and midwives will recommend that you have a natural vaginal birth if you have a choice. However, there are certain complications that can sometimes present themselves and stop this from happening. Shoulder presentation is one such complication.

A baby will most likely begin to move into the birthing position latest by week 30 . She will have her head down and facing your spine, her body and face more inclined to one side and arms will be folded across the chest. Any other position is not normal.

This is an abnormal fetus position where the baby is in a transverse lie , causing the baby’s shoulder to be positioned to come out first if vaginal delivery is attempted. However, since this is very easy to diagnose, doctors will always recommend a C-Section and never even suggest attempting to deliver the child through normal vaginal delivery.

A transverse lie is a position where your baby is lying sideways with her head to one of your sides and her bottom at your other side. This position is considered normal before 26 gestational weeks.

Transverse Lie

Shoulder presentation takes place in 1 out of every 300 births and is commonly seen in premature and macerated babies. It is five times more likely to happen in a woman who has had children before than it is to occur in a first-time mother. Mothers carrying twins are also 40% more likely to have at least one baby in shoulder position.

Here are some reasons why a shoulder presentation can take place:

1. Contracted Pelvis

A very narrow pelvis in the mother can cause a shoulder presentation to occur.

2. Placenta Previa

A condition where the placenta covers the uterus opening, either completely or partially. This makes it difficult for your baby’s head to enter the pelvic brim.

3. Intra-Uterine Fetal Death

There are times when the fetus dies inside the womb, and when this happens, the muscle tone starts to degenerate, which results in the fetus falling lower into the uterus.

4. Lax Abnormal Musculature

Women who have had multiple pregnancies may have more relaxed uterine and abdominal muscles. This will make their ability to keep the baby in a normal position very difficult.

5. Uterine Over Distension

There are many reasons why a uterus can become enlarged. Some of these include a large baby, polyhydramnios , multiple pregnancies and others. A uterus that is too large very often leads to shoulder presentation.

6. Polyhydramnios

A very large amount of amniotic fluid that is present in the uterus is known as polyhydramnios. This causes the fetus to be able to move very freely in the uterus and will lead to shoulder presentation.

7. Uterine Abnormalities

There are different abnormalities in the uterus that can cause your baby to move into shoulder presentation. Some of these are the bicornuate uterus, a sub-septate uterus and even a large fibroid  uterus .

Here is how Shoulder presentation diagnosed:

  • The top of the mother’s uterus to the top of the pelvic bone is called a fundus. The height of the fundus is an indicator of whether or not the baby is in the shoulder presentation.
  • The uterus becomes broader.
  • The mother can feel the baby’s head on one abdominal side.
  • If shoulder presentation takes place, arms prolapse will cause the baby’s arm to be seen outside the vagina.
  • During a vaginal examination, the doctor will be able to feel the babies ribs.

If your doctor identifies that you have shoulder presentation before you go into labour, he will opt for a C-Section instead. If there is a case of neglected shoulder presentation and it is only identified after you go into labour, it becomes very dangerous, and you face many complications. Here are some of the complications that can occur:

1. Cord Prolapse

When the umbilical cord comes out before the fetus does, it is called a cord prolapse and is very dangerous as it can cause the baby’s heart rate to drop, cause changes in blood pressure and even result in brain damage or death of the baby.

2. Ruptured Uterus

The myometrial wall is the middle layer of the wall of the uterine. The breach of this layer during childbirth is a rupture in the uterus, and it is very dangerous for both mother and child.

3. Fetal Hypoxia

When your baby doesn’t get enough oxygen, it will lead to suffocation, and if the necessary measures are not taken, it will result in death.

4. Obstructed Labour

Though contractions are taking place, the baby is not able to come through the birth canal as there is something blocking the way. Failure to diagnose and remedy this condition is a major reason why both mother and child die during childbirth.

5. Trauma to Prolapsed Arm

If there is a prolapsed arm, there is a higher chance that it will be injured or damaged. This injury may be severe and could last for a lifetime.

Here is how Shoulder presentation is managed:

1. C-Section

The first choice for doctors who have a case of shoulder presentation is a C-Section. This is the safest method that ensures the safety of both mother and child.

