Educational resources and simple solutions for your research journey

how to write review of related literature in research

How to Write Review of Related Literature (RRL) in Research

related literature in relation to research

A review of related literature (a.k.a RRL in research) is a comprehensive review of the existing literature pertaining to a specific topic or research question. An effective review provides the reader with an organized analysis and synthesis of the existing knowledge about a subject. With the increasing amount of new information being disseminated every day, conducting a review of related literature is becoming more difficult and the purpose of review of related literature is clearer than ever.  

All new knowledge is necessarily based on previously known information, and every new scientific study must be conducted and reported in the context of previous studies. This makes a review of related literature essential for research, and although it may be tedious work at times , most researchers will complete many such reviews of varying depths during their career. So, why exactly is a review of related literature important?    

Table of Contents

Why a review of related literature in research is important  

Before thinking how to do reviews of related literature , it is necessary to understand its importance. Although the purpose of a review of related literature varies depending on the discipline and how it will be used, its importance is never in question. Here are some ways in which a review can be crucial.  

  • Identify gaps in the knowledge – This is the primary purpose of a review of related literature (often called RRL in research ). To create new knowledge, you must first determine what knowledge may be missing. This also helps to identify the scope of your study.  
  • Avoid duplication of research efforts – Not only will a review of related literature indicate gaps in the existing research, but it will also lead you away from duplicating research that has already been done and thus save precious resources.  
  • Provide an overview of disparate and interdisciplinary research areas – Researchers cannot possibly know everything related to their disciplines. Therefore, it is very helpful to have access to a review of related literature already written and published.  
  • Highlight researcher’s familiarity with their topic 1  – A strong review of related literature in a study strengthens readers’ confidence in that study and that researcher.

related literature in relation to research

Tips on how to write a review of related literature in research

Given that you will probably need to produce a number of these at some point, here are a few general tips on how to write an effective review of related literature 2 .

  • Define your topic, audience, and purpose: You will be spending a lot of time with this review, so choose a topic that is interesting to you. While deciding what to write in a review of related literature , think about who you expect to read the review – researchers in your discipline, other scientists, the general public – and tailor the language to the audience. Also, think about the purpose of your review of related literature .  
  • Conduct a comprehensive literature search: While writing your review of related literature , emphasize more recent works but don’t forget to include some older publications as well. Cast a wide net, as you may find some interesting and relevant literature in unexpected databases or library corners. Don’t forget to search for recent conference papers.
  • Review the identified articles and take notes: It is a good idea to take notes in a way such that individual items in your notes can be moved around when you organize them. For example, index cards are great tools for this. Write each individual idea on a separate card along with the source. The cards can then be easily grouped and organized.  
  • Determine how to organize your review: A review of related literature should not be merely a listing of descriptions. It should be organized by some criterion, such as chronologically or thematically.  
  • Be critical and objective: Don’t just report the findings of other studies in your review of related literature . Challenge the methodology, find errors in the analysis, question the conclusions. Use what you find to improve your research. However, do not insert your opinions into the review of related literature. Remain objective and open-minded.  
  • Structure your review logically: Guide the reader through the information. The structure will depend on the function of the review of related literature. Creating an outline prior to writing the RRL in research is a good way to ensure the presented information flows well.  

As you read more extensively in your discipline, you will notice that the review of related literature appears in various forms in different places. For example, when you read an article about an experimental study, you will typically see a literature review or a RRL in research , in the introduction that includes brief descriptions of similar studies. In longer research studies and dissertations, especially in the social sciences, the review of related literature will typically be a separate chapter and include more information on methodologies and theory building. In addition, stand-alone review articles will be published that are extremely useful to researchers.  

The review of relevant literature or often abbreviated as, RRL in research , is an important communication tool that can be used in many forms for many purposes. It is a tool that all researchers should befriend.  

  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Writing Center. Literature Reviews.  https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/literature-reviews/  [Accessed September 8, 2022]
  • Pautasso M. Ten simple rules for writing a literature review. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013, 9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003149.

Q:  Is research complete without a review of related literature?

A research project is usually considered incomplete without a proper review of related literature. The review of related literature is a crucial component of any research project as it provides context for the research question, identifies gaps in existing literature, and ensures novelty by avoiding duplication. It also helps inform research design and supports arguments, highlights the significance of a study, and demonstrates your knowledge an expertise.

Q: What is difference between RRL and RRS?

The key difference between an RRL and an RRS lies in their focus and scope. An RRL or review of related literature examines a broad range of literature, including theoretical frameworks, concepts, and empirical studies, to establish the context and significance of the research topic. On the other hand, an RRS or review of research studies specifically focuses on analyzing and summarizing previous research studies within a specific research domain to gain insights into methodologies, findings, and gaps in the existing body of knowledge. While there may be some overlap between the two, they serve distinct purposes and cover different aspects of the research process.

Q: Does review of related literature improve accuracy and validity of research?

Yes, a comprehensive review of related literature (RRL) plays a vital role in improving the accuracy and validity of research. It helps authors gain a deeper understanding and offers different perspectives on the research topic. RRL can help you identify research gaps, dictate the selection of appropriate research methodologies, enhance theoretical frameworks, avoid biases and errors, and even provide support for research design and interpretation. By building upon and critically engaging with existing related literature, researchers can ensure their work is rigorous, reliable, and contributes meaningfully to their field of study.

R Discovery is a literature search and research reading platform that accelerates your research discovery journey by keeping you updated on the latest, most relevant scholarly content. With 250M+ research articles sourced from trusted aggregators like CrossRef, Unpaywall, PubMed, PubMed Central, Open Alex and top publishing houses like Springer Nature, JAMA, IOP, Taylor & Francis, NEJM, BMJ, Karger, SAGE, Emerald Publishing and more, R Discovery puts a world of research at your fingertips.  

Try R Discovery Prime FREE for 1 week or upgrade at just US$72 a year to access premium features that let you listen to research on the go, read in your language, collaborate with peers, auto sync with reference managers, and much more. Choose a simpler, smarter way to find and read research – Download the app and start your free 7-day trial today !  

Related Posts

article processing charges

Article Processing Charges: Impact on Open Access Publishing

article recommendation system

How Publishers Can Enhance Reader Engagement with R Discovery’s Article Recommendation System

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base

Methodology

  • How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

Published on January 2, 2023 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 11, 2023.

What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic .

There are five key steps to writing a literature review:

  • Search for relevant literature
  • Evaluate sources
  • Identify themes, debates, and gaps
  • Outline the structure
  • Write your literature review

A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sources—it analyzes, synthesizes , and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

What is the purpose of a literature review, examples of literature reviews, step 1 – search for relevant literature, step 2 – evaluate and select sources, step 3 – identify themes, debates, and gaps, step 4 – outline your literature review’s structure, step 5 – write your literature review, free lecture slides, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions, introduction.

  • Quick Run-through
  • Step 1 & 2

When you write a thesis , dissertation , or research paper , you will likely have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:

  • Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and its scholarly context
  • Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research
  • Position your work in relation to other researchers and theorists
  • Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate
  • Evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.

Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research. We’ve written a step-by-step guide that you can follow below.

Literature review guide

Don't submit your assignments before you do this

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students. Free citation check included.

related literature in relation to research

Try for free

Writing literature reviews can be quite challenging! A good starting point could be to look at some examples, depending on what kind of literature review you’d like to write.

  • Example literature review #1: “Why Do People Migrate? A Review of the Theoretical Literature” ( Theoretical literature review about the development of economic migration theory from the 1950s to today.)
  • Example literature review #2: “Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines” ( Methodological literature review about interdisciplinary knowledge acquisition and production.)
  • Example literature review #3: “The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Thematic literature review about the effects of technology on language acquisition.)
  • Example literature review #4: “Learners’ Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Chronological literature review about how the concept of listening skills has changed over time.)