2. External Cephalic Version

In this procedure, your baby’s heartbeat will be monitored, and you will be given medication through an IV to ensure a relaxed uterus. Your doctor will then place her hands on the outside of your stomach and attempt to turn your baby into the correct position. This is done only before labour starts.

3. Internal Podalic Version

This is only used in the case of twins, where the second twin will need to be moved into a breech position and then extracted.

Though it sounds scary, if you keep a careful track of your baby’s position in the weeks before delivery, you will be able to identify and rectify the problem before it becomes serious. Exercising throughout your pregnancy will be very helpful in ensuring that your baby gets into the correct position for labour.

Also Read:  When Does a Baby Turn Head Down During Pregnancy?

shoulder presentation slideshare

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'Shoulder wheel' presentation slideshows

Shoulder wheel - powerpoint ppt presentation.

ACTIVE ASSISTIVE EXERCISES

ACTIVE ASSISTIVE EXERCISES

1.05k views • 25 slides

ACTIVE ASSISTIVE EXERCISES

6.06k views • 25 slides

View Shoulder wheel PowerPoint (PPT) presentations online in SlideServe. SlideServe has a very huge collection of Shoulder wheel PowerPoint presentations. You can view or download Shoulder wheel presentations for your school assignment or business presentation. Browse for the presentations on every topic that you want.

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Descargador de SlideShare: Descarga presentaciones gratuitas

Imagina encontrarte con una serie de diapositivas en línea que podrían ser valiosas para tus necesidades. En este artículo, exploraremos el enfoque más efectivo para descargar y adquirir estas diapositivas utilizando la descarga de presentaciones de SlideShare. Al profundizar en los detalles, te proporcionaremos un método fácil de usar para obtener e integrar con éxito estas diapositivas en tus materiales

Cómo descargar PPT desde SlideShare

Si deseas descargar una presentación de PowerPoint de SlideShare, una plataforma en línea popular que aloja diversas presentaciones sobre diferentes temas.

Usando el sitio web de SlideShare

Para descargar la presentación de SlideShare desde su sitio web, sigue estos pasos:

Paso 1: Abre tu navegador e ingresa a SlideShare.net

Paso 2: Utiliza la barra de búsqueda para encontrar la presentación que deseas descargar.

Step 3: Haz clic en el botón Descargar debajo de la presentación. Si eres un usuario nuevo, deberás crear una cuenta o iniciar sesión con tu cuenta de redes sociales para continuar descargando.

Algunas presentaciones no se pueden descargar para su uso posterior. Sin embargo, los lectores pueden aprovechar un Descargador de SlideShare en línea gratuito para descargar y guardar la presentación para un uso posterior.

Paso 4: Abre Slidersharedownloader.com en una nueva pestaña, un descargador gratuito de presentaciones de PowerPoint de SlideShare.

Paso 5: Copia la URL de la presentación que deseas descargar y pégala en el campo "Enlace" en SlideShare PowerPoint Downloader.

Paso 6: Elige si deseas descargar la presentación como archivo de PowerPoint o archivo PDF.

Después de descargar las presentaciones de SlideShare, los usuarios pueden ver y editar sus presentaciones o PDF en WPS Office con facilidad. WPS Office es un conjunto de oficina completo que te ofrece tanto el software como la capacidad de manejar diferentes formatos de archivo de forma gratuita. Visita  WPS Office y descarga su aplicación ahora mismo.

Usando su aplicación móvil

La aplicación móvil de SlideShare está disponible para dispositivos iOS y Android y permite a los usuarios guardar presentaciones en la aplicación. Para guardar diapositivas para su uso sin conexión:

Paso 1: Inicia sesión en SlideShare.

Paso 2: Busca la presentación que estás buscando usando la barra de búsqueda.

Paso 3: Haz clic para abrir la presentación en SlideShare.SlideShare.

Paso 4: Haz clic en el ícono del "Corazón" ubicado en la parte inferior para guardar el archivo para su uso sin conexión. El ícono del corazón se volverá azul, indicando que la presentación se ha guardado.

Paso 5: La presentación ahora se puede ver visitando la pestaña "Tú", donde se almacenan todas las diapositivas guardadas.

Descarga de diapositivas en tu dispositivo móvil:

SlideShare no ofrece a los usuarios acceso a sus presentaciones fuera de la aplicación. Sin embargo, es posible descargar presentaciones de SlideShare a tu dispositivo móvil utilizando un Descargador de PowerPoint de SlideShare gratuito. Aprendamos cómo hacerlo:

Paso 1: Busca la presentación que deseas descargar usando la barra de búsqueda.

Paso 2: Haz clic para ver la presentación en SlideShare.

Paso 3: Haz clic en el ícono "Compartir" en la parte inferior de la pantalla.

Paso 5: Copia el enlace de la presentación.

Paso 6: Abre tu navegador y visita el descargador de SlideShare.

Paso 7: Pega el enlace de la presentación y haz clic en "Descargar PDF" o "Descargar PPT". La descarga comenzará en unos momentos y el tipo de archivo preferido se almacenará en tu dispositivo móvil.

Descargar y guardar presentaciones para su uso posterior puede ser beneficioso tanto para estudiantes como para profesionales. Puede ayudarles a evitar el riesgo de perder su trabajo o tener problemas de conexión a Internet durante una presentación. También les permite acceder a las diapositivas en cualquier momento y lugar, incluso sin una conexión en línea.

Además, les permite editar o personalizar las diapositivas según sus necesidades y preferencias. Por lo tanto, descargar y guardar presentaciones es una habilidad útil que puede mejorar el aprendizaje y la productividad de una persona.

Opción Alternativa Gratuita: WPS Office

WPS Office refleja las capacidades de Microsoft Office y ofrece una ventaja única: es completamente gratuito. Además, opera de manera fluida en una amplia gama de dispositivos, incluyendo macOS, Windows y Linux. Su naturaleza compatible con dispositivos móviles agrega otro nivel de atractivo, ofreciendo una aplicación de productividad potente pero ligera, adecuada para varios dispositivos móviles.

Una de las características que distingue a WPS Office de otras suites de oficina es su capacidad para ver y editar archivos PDF y PPT. Esto significa que los usuarios pueden cambiar fácilmente entre diferentes formatos sin perder calidad ni formato. Los usuarios también pueden convertir archivos PDF a Word, Excel o PowerPoint con solo unos pocos clics. Además, WPS Office admite almacenamiento en la nube y uso compartido de archivos, lo que permite a los usuarios acceder a sus documentos en cualquier momento y lugar, además de colaborar con otros en línea.

Otra característica que hace destacar a WPS Office es su integración con la inteligencia artificial. WPS Office utiliza la IA para mejorar su funcionalidad y rendimiento, proporcionando sugerencias inteligentes, corrección automática, reconocimiento de voz y cifrado de documentos. Los usuarios también pueden disfrutar de varias plantillas, temas y efectos impulsados por la IA que pueden ayudarles a crear presentaciones profesionales y atractivas.

Con sus características completas y versátiles, WPS Office es una herramienta que todos aquellos que valoran la productividad y la eficiencia deben llevar consigo. Es completamente gratuito para descargar y usar, y no compromete la calidad ni la compatibilidad. WPS Office es la suite de oficina definitiva para el mundo moderno.

Cómo Descargar WPS Office?

Paso 1: Primero, abre tu navegador web y ve al sitio web de WPS Office. Luego, haz clic en el ícono "Descargar" ubicado en el centro de la página.

Paso 2: Una vez que hayas descargado el archivo, simplemente haz doble clic en él para abrirlo. Esto iniciará el proceso de instalación.

Paso 3: Después de que la instalación haya terminado, estarás listo para comenzar a usar WPS Office.

Preguntas Frecuentes

P1. ¿puedo hacer mis presentaciones privadas en slideshare.

Sí, puedes hacer tus presentaciones privadas en SlideShare. Esto hace que la presentación sea accesible solo para ti. También ofrece el modo Limitado, que permite el acceso a quienes compartas el enlace directo, con la opción de agregar una contraseña para mayor protección. La opción Privado asegura que los motores de búsqueda no indexen tu carga, lo que permite un control completo sobre la visibilidad y accesibilidad de la presentación, convirtiéndola en una plataforma ideal para compartir de forma privada y gestionar contenido de manera segura.

P2. ¿Puedo colaborar con otros en presentaciones de SlideShare?