You can also check out our templates with literature review examples and sample outlines at the links below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic .

If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions .

Make a list of keywords

Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list as you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search.

  • Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok
  • Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health
  • Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth

Search for relevant sources

Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:

  • Your university’s library catalogue
  • Google Scholar
  • Project Muse (humanities and social sciences)
  • Medline (life sciences and biomedicine)
  • EconLit (economics)
  • Inspec (physics, engineering and computer science)

You can also use boolean operators to help narrow down your search.

Make sure to read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.

You likely won’t be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on your topic, so it will be necessary to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your research question.

For each publication, ask yourself:

  • What question or problem is the author addressing?
  • What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
  • What are the key theories, models, and methods?
  • Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
  • What are the results and conclusions of the study?
  • How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?

Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.

You can use our template to summarize and evaluate sources you’re thinking about using. Click on either button below to download.

Take notes and cite your sources

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review.

It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism . It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, be sure you understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:

  • Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
  • Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
  • Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
  • Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
  • Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?

This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.

  • Most research has focused on young women.
  • There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media.
  • But there is still a lack of robust research on highly visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat—this is a gap that you could address in your own research.

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).

Chronological

The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.

Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.

If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.

Methodological

If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:

  • Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
  • Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
  • Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources

Theoretical

A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework . You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.

You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion . What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.

The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.

As you write, you can follow these tips:

  • Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
  • Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchers — add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
  • Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
  • Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts

In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.

When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting. Not a language expert? Check out Scribbr’s professional proofreading services !

This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review.

Scribbr slides are free to use, customize, and distribute for educational purposes.

Open Google Slides Download PowerPoint

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .

It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:

  • To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
  • To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
  • To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
  • To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
  • To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.

The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .

A literature review is a survey of credible sources on a topic, often used in dissertations , theses, and research papers . Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research. Literature reviews are set up similarly to other  academic texts , with an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion .

An  annotated bibliography is a list of  source references that has a short description (called an annotation ) for each of the sources. It is often assigned as part of the research process for a  paper .  

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, September 11). How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved June 24, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/literature-review/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, what is a theoretical framework | guide to organizing, what is a research methodology | steps & tips, how to write a research proposal | examples & templates, get unlimited documents corrected.

✔ Free APA citation check included ✔ Unlimited document corrections ✔ Specialized in correcting academic texts

  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • 5. The Literature Review
  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Applying Critical Thinking
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
  • Bibliography

A literature review surveys prior research published in books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have used in researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within existing scholarship about the topic.

Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . Fourth edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2014.

Importance of a Good Literature Review

A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories . A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem. The analytical features of a literature review might:

  • Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations,
  • Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates,
  • Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or
  • Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.

Given this, the purpose of a literature review is to:

  • Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied.
  • Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
  • Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
  • Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important].

Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2011; Knopf, Jeffrey W. "Doing a Literature Review." PS: Political Science and Politics 39 (January 2006): 127-132; Ridley, Diana. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students . 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2012.

Types of Literature Reviews

It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally among scholars that become part of the body of epistemological traditions within the field.

In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study.

Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply embedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e.g., educational reform; immigration control], argumentative approaches to analyzing the literature can be a legitimate and important form of discourse. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below].

Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. This is the most common form of review in the social sciences.

Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research.

Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis]. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.e. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and analysis techniques], how researchers draw upon a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection, and data analysis. This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study.

Systematic Review This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. The goal is to deliberately document, critically evaluate, and summarize scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research problem . Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?" This type of literature review is primarily applied to examining prior research studies in clinical medicine and allied health fields, but it is increasingly being used in the social sciences.

Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework.

NOTE: Most often the literature review will incorporate some combination of types. For example, a review that examines literature supporting or refuting an argument, assumption, or philosophical problem related to the research problem will also need to include writing supported by sources that establish the history of these arguments in the literature.

Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews."  Review of General Psychology 1 (September 1997): 311-320; Mark R. Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Kennedy, Mary M. "Defining a Literature." Educational Researcher 36 (April 2007): 139-147; Petticrew, Mark and Helen Roberts. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2006; Torracro, Richard. "Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples." Human Resource Development Review 4 (September 2005): 356-367; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Plakhotnik. "Literature Reviews, Conceptual Frameworks, and Theoretical Frameworks: Terms, Functions, and Distinctions." Human Ressource Development Review 8 (March 2008): 120-130; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  Thinking About Your Literature Review

The structure of a literature review should include the following in support of understanding the research problem :

  • An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review,
  • Division of works under review into themes or categories [e.g. works that support a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative approaches entirely],
  • An explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others,
  • Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research.

The critical evaluation of each work should consider :

  • Provenance -- what are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence [e.g. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings]?
  • Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported?
  • Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?
  • Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing?
  • Validity -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?

II.  Development of the Literature Review

Four Basic Stages of Writing 1.  Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? 2.  Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. 3.  Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. 4.  Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature.

Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is not specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: 1.  Roughly how many sources would be appropriate to include? 2.  What types of sources should I review (books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources)? 3.  Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? 4.  Should I evaluate the sources in any way beyond evaluating how they relate to understanding the research problem? 5.  Should I provide subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history? Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read, such as required readings in the course syllabus, are also excellent entry points into your own research. Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make the act of reviewing easier if you first limit scope of the research problem. A good strategy is to begin by searching the USC Libraries Catalog for recent books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not.

III.  Ways to Organize Your Literature Review

Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. For instance, you could order a review of literature on environmental studies of brown fields if the progression revealed, for example, a change in the soil collection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies. Thematic [“conceptual categories”] A thematic literature review is the most common approach to summarizing prior research in the social and behavioral sciences. Thematic reviews are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time, although the progression of time may still be incorporated into a thematic review. For example, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics could focus on the development of online political satire. While the study focuses on one topic, the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics, it would still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. The difference in this example between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: themes related to the role of the Internet in presidential politics. Note that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point being made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.

Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you. However, only include what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship about the research problem.

Here are examples of other sections, usually in the form of a single paragraph, you may need to include depending on the type of review you write:

  • Current Situation : Information necessary to understand the current topic or focus of the literature review.
  • Sources Used : Describes the methods and resources [e.g., databases] you used to identify the literature you reviewed.
  • History : The chronological progression of the field, the research literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology.
  • Selection Methods : Criteria you used to select (and perhaps exclude) sources in your literature review. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed [i.e., scholarly] sources.
  • Standards : Description of the way in which you present your information.
  • Questions for Further Research : What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review?

IV.  Writing Your Literature Review

Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues.

Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Related items that provide additional information, but that are not key to understanding the research problem, can be included in a list of further readings . Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are appropriate if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology that was coined by the author, is not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for using your own words in reviewing the literature. Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work and the work of others. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center. For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Even when paraphrasing an author’s work, you still must provide a citation to that work.

V.  Common Mistakes to Avoid

These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.

  • Sources in your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem;
  • You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevant sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem;
  • Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data;
  • Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis;
  • Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review;
  • Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and,
  • Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature.

Cook, Kathleen E. and Elise Murowchick. “Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another?” Psychology Learning and Teaching 13 (March 2014): 3-11; Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper . 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques . London: SAGE, 2011; Literature Review Handout. Online Writing Center. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2016; Ridley, Diana. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students . 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2012; Randolph, Justus J. “A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review." Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. vol. 14, June 2009; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016; Taylor, Dena. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra.

Writing Tip

Break Out of Your Disciplinary Box!

Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? You don’t want to substitute a thorough review of core research literature in your discipline for studies conducted in other fields of study. However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.

Frodeman, Robert. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity . New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Another Writing Tip

Don't Just Review for Content!

While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to writing this part of your paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Some questions to ask:

  • How are they organizing their ideas?
  • What methods have they used to study the problem?
  • What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem?
  • What sources have they cited to support their conclusions?
  • How have they used non-textual elements [e.g., charts, graphs, figures, etc.] to illustrate key points?

When you begin to write your literature review section, you'll be glad you dug deeper into how the research was designed and constructed because it establishes a means for developing more substantial analysis and interpretation of the research problem.

Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1 998.

Yet Another Writing Tip

When Do I Know I Can Stop Looking and Move On?

Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've thoroughly reviewed the literature:

  • Look for repeating patterns in the research findings . If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end. At this point consider: Does your study extend current research?  Does it forge a new path? Or, does is merely add more of the same thing being said?
  • Look at sources the authors cite to in their work . If you begin to see the same researchers cited again and again, then this is often an indication that no new ideas have been generated to address the research problem.
  • Search Google Scholar to identify who has subsequently cited leading scholars already identified in your literature review [see next sub-tab]. This is called citation tracking and there are a number of sources that can help you identify who has cited whom, particularly scholars from outside of your discipline. Here again, if the same authors are being cited again and again, this may indicate no new literature has been written on the topic.

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach . Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2016; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review . Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016.

  • << Previous: Theoretical Framework
  • Next: Citation Tracking >>
  • Last Updated: Jun 18, 2024 10:45 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide

Review of Related Literature: Format, Example, & How to Make RRL

A review of related literature is a separate paper or a part of an article that collects and synthesizes discussion on a topic. Its purpose is to show the current state of research on the issue and highlight gaps in existing knowledge. A literature review can be included in a research paper or scholarly article, typically following the introduction and before the research methods section.

The picture provides introductory definition of a review of related literature.

This article will clarify the definition, significance, and structure of a review of related literature. You’ll also learn how to organize your literature review and discover ideas for an RRL in different subjects.

🔤 What Is RRL?

  • ❗ Significance of Literature Review
  • 🔎 How to Search for Literature
  • 🧩 Literature Review Structure
  • 📋 Format of RRL — APA, MLA, & Others
  • ✍️ How to Write an RRL
  • 📚 Examples of RRL

🔗 References

A review of related literature (RRL) is a part of the research report that examines significant studies, theories, and concepts published in scholarly sources on a particular topic. An RRL includes 3 main components:

  • A short overview and critique of the previous research.
  • Similarities and differences between past studies and the current one.
  • An explanation of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the research.

❗ Significance of Review of Related Literature

Although the goal of a review of related literature differs depending on the discipline and its intended use, its significance cannot be overstated. Here are some examples of how a review might be beneficial:

  • It helps determine knowledge gaps .
  • It saves from duplicating research that has already been conducted.
  • It provides an overview of various research areas within the discipline.
  • It demonstrates the researcher’s familiarity with the topic.

🔎 How to Perform a Literature Search

Including a description of your search strategy in the literature review section can significantly increase your grade. You can search sources with the following steps:

You should specify all the keywords and their synonyms used to look for relevant sources.
Using your search terms, look through the online (libraries and databases) and offline (books and journals) sources related to your topic.
It is not possible to discuss all of the sources you have discovered. Instead, use the works of the most notable researchers and authors.
From the remaining references, you should pick those with the most significant contribution to the research area development.
Your literature should prioritize new publications over older ones to cover the latest research advancements.

🧩 Literature Review Structure Example

The majority of literature reviews follow a standard introduction-body-conclusion structure. Let’s look at the RRL structure in detail.

This image shows the literature review structure.

Introduction of Review of Related Literature: Sample

An introduction should clarify the study topic and the depth of the information to be delivered. It should also explain the types of sources used. If your lit. review is part of a larger research proposal or project, you can combine its introductory paragraph with the introduction of your paper.

Here is a sample introduction to an RRL about cyberbullying:

Bullying has troubled people since the beginning of time. However, with modern technological advancements, especially social media, bullying has evolved into cyberbullying. As a result, nowadays, teenagers and adults cannot flee their bullies, which makes them feel lonely and helpless. This literature review will examine recent studies on cyberbullying.

Sample Review of Related Literature Thesis

A thesis statement should include the central idea of your literature review and the primary supporting elements you discovered in the literature. Thesis statements are typically put at the end of the introductory paragraph.

Look at a sample thesis of a review of related literature:

This literature review shows that scholars have recently covered the issues of bullies’ motivation, the impact of bullying on victims and aggressors, common cyberbullying techniques, and victims’ coping strategies. However, there is still no agreement on the best practices to address cyberbullying.

Literature Review Body Paragraph Example

The main body of a literature review should provide an overview of the existing research on the issue. Body paragraphs should not just summarize each source but analyze them. You can organize your paragraphs with these 3 elements:

  • Claim . Start with a topic sentence linked to your literature review purpose.
  • Evidence . Cite relevant information from your chosen sources.
  • Discussion . Explain how the cited data supports your claim.

Here’s a literature review body paragraph example:

Scholars have examined the link between the aggressor and the victim. Beran et al. (2007) state that students bullied online often become cyberbullies themselves. Faucher et al. (2014) confirm this with their findings: they discovered that male and female students began engaging in cyberbullying after being subject to bullying. Hence, one can conclude that being a victim of bullying increases one’s likelihood of becoming a cyberbully.

Review of Related Literature: Conclusion

A conclusion presents a general consensus on the topic. Depending on your literature review purpose, it might include the following:

  • Introduction to further research . If you write a literature review as part of a larger research project, you can present your research question in your conclusion .
  • Overview of theories . You can summarize critical theories and concepts to help your reader understand the topic better.
  • Discussion of the gap . If you identified a research gap in the reviewed literature, your conclusion could explain why that gap is significant.

Check out a conclusion example that discusses a research gap:

There is extensive research into bullies’ motivation, the consequences of bullying for victims and aggressors, strategies for bullying, and coping with it. Yet, scholars still have not reached a consensus on what to consider the best practices to combat cyberbullying. This question is of great importance because of the significant adverse effects of cyberbullying on victims and bullies.

📋 Format of RRL — APA, MLA, & Others

In this section, we will discuss how to format an RRL according to the most common citation styles: APA, Chicago, MLA, and Harvard.

Writing a literature review using the APA7 style requires the following text formatting:

Times New Roman or Arial, 12 pt
Double spacing
All sides — 1″ (2.54 cm)
Top right-hand corner, starting with the title page
  • When using APA in-text citations , include the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses.
  • For direct quotations , you must also add the page number. If you use sources without page numbers, such as websites or e-books, include a paragraph number instead.
  • When referring to the author’s name in a sentence , you do not need to repeat it at the end of the sentence. Instead, include the year of publication inside the parentheses after their name.
  • The reference list should be included at the end of your literature review. It is always alphabetized by the last name of the author (from A to Z), and the lines are indented one-half inch from the left margin of your paper. Do not forget to invert authors’ names (the last name should come first) and include the full titles of journals instead of their abbreviations. If you use an online source, add its URL.

The RRL format in the Chicago style is as follows:

12-pt Times New Roman, Arial, or Palatino
Double spacing, single spacing is used to format block quotations, titles of tables and figures, footnotes, and bibliographical entries.
All sides — 1″ (2.54 cm)
Top right-hand corner. There should be no numbered pages on the title page or the page with the table of contents.
  • Author-date . You place your citations in brackets within the text, indicating the name of the author and the year of publication.
  • Notes and bibliography . You place your citations in numbered footnotes or endnotes to connect the citation back to the source in the bibliography.
  • The reference list, or bibliography , in Chicago style, is at the end of a literature review. The sources are arranged alphabetically and single-spaced. Each bibliography entry begins with the author’s name and the source’s title, followed by publication information, such as the city of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication.

Writing a literature review using the MLA style requires the following text formatting:

Font12-pt Times New Roman or Arial
Line spacingDouble spacing
MarginsAll sides — 1″ (2.54 cm)
Page numbersTop right-hand corner. Your last name should precede the page number.
Title pageNot required. Instead, include a header in the top left-hand corner of the first page with content. It should contain:
  • In the MLA format, you can cite a source in the text by indicating the author’s last name and the page number in parentheses at the end of the citation. If the cited information takes several pages, you need to include all the page numbers.
  • The reference list in MLA style is titled “ Works Cited .” In this section, all sources used in the paper should be listed in alphabetical order. Each entry should contain the author, title of the source, title of the journal or a larger volume, other contributors, version, number, publisher, and publication date.

The Harvard style requires you to use the following text formatting for your RRL:

12-pt Times New Roman or Arial
Double spacing
All sides — 1″ (2.54 cm)
Top right-hand corner. Your last name should precede the page number.
  • In-text citations in the Harvard style include the author’s last name and the year of publication. If you are using a direct quote in your literature review, you need to add the page number as well.
  • Arrange your list of references alphabetically. Each entry should contain the author’s last name, their initials, the year of publication, the title of the source, and other publication information, like the journal title and issue number or the publisher.

✍️ How to Write Review of Related Literature – Sample

Literature reviews can be organized in many ways depending on what you want to achieve with them. In this section, we will look at 3 examples of how you can write your RRL.

This image shows the organizational patterns of a literature review.

Thematic Literature Review

A thematic literature review is arranged around central themes or issues discussed in the sources. If you have identified some recurring themes in the literature, you can divide your RRL into sections that address various aspects of the topic. For example, if you examine studies on e-learning, you can distinguish such themes as the cost-effectiveness of online learning, the technologies used, and its effectiveness compared to traditional education.

Chronological Literature Review

A chronological literature review is a way to track the development of the topic over time. If you use this method, avoid merely listing and summarizing sources in chronological order. Instead, try to analyze the trends, turning moments, and critical debates that have shaped the field’s path. Also, you can give your interpretation of how and why specific advances occurred.

Methodological Literature Review

A methodological literature review differs from the preceding ones in that it usually doesn’t focus on the sources’ content. Instead, it is concerned with the research methods . So, if your references come from several disciplines or fields employing various research techniques, you can compare the findings and conclusions of different methodologies, for instance:

  • empirical vs. theoretical studies;
  • qualitative vs. quantitative research.

📚 Examples of Review of Related Literature and Studies

We have prepared a short example of RRL on climate change for you to see how everything works in practice!

Climate change is one of the most important issues nowadays. Based on a variety of facts, it is now clearer than ever that humans are altering the Earth's climate. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, causing sea level rise, a significant loss of Arctic ice, and other climate-related changes. This literature review provides a thorough summary of research on climate change, focusing on climate change fingerprints and evidence of human influence on the Earth's climate system.

Physical Mechanisms and Evidence of Human Influence

Scientists are convinced that climate change is directly influenced by the emission of greenhouse gases. They have carefully analyzed various climate data and evidence, concluding that the majority of the observed global warming over the past 50 years cannot be explained by natural factors alone. Instead, there is compelling evidence pointing to a significant contribution of human activities, primarily the emission of greenhouse gases (Walker, 2014). For example, based on simple physics calculations, doubled carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere can lead to a global temperature increase of approximately 1 degree Celsius. (Elderfield, 2022). In order to determine the human influence on climate, scientists still have to analyze a lot of natural changes that affect temperature, precipitation, and other components of climate on timeframes ranging from days to decades and beyond.

Fingerprinting Climate Change

Fingerprinting climate change is a useful tool to identify the causes of global warming because different factors leave unique marks on climate records. This is evident when scientists look beyond overall temperature changes and examine how warming is distributed geographically and over time (Watson, 2022). By investigating these climate patterns, scientists can obtain a more complex understanding of the connections between natural climate variability and climate variability caused by human activity.

Modeling Climate Change and Feedback

To accurately predict the consequences of feedback mechanisms, the rate of warming, and regional climate change, scientists can employ sophisticated mathematical models of the atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice (the cryosphere). These models are grounded in well-established physical laws and incorporate the latest scientific understanding of climate-related processes (Shuckburgh, 2013). Although different climate models produce slightly varying projections for future warming, they all will agree that feedback mechanisms play a significant role in amplifying the initial warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. (Meehl, 2019).

In conclusion, the literature on global warming indicates that there are well-understood physical processes that link variations in greenhouse gas concentrations to climate change. In addition, it covers the scientific proof that the rates of these gases in the atmosphere have increased and continue to rise fast. According to the sources, the majority of this recent change is almost definitely caused by greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activities. Citizens and governments can alter their energy production methods and consumption patterns to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, thus, the magnitude of climate change. By acting now, society can prevent the worst consequences of climate change and build a more resilient and sustainable future for generations to come.

Have you ever struggled with finding the topic for an RRL in different subjects? Read the following paragraphs to get some ideas!

Nursing Literature Review Example

Many topics in the nursing field require research. For example, you can write a review of literature related to dengue fever . Give a general overview of dengue virus infections, including its clinical symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy.

Another good idea is to review related literature and studies about teenage pregnancy . This review can describe the effectiveness of specific programs for adolescent mothers and their children and summarize recommendations for preventing early pregnancy.

📝 Check out some more valuable examples below:

  • Hospital Readmissions: Literature Review .
  • Literature Review: Lower Sepsis Mortality Rates .
  • Breast Cancer: Literature Review .
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Literature Review .
  • PICO for Pressure Ulcers: Literature Review .
  • COVID-19 Spread Prevention: Literature Review .
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Literature Review .
  • Hypertension Treatment Adherence: Literature Review .
  • Neonatal Sepsis Prevention: Literature Review .
  • Healthcare-Associated Infections: Literature Review .
  • Understaffing in Nursing: Literature Review .

Psychology Literature Review Example

If you look for an RRL topic in psychology , you can write a review of related literature about stress . Summarize scientific evidence about stress stages, side effects, types, or reduction strategies. Or you can write a review of related literature about computer game addiction . In this case, you may concentrate on the neural mechanisms underlying the internet gaming disorder, compare it to other addictions, or evaluate treatment strategies.

A review of related literature about cyberbullying is another interesting option. You can highlight the impact of cyberbullying on undergraduate students’ academic, social, and emotional development.

📝 Look at the examples that we have prepared for you to come up with some more ideas:

  • Mindfulness in Counseling: A Literature Review .
  • Team-Building Across Cultures: Literature Review .
  • Anxiety and Decision Making: Literature Review .
  • Literature Review on Depression .
  • Literature Review on Narcissism .
  • Effects of Depression Among Adolescents .
  • Causes and Effects of Anxiety in Children .

Literature Review — Sociology Example

Sociological research poses critical questions about social structures and phenomena. For example, you can write a review of related literature about child labor , exploring cultural beliefs and social norms that normalize the exploitation of children. Or you can create a review of related literature about social media . It can investigate the impact of social media on relationships between adolescents or the role of social networks on immigrants’ acculturation .

📝 You can find some more ideas below!

  • Single Mothers’ Experiences of Relationships with Their Adolescent Sons .
  • Teachers and Students’ Gender-Based Interactions .
  • Gender Identity: Biological Perspective and Social Cognitive Theory .
  • Gender: Culturally-Prescribed Role or Biological Sex .
  • The Influence of Opioid Misuse on Academic Achievement of Veteran Students .
  • The Importance of Ethics in Research .
  • The Role of Family and Social Network Support in Mental Health .

Education Literature Review Example

For your education studies , you can write a review of related literature about academic performance to determine factors that affect student achievement and highlight research gaps. One more idea is to create a review of related literature on study habits , considering their role in the student’s life and academic outcomes.

You can also evaluate a computerized grading system in a review of related literature to single out its advantages and barriers to implementation. Or you can complete a review of related literature on instructional materials to identify their most common types and effects on student achievement.

📝 Find some inspiration in the examples below:

  • Literature Review on Online Learning Challenges From COVID-19 .
  • Education, Leadership, and Management: Literature Review .
  • Literature Review: Standardized Testing Bias .
  • Bullying of Disabled Children in School .
  • Interventions and Letter & Sound Recognition: A Literature Review .
  • Social-Emotional Skills Program for Preschoolers .
  • Effectiveness of Educational Leadership Management Skills .

Business Research Literature Review

If you’re a business student, you can focus on customer satisfaction in your review of related literature. Discuss specific customer satisfaction features and how it is affected by service quality and prices. You can also create a theoretical literature review about consumer buying behavior to evaluate theories that have significantly contributed to understanding how consumers make purchasing decisions.

📝 Look at the examples to get more exciting ideas:

  • Leadership and Communication: Literature Review .
  • Human Resource Development: Literature Review .
  • Project Management. Literature Review .
  • Strategic HRM: A Literature Review .
  • Customer Relationship Management: Literature Review .
  • Literature Review on International Financial Reporting Standards .
  • Cultures of Management: Literature Review .

To conclude, a review of related literature is a significant genre of scholarly works that can be applied in various disciplines and for multiple goals. The sources examined in an RRL provide theoretical frameworks for future studies and help create original research questions and hypotheses.

When you finish your outstanding literature review, don’t forget to check whether it sounds logical and coherent. Our text-to-speech tool can help you with that!

  • Literature Reviews | University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Writing a Literature Review | Purdue Online Writing Lab
  • Learn How to Write a Review of Literature | University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It | University of Toronto
  • Writing a Literature Review | UC San Diego
  • Conduct a Literature Review | The University of Arizona
  • Methods for Literature Reviews | National Library of Medicine
  • Literature Reviews: 5. Write the Review | Georgia State University

How to Write an Animal Testing Essay: Tips for Argumentative & Persuasive Papers

Descriptive essay topics: examples, outline, & more.

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library

  • Collections
  • Research Help

YSN Doctoral Programs: Steps in Conducting a Literature Review

  • Biomedical Databases
  • Global (Public Health) Databases
  • Soc. Sci., History, and Law Databases
  • Grey Literature
  • Trials Registers
  • Data and Statistics
  • Public Policy
  • Google Tips
  • Recommended Books
  • Steps in Conducting a Literature Review

What is a literature review?

A literature review is an integrated analysis -- not just a summary-- of scholarly writings and other relevant evidence related directly to your research question.  That is, it represents a synthesis of the evidence that provides background information on your topic and shows a association between the evidence and your research question.

A literature review may be a stand alone work or the introduction to a larger research paper, depending on the assignment.  Rely heavily on the guidelines your instructor has given you.

Why is it important?

A literature review is important because it:

  • Explains the background of research on a topic.
  • Demonstrates why a topic is significant to a subject area.
  • Discovers relationships between research studies/ideas.
  • Identifies major themes, concepts, and researchers on a topic.
  • Identifies critical gaps and points of disagreement.
  • Discusses further research questions that logically come out of the previous studies.

APA7 Style resources

Cover Art

APA Style Blog - for those harder to find answers

1. Choose a topic. Define your research question.

Your literature review should be guided by your central research question.  The literature represents background and research developments related to a specific research question, interpreted and analyzed by you in a synthesized way.

  • Make sure your research question is not too broad or too narrow.  Is it manageable?
  • Begin writing down terms that are related to your question. These will be useful for searches later.
  • If you have the opportunity, discuss your topic with your professor and your class mates.

2. Decide on the scope of your review

How many studies do you need to look at? How comprehensive should it be? How many years should it cover? 

  • This may depend on your assignment.  How many sources does the assignment require?

3. Select the databases you will use to conduct your searches.

Make a list of the databases you will search. 

Where to find databases:

  • use the tabs on this guide
  • Find other databases in the Nursing Information Resources web page
  • More on the Medical Library web page
  • ... and more on the Yale University Library web page

4. Conduct your searches to find the evidence. Keep track of your searches.

  • Use the key words in your question, as well as synonyms for those words, as terms in your search. Use the database tutorials for help.
  • Save the searches in the databases. This saves time when you want to redo, or modify, the searches. It is also helpful to use as a guide is the searches are not finding any useful results.
  • Review the abstracts of research studies carefully. This will save you time.
  • Use the bibliographies and references of research studies you find to locate others.
  • Check with your professor, or a subject expert in the field, if you are missing any key works in the field.
  • Ask your librarian for help at any time.
  • Use a citation manager, such as EndNote as the repository for your citations. See the EndNote tutorials for help.

Review the literature

Some questions to help you analyze the research:

  • What was the research question of the study you are reviewing? What were the authors trying to discover?
  • Was the research funded by a source that could influence the findings?
  • What were the research methodologies? Analyze its literature review, the samples and variables used, the results, and the conclusions.
  • Does the research seem to be complete? Could it have been conducted more soundly? What further questions does it raise?
  • If there are conflicting studies, why do you think that is?
  • How are the authors viewed in the field? Has this study been cited? If so, how has it been analyzed?

Tips: 

  • Review the abstracts carefully.  
  • Keep careful notes so that you may track your thought processes during the research process.
  • Create a matrix of the studies for easy analysis, and synthesis, across all of the studies.
  • << Previous: Recommended Books
  • Last Updated: Jun 20, 2024 9:08 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.yale.edu/YSNDoctoral

related literature in relation to research

Get science-backed answers as you write with Paperpal's Research feature

What is a Literature Review? How to Write It (with Examples)

literature review

A literature review is a critical analysis and synthesis of existing research on a particular topic. It provides an overview of the current state of knowledge, identifies gaps, and highlights key findings in the literature. 1 The purpose of a literature review is to situate your own research within the context of existing scholarship, demonstrating your understanding of the topic and showing how your work contributes to the ongoing conversation in the field. Learning how to write a literature review is a critical tool for successful research. Your ability to summarize and synthesize prior research pertaining to a certain topic demonstrates your grasp on the topic of study, and assists in the learning process. 

Table of Contents

  • What is the purpose of literature review? 
  • a. Habitat Loss and Species Extinction: 
  • b. Range Shifts and Phenological Changes: 
  • c. Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: 
  • d. Adaptive Strategies and Conservation Efforts: 

How to write a good literature review 

  • Choose a Topic and Define the Research Question: 
  • Decide on the Scope of Your Review: 
  • Select Databases for Searches: 
  • Conduct Searches and Keep Track: 
  • Review the Literature: 
  • Organize and Write Your Literature Review: 
  • How to write a literature review faster with Paperpal? 
  • Frequently asked questions 

What is a literature review?

A well-conducted literature review demonstrates the researcher’s familiarity with the existing literature, establishes the context for their own research, and contributes to scholarly conversations on the topic. One of the purposes of a literature review is also to help researchers avoid duplicating previous work and ensure that their research is informed by and builds upon the existing body of knowledge.

related literature in relation to research

What is the purpose of literature review?

A literature review serves several important purposes within academic and research contexts. Here are some key objectives and functions of a literature review: 2  

1. Contextualizing the Research Problem: The literature review provides a background and context for the research problem under investigation. It helps to situate the study within the existing body of knowledge. 

2. Identifying Gaps in Knowledge: By identifying gaps, contradictions, or areas requiring further research, the researcher can shape the research question and justify the significance of the study. This is crucial for ensuring that the new research contributes something novel to the field. 

Find academic papers related to your research topic faster. Try Research on Paperpal  

3. Understanding Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks: Literature reviews help researchers gain an understanding of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks used in previous studies. This aids in the development of a theoretical framework for the current research. 

4. Providing Methodological Insights: Another purpose of literature reviews is that it allows researchers to learn about the methodologies employed in previous studies. This can help in choosing appropriate research methods for the current study and avoiding pitfalls that others may have encountered. 

5. Establishing Credibility: A well-conducted literature review demonstrates the researcher’s familiarity with existing scholarship, establishing their credibility and expertise in the field. It also helps in building a solid foundation for the new research. 

6. Informing Hypotheses or Research Questions: The literature review guides the formulation of hypotheses or research questions by highlighting relevant findings and areas of uncertainty in existing literature. 

Literature review example

Let’s delve deeper with a literature review example: Let’s say your literature review is about the impact of climate change on biodiversity. You might format your literature review into sections such as the effects of climate change on habitat loss and species extinction, phenological changes, and marine biodiversity. Each section would then summarize and analyze relevant studies in those areas, highlighting key findings and identifying gaps in the research. The review would conclude by emphasizing the need for further research on specific aspects of the relationship between climate change and biodiversity. The following literature review template provides a glimpse into the recommended literature review structure and content, demonstrating how research findings are organized around specific themes within a broader topic. 

Literature Review on Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity:

Climate change is a global phenomenon with far-reaching consequences, including significant impacts on biodiversity. This literature review synthesizes key findings from various studies: 

a. Habitat Loss and Species Extinction:

Climate change-induced alterations in temperature and precipitation patterns contribute to habitat loss, affecting numerous species (Thomas et al., 2004). The review discusses how these changes increase the risk of extinction, particularly for species with specific habitat requirements. 

b. Range Shifts and Phenological Changes:

Observations of range shifts and changes in the timing of biological events (phenology) are documented in response to changing climatic conditions (Parmesan & Yohe, 2003). These shifts affect ecosystems and may lead to mismatches between species and their resources. 

c. Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs:

The review explores the impact of climate change on marine biodiversity, emphasizing ocean acidification’s threat to coral reefs (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007). Changes in pH levels negatively affect coral calcification, disrupting the delicate balance of marine ecosystems. 

d. Adaptive Strategies and Conservation Efforts:

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, the literature review discusses various adaptive strategies adopted by species and conservation efforts aimed at mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity (Hannah et al., 2007). It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary approaches for effective conservation planning. 

related literature in relation to research

Strengthen your literature review with factual insights. Try Research on Paperpal for free!    

Writing a literature review involves summarizing and synthesizing existing research on a particular topic. A good literature review format should include the following elements. 

Introduction: The introduction sets the stage for your literature review, providing context and introducing the main focus of your review. 

  • Opening Statement: Begin with a general statement about the broader topic and its significance in the field. 
  • Scope and Purpose: Clearly define the scope of your literature review. Explain the specific research question or objective you aim to address. 
  • Organizational Framework: Briefly outline the structure of your literature review, indicating how you will categorize and discuss the existing research. 
  • Significance of the Study: Highlight why your literature review is important and how it contributes to the understanding of the chosen topic. 
  • Thesis Statement: Conclude the introduction with a concise thesis statement that outlines the main argument or perspective you will develop in the body of the literature review. 

Body: The body of the literature review is where you provide a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, grouping studies based on themes, methodologies, or other relevant criteria. 

  • Organize by Theme or Concept: Group studies that share common themes, concepts, or methodologies. Discuss each theme or concept in detail, summarizing key findings and identifying gaps or areas of disagreement. 
  • Critical Analysis: Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each study. Discuss the methodologies used, the quality of evidence, and the overall contribution of each work to the understanding of the topic. 
  • Synthesis of Findings: Synthesize the information from different studies to highlight trends, patterns, or areas of consensus in the literature. 
  • Identification of Gaps: Discuss any gaps or limitations in the existing research and explain how your review contributes to filling these gaps. 
  • Transition between Sections: Provide smooth transitions between different themes or concepts to maintain the flow of your literature review. 

Write and Cite as you go with Paperpal Research. Start now for free.   

Conclusion: The conclusion of your literature review should summarize the main findings, highlight the contributions of the review, and suggest avenues for future research. 

  • Summary of Key Findings: Recap the main findings from the literature and restate how they contribute to your research question or objective. 
  • Contributions to the Field: Discuss the overall contribution of your literature review to the existing knowledge in the field. 
  • Implications and Applications: Explore the practical implications of the findings and suggest how they might impact future research or practice. 
  • Recommendations for Future Research: Identify areas that require further investigation and propose potential directions for future research in the field. 
  • Final Thoughts: Conclude with a final reflection on the importance of your literature review and its relevance to the broader academic community. 

what is a literature review

Conducting a literature review

Conducting a literature review is an essential step in research that involves reviewing and analyzing existing literature on a specific topic. It’s important to know how to do a literature review effectively, so here are the steps to follow: 1  

Choose a Topic and Define the Research Question:

  • Select a topic that is relevant to your field of study. 
  • Clearly define your research question or objective. Determine what specific aspect of the topic do you want to explore? 

Decide on the Scope of Your Review:

  • Determine the timeframe for your literature review. Are you focusing on recent developments, or do you want a historical overview? 
  • Consider the geographical scope. Is your review global, or are you focusing on a specific region? 
  • Define the inclusion and exclusion criteria. What types of sources will you include? Are there specific types of studies or publications you will exclude? 

Select Databases for Searches:

  • Identify relevant databases for your field. Examples include PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. 
  • Consider searching in library catalogs, institutional repositories, and specialized databases related to your topic. 

Conduct Searches and Keep Track:

  • Develop a systematic search strategy using keywords, Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT), and other search techniques. 
  • Record and document your search strategy for transparency and replicability. 
  • Keep track of the articles, including publication details, abstracts, and links. Use citation management tools like EndNote, Zotero, or Mendeley to organize your references. 

Review the Literature:

  • Evaluate the relevance and quality of each source. Consider the methodology, sample size, and results of studies. 
  • Organize the literature by themes or key concepts. Identify patterns, trends, and gaps in the existing research. 
  • Summarize key findings and arguments from each source. Compare and contrast different perspectives. 
  • Identify areas where there is a consensus in the literature and where there are conflicting opinions. 
  • Provide critical analysis and synthesis of the literature. What are the strengths and weaknesses of existing research? 

Organize and Write Your Literature Review:

  • Literature review outline should be based on themes, chronological order, or methodological approaches. 
  • Write a clear and coherent narrative that synthesizes the information gathered. 
  • Use proper citations for each source and ensure consistency in your citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.). 
  • Conclude your literature review by summarizing key findings, identifying gaps, and suggesting areas for future research. 

Whether you’re exploring a new research field or finding new angles to develop an existing topic, sifting through hundreds of papers can take more time than you have to spare. But what if you could find science-backed insights with verified citations in seconds? That’s the power of Paperpal’s new Research feature!  

How to write a literature review faster with Paperpal?

Paperpal, an AI writing assistant, integrates powerful academic search capabilities within its writing platform. With the Research feature, you get 100% factual insights, with citations backed by 250M+ verified research articles, directly within your writing interface with the option to save relevant references in your Citation Library. By eliminating the need to switch tabs to find answers to all your research questions, Paperpal saves time and helps you stay focused on your writing.   

Here’s how to use the Research feature:  

  • Ask a question: Get started with a new document on paperpal.com. Click on the “Research” feature and type your question in plain English. Paperpal will scour over 250 million research articles, including conference papers and preprints, to provide you with accurate insights and citations. 
  • Review and Save: Paperpal summarizes the information, while citing sources and listing relevant reads. You can quickly scan the results to identify relevant references and save these directly to your built-in citations library for later access. 
  • Cite with Confidence: Paperpal makes it easy to incorporate relevant citations and references into your writing, ensuring your arguments are well-supported by credible sources. This translates to a polished, well-researched literature review. 

The literature review sample and detailed advice on writing and conducting a review will help you produce a well-structured report. But remember that a good literature review is an ongoing process, and it may be necessary to revisit and update it as your research progresses. By combining effortless research with an easy citation process, Paperpal Research streamlines the literature review process and empowers you to write faster and with more confidence. Try Paperpal Research now and see for yourself.  

Frequently asked questions

A literature review is a critical and comprehensive analysis of existing literature (published and unpublished works) on a specific topic or research question and provides a synthesis of the current state of knowledge in a particular field. A well-conducted literature review is crucial for researchers to build upon existing knowledge, avoid duplication of efforts, and contribute to the advancement of their field. It also helps researchers situate their work within a broader context and facilitates the development of a sound theoretical and conceptual framework for their studies.

Literature review is a crucial component of research writing, providing a solid background for a research paper’s investigation. The aim is to keep professionals up to date by providing an understanding of ongoing developments within a specific field, including research methods, and experimental techniques used in that field, and present that knowledge in the form of a written report. Also, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the scholar in his or her field.  

Before writing a literature review, it’s essential to undertake several preparatory steps to ensure that your review is well-researched, organized, and focused. This includes choosing a topic of general interest to you and doing exploratory research on that topic, writing an annotated bibliography, and noting major points, especially those that relate to the position you have taken on the topic. 

Literature reviews and academic research papers are essential components of scholarly work but serve different purposes within the academic realm. 3 A literature review aims to provide a foundation for understanding the current state of research on a particular topic, identify gaps or controversies, and lay the groundwork for future research. Therefore, it draws heavily from existing academic sources, including books, journal articles, and other scholarly publications. In contrast, an academic research paper aims to present new knowledge, contribute to the academic discourse, and advance the understanding of a specific research question. Therefore, it involves a mix of existing literature (in the introduction and literature review sections) and original data or findings obtained through research methods. 

Literature reviews are essential components of academic and research papers, and various strategies can be employed to conduct them effectively. If you want to know how to write a literature review for a research paper, here are four common approaches that are often used by researchers.  Chronological Review: This strategy involves organizing the literature based on the chronological order of publication. It helps to trace the development of a topic over time, showing how ideas, theories, and research have evolved.  Thematic Review: Thematic reviews focus on identifying and analyzing themes or topics that cut across different studies. Instead of organizing the literature chronologically, it is grouped by key themes or concepts, allowing for a comprehensive exploration of various aspects of the topic.  Methodological Review: This strategy involves organizing the literature based on the research methods employed in different studies. It helps to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies and allows the reader to evaluate the reliability and validity of the research findings.  Theoretical Review: A theoretical review examines the literature based on the theoretical frameworks used in different studies. This approach helps to identify the key theories that have been applied to the topic and assess their contributions to the understanding of the subject.  It’s important to note that these strategies are not mutually exclusive, and a literature review may combine elements of more than one approach. The choice of strategy depends on the research question, the nature of the literature available, and the goals of the review. Additionally, other strategies, such as integrative reviews or systematic reviews, may be employed depending on the specific requirements of the research.

The literature review format can vary depending on the specific publication guidelines. However, there are some common elements and structures that are often followed. Here is a general guideline for the format of a literature review:  Introduction:   Provide an overview of the topic.  Define the scope and purpose of the literature review.  State the research question or objective.  Body:   Organize the literature by themes, concepts, or chronology.  Critically analyze and evaluate each source.  Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the studies.  Highlight any methodological limitations or biases.  Identify patterns, connections, or contradictions in the existing research.  Conclusion:   Summarize the key points discussed in the literature review.  Highlight the research gap.  Address the research question or objective stated in the introduction.  Highlight the contributions of the review and suggest directions for future research.

Both annotated bibliographies and literature reviews involve the examination of scholarly sources. While annotated bibliographies focus on individual sources with brief annotations, literature reviews provide a more in-depth, integrated, and comprehensive analysis of existing literature on a specific topic. The key differences are as follows: 

 Annotated Bibliography Literature Review 
Purpose List of citations of books, articles, and other sources with a brief description (annotation) of each source. Comprehensive and critical analysis of existing literature on a specific topic. 
Focus Summary and evaluation of each source, including its relevance, methodology, and key findings. Provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on a particular subject and identifies gaps, trends, and patterns in existing literature. 
Structure Each citation is followed by a concise paragraph (annotation) that describes the source’s content, methodology, and its contribution to the topic. The literature review is organized thematically or chronologically and involves a synthesis of the findings from different sources to build a narrative or argument. 
Length Typically 100-200 words Length of literature review ranges from a few pages to several chapters 
Independence Each source is treated separately, with less emphasis on synthesizing the information across sources. The writer synthesizes information from multiple sources to present a cohesive overview of the topic. 

References 

  • Denney, A. S., & Tewksbury, R. (2013). How to write a literature review.  Journal of criminal justice education ,  24 (2), 218-234. 
  • Pan, M. L. (2016).  Preparing literature reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches . Taylor & Francis. 
  • Cantero, C. (2019). How to write a literature review.  San José State University Writing Center . 

Paperpal is an AI writing assistant that help academics write better, faster with real-time suggestions for in-depth language and grammar correction. Trained on millions of research manuscripts enhanced by professional academic editors, Paperpal delivers human precision at machine speed.  

Try it for free or upgrade to  Paperpal Prime , which unlocks unlimited access to premium features like academic translation, paraphrasing, contextual synonyms, consistency checks and more. It’s like always having a professional academic editor by your side! Go beyond limitations and experience the future of academic writing.  Get Paperpal Prime now at just US$19 a month!

Related Reads:

  • Empirical Research: A Comprehensive Guide for Academics 
  • How to Write a Scientific Paper in 10 Steps 
  • How Long Should a Chapter Be?
  • How to Use Paperpal to Generate Emails & Cover Letters?

6 Tips for Post-Doc Researchers to Take Their Career to the Next Level

Self-plagiarism in research: what it is and how to avoid it, you may also like, how to structure an essay, leveraging generative ai to enhance student understanding of..., what’s the best chatgpt alternative for academic writing, how to write a good hook for essays,..., addressing peer review feedback and mastering manuscript revisions..., how paperpal can boost comprehension and foster interdisciplinary..., what is the importance of a concept paper..., how to write the first draft of a..., mla works cited page: format, template & examples, how to ace grant writing for research funding....

  • Privacy Policy

Research Method

Home » Literature Review – Types Writing Guide and Examples

Literature Review – Types Writing Guide and Examples

Table of Contents

Literature Review

Literature Review

Definition:

A literature review is a comprehensive and critical analysis of the existing literature on a particular topic or research question. It involves identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing relevant literature, including scholarly articles, books, and other sources, to provide a summary and critical assessment of what is known about the topic.

Types of Literature Review

Types of Literature Review are as follows:

  • Narrative literature review : This type of review involves a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of the available literature on a particular topic or research question. It is often used as an introductory section of a research paper.
  • Systematic literature review: This is a rigorous and structured review that follows a pre-defined protocol to identify, evaluate, and synthesize all relevant studies on a specific research question. It is often used in evidence-based practice and systematic reviews.
  • Meta-analysis: This is a quantitative review that uses statistical methods to combine data from multiple studies to derive a summary effect size. It provides a more precise estimate of the overall effect than any individual study.
  • Scoping review: This is a preliminary review that aims to map the existing literature on a broad topic area to identify research gaps and areas for further investigation.
  • Critical literature review : This type of review evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on a particular topic or research question. It aims to provide a critical analysis of the literature and identify areas where further research is needed.
  • Conceptual literature review: This review synthesizes and integrates theories and concepts from multiple sources to provide a new perspective on a particular topic. It aims to provide a theoretical framework for understanding a particular research question.
  • Rapid literature review: This is a quick review that provides a snapshot of the current state of knowledge on a specific research question or topic. It is often used when time and resources are limited.
  • Thematic literature review : This review identifies and analyzes common themes and patterns across a body of literature on a particular topic. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature and identify key themes and concepts.
  • Realist literature review: This review is often used in social science research and aims to identify how and why certain interventions work in certain contexts. It takes into account the context and complexities of real-world situations.
  • State-of-the-art literature review : This type of review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in a particular field, highlighting the most recent and relevant research. It is often used in fields where knowledge is rapidly evolving, such as technology or medicine.
  • Integrative literature review: This type of review synthesizes and integrates findings from multiple studies on a particular topic to identify patterns, themes, and gaps in the literature. It aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Umbrella literature review : This review is used to provide a broad overview of a large and diverse body of literature on a particular topic. It aims to identify common themes and patterns across different areas of research.
  • Historical literature review: This type of review examines the historical development of research on a particular topic or research question. It aims to provide a historical context for understanding the current state of knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Problem-oriented literature review : This review focuses on a specific problem or issue and examines the literature to identify potential solutions or interventions. It aims to provide practical recommendations for addressing a particular problem or issue.
  • Mixed-methods literature review : This type of review combines quantitative and qualitative methods to synthesize and analyze the available literature on a particular topic. It aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the research question by combining different types of evidence.

Parts of Literature Review

Parts of a literature review are as follows:

Introduction

The introduction of a literature review typically provides background information on the research topic and why it is important. It outlines the objectives of the review, the research question or hypothesis, and the scope of the review.

Literature Search

This section outlines the search strategy and databases used to identify relevant literature. The search terms used, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and any limitations of the search are described.

Literature Analysis

The literature analysis is the main body of the literature review. This section summarizes and synthesizes the literature that is relevant to the research question or hypothesis. The review should be organized thematically, chronologically, or by methodology, depending on the research objectives.

Critical Evaluation

Critical evaluation involves assessing the quality and validity of the literature. This includes evaluating the reliability and validity of the studies reviewed, the methodology used, and the strength of the evidence.

The conclusion of the literature review should summarize the main findings, identify any gaps in the literature, and suggest areas for future research. It should also reiterate the importance of the research question or hypothesis and the contribution of the literature review to the overall research project.

The references list includes all the sources cited in the literature review, and follows a specific referencing style (e.g., APA, MLA, Harvard).

How to write Literature Review

Here are some steps to follow when writing a literature review:

  • Define your research question or topic : Before starting your literature review, it is essential to define your research question or topic. This will help you identify relevant literature and determine the scope of your review.
  • Conduct a comprehensive search: Use databases and search engines to find relevant literature. Look for peer-reviewed articles, books, and other academic sources that are relevant to your research question or topic.
  • Evaluate the sources: Once you have found potential sources, evaluate them critically to determine their relevance, credibility, and quality. Look for recent publications, reputable authors, and reliable sources of data and evidence.
  • Organize your sources: Group the sources by theme, method, or research question. This will help you identify similarities and differences among the literature, and provide a structure for your literature review.
  • Analyze and synthesize the literature : Analyze each source in depth, identifying the key findings, methodologies, and conclusions. Then, synthesize the information from the sources, identifying patterns and themes in the literature.
  • Write the literature review : Start with an introduction that provides an overview of the topic and the purpose of the literature review. Then, organize the literature according to your chosen structure, and analyze and synthesize the sources. Finally, provide a conclusion that summarizes the key findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in knowledge, and suggests areas for future research.
  • Edit and proofread: Once you have written your literature review, edit and proofread it carefully to ensure that it is well-organized, clear, and concise.

Examples of Literature Review

Here’s an example of how a literature review can be conducted for a thesis on the topic of “ The Impact of Social Media on Teenagers’ Mental Health”:

  • Start by identifying the key terms related to your research topic. In this case, the key terms are “social media,” “teenagers,” and “mental health.”
  • Use academic databases like Google Scholar, JSTOR, or PubMed to search for relevant articles, books, and other publications. Use these keywords in your search to narrow down your results.
  • Evaluate the sources you find to determine if they are relevant to your research question. You may want to consider the publication date, author’s credentials, and the journal or book publisher.
  • Begin reading and taking notes on each source, paying attention to key findings, methodologies used, and any gaps in the research.
  • Organize your findings into themes or categories. For example, you might categorize your sources into those that examine the impact of social media on self-esteem, those that explore the effects of cyberbullying, and those that investigate the relationship between social media use and depression.
  • Synthesize your findings by summarizing the key themes and highlighting any gaps or inconsistencies in the research. Identify areas where further research is needed.
  • Use your literature review to inform your research questions and hypotheses for your thesis.

For example, after conducting a literature review on the impact of social media on teenagers’ mental health, a thesis might look like this:

“Using a mixed-methods approach, this study aims to investigate the relationship between social media use and mental health outcomes in teenagers. Specifically, the study will examine the effects of cyberbullying, social comparison, and excessive social media use on self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Through an analysis of survey data and qualitative interviews with teenagers, the study will provide insight into the complex relationship between social media use and mental health outcomes, and identify strategies for promoting positive mental health outcomes in young people.”

Reference: Smith, J., Jones, M., & Lee, S. (2019). The effects of social media use on adolescent mental health: A systematic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(2), 154-165. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.03.024

Reference Example: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or URL

Applications of Literature Review

some applications of literature review in different fields:

  • Social Sciences: In social sciences, literature reviews are used to identify gaps in existing research, to develop research questions, and to provide a theoretical framework for research. Literature reviews are commonly used in fields such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, and political science.
  • Natural Sciences: In natural sciences, literature reviews are used to summarize and evaluate the current state of knowledge in a particular field or subfield. Literature reviews can help researchers identify areas where more research is needed and provide insights into the latest developments in a particular field. Fields such as biology, chemistry, and physics commonly use literature reviews.
  • Health Sciences: In health sciences, literature reviews are used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, identify best practices, and determine areas where more research is needed. Literature reviews are commonly used in fields such as medicine, nursing, and public health.
  • Humanities: In humanities, literature reviews are used to identify gaps in existing knowledge, develop new interpretations of texts or cultural artifacts, and provide a theoretical framework for research. Literature reviews are commonly used in fields such as history, literary studies, and philosophy.

Role of Literature Review in Research

Here are some applications of literature review in research:

  • Identifying Research Gaps : Literature review