Sí, puedes colaborar en presentaciones de SlideShare con otros utilizando la función de edición compartida. Utiliza el botón Colaborar en la esquina superior derecha del editor para invitar a personas a revisar, presentar o editar. A continuación se muestran los roles que puede tener un colaborador:

Espectador: Solo puede comentar.

Presentador: Puede comentar y presentar.

Editor: Puede comentar, presentar y modificar la presentación.

Administrador: Puede agregar y eliminar colaboradores (solo accesible en el plan Team).

Al hacer clic en el ícono de un colaborador, puedes modificar su rol o eliminarlo. Esta herramienta mejora el trabajo en equipo al monitorear adecuadamente el acceso.

Saber más sobre el  descargar microsoft office gratis para PC .

Desbloqueando los Tesoros de SlideShare: Dominando el Arte de la Descarga de Diapositivas

En este artículo, exploramos las prácticas más efectivas para descargar de manera segura archivos de SlideShare, asegurando una experiencia fluida mientras aprovechas al máximo estos valiosos recursos. WPS Office se destaca por proporcionar una serie de herramientas excepcionales, especialmente su función de presentación diseñada para la descarga perfecta de PPT de SlideShare y una presentación impactante. No dudes en aprovechar esta oportunidad; continúa y inicia la descarga de tu WPS Office WPS Office  para desbloquear su versátil potencial.

shoulder presentation slideshare

Con una maestría en Desarrollo de Software, aporto más de 10 años de experiencia ofreciendo soluciones técnicas y consejos especializados para software de oficina.

IMAGES

  1. PPT

    shoulder presentation slideshare

  2. PPT

    shoulder presentation slideshare

  3. ppt on Shoulder joint

    shoulder presentation slideshare

  4. PPT

    shoulder presentation slideshare

  5. 2. shoulder joint & its applied anatomy 07[1]

    shoulder presentation slideshare

  6. PPT

    shoulder presentation slideshare

VIDEO

  1. Shoulder Dislocations & Instability: A Guide for Physiotherapy Treatment

  2. shoulder presentation

  3. Shoulder Mobility 2.0! 🔥 #FitnessCoupleGoals

  4. 90% Relief Full Neck, Shoulder, Body Pain without Surgery! Meet Dr. Ravi Shinde's Effective Solution

  5. कंधे में दूरबीन कैसे डालते हैं? Frozen Shoulder

  6. 6 Fastest Wide Shoulder Exercises

COMMENTS

  1. The shoulder joint

    1. The Shoulder Joint By : Gan Quan Fu, PT, MSc. Human Anatomy (Batch 3) 2. Content • Introduction • Glenoid Cavity • Ligaments Surrounding the joint • Bursae in Relation to the Shoulder Joint • Muscles Acting on Shoulder Joint • Blood and Nerve Supply • Joint Movement • Close and Loose Pack Position • Applied Anatomy.

  2. PPT University of Michigan

    Evaluation of the Painful Shoulder - University of MichiganThis PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and common pathologies of the shoulder joint. It also offers a systematic approach to the physical examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the painful shoulder. The presentation is designed for medical students, residents, and clinicians who want to ...

  3. The Shoulder Joint

    The shoulder joint is formed by an articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity (or fossa) of the scapula. This gives rise to the alternate name for the shoulder joint - the glenohumeral joint. Like most synovial joints, the articulating surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage. The head of the humerus is much larger ...

  4. Shoulder Dislocations Overview

    Describe the presentation of a patient with a shoulder dislocation. Explain the treatment and management options available for shoulder dislocation. Explain why careful planning and discussion amongst interprofessional team members involved in the management of patients with shoulder dislocation will improve outcomes.

  5. PPT

    PPT - Shoulder Anatomy PowerPoint Presentation, free download - ID:2038249 Presentation 1 / 81 Download Presentation >> Shoulder Anatomy Jul 20, 2014 910 likes | 1.59k Views Shoulder Anatomy. Morgan A. Scott. Anatomy of the Shoulder. Bones that make up the shoulder complex and shoulder joint: Clavicle Scapula Humerus. Anatomy continued….

  6. PPT Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA)

    Fractures and dislocations about the shoulder in the pediatric patient are challenging to diagnose and treat. This PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Bray provides an overview of the anatomy, classification, management, and outcomes of these injuries. It also includes case examples and references to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) core curriculum lectures.

  7. PPT

    Shoulder. It is a ball and socket joint that moves in all three planes and has. Most mobile and least stable joint. Shoulder joint motions. Flexion- is raising the arm in the lateral plane from 0-180 degrees. Extension- return to anatomical position. Download Presentation shoulder rotator cuff glenoid labrum humeral head shoulder joint motions

  8. Shoulder Dislocation

    Introduction. Shoulder dislocation (correctly termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) involves separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. The shoulder is inherently unstable joint due to the shallow glenoid articulating with a small part of the humeral head. [1]

  9. Imaging of the Shoulder With Emphasis on MRI: A Teaching File

    This is an interactive PowerPoint presentation intended to teach radiology, orthopedic surgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation residents about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder. At various points in the presentation, the learner is directed via hyperlinks to available online resources that will aid in self-learning.

  10. PPT

    Jan 05, 2020 450 likes | 539 Views Shoulder. Bones and Joints. The bones of the shoulder are the humerus (the upper arm bone), the scapula (the shoulder blade), and the clavicle (the collar bone). The roof of the shoulder is formed by a part of the scapula called the acromion. Download Presentation joint rotator cuff shoulder joint shoulder blade

  11. Shoulder PowerPoint Presentation and Slides

    This vibrant coloured PowerPoint icon is perfect for presentations on physical fitness and bodybuilding. It features a bicep muscle with a barbell, and is sure to add a touch of colour and energy to any presentation. Slide 1 of 10. Biceps Shoulders Monotone Icon In Powerpoint Pptx Png And Editable Eps Format.

  12. PPT

    PPT - Shoulder Dislocation PowerPoint Presentation, free download - ID:4841498 1 / 87 Download Presentation >> Shoulder Dislocation Sep 26, 2014 3.11k likes | 11.28k Views Shoulder Dislocation. By: Hashem Bukhary. ANATOMY The most commonly dislocated joint in the body, Why ? S tability is sacrificed for High Motion Small (ball & Socket Joint).

  13. 300+ Shoulder PowerPoint (PPT) Presentations, Shoulder PPTs

    'Shoulder' presentation slideshows Shoulder - PowerPoint PPT Presentation netnography. netnography. Do you know where your customers are (logged on)? ::Angeline Close. netnography for brand management. Ethnography: Study of a community Netnography: Study of an online community Consider the ipod nano…

  14. Shoulder presentation

    A shoulder presentation is a malpresentation at childbirth where the baby is in a transverse lie (its vertebral column is perpendicular to that of the mother), thus the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal) is an arm, a shoulder, or the trunk.While a baby can be delivered vaginally when either the head or the feet/buttocks are the leading part, it usually cannot be expected ...

  15. PPT

    PPT - Shoulder Dislocation PowerPoint Presentation, free download - ID:9373184 Presentation 1 / 61 Download Presentation >> Shoulder Dislocation Jan 02, 2020 750 likes | 929 Views Shoulder Dislocation. s. Shoulder dislocation. 1. DISLOCATION - COMPLETE LOSS OF GLENOHUMERAL ARTICULATION . CAUSE- ACUTE TRAUMA 2 .

  16. Shoulder Presentation: Causes, Complications & Diagnosis

    1. Contracted Pelvis. A very narrow pelvis in the mother can cause a shoulder presentation to occur. 2. Placenta Previa. A condition where the placenta covers the uterus opening, either completely or partially. This makes it difficult for your baby's head to enter the pelvic brim. 3. Intra-Uterine Fetal Death.

  17. 100+ Shoulder wheel PowerPoint (PPT) Presentations ...

    ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 1.02k views • 25 slides ACTIVE ASSISTIVE EXERCISES ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 5.95k views • 25 slides Load more... View Shoulder wheel PowerPoint PPT Presentations on SlideServe. Collection of 100+ Shoulder wheel slideshows.

  18. Descargador de SlideShare: Descarga presentaciones gratuitas

    Descargador de SlideShare. Cómo descargar PPT desde SlideShare. Si deseas descargar una presentación de PowerPoint de SlideShare, una plataforma en línea popular que aloja diversas presentaciones sobre diferentes temas. Usando el sitio web de SlideShare. Para descargar la presentación de SlideShare desde su sitio web, sigue estos pasos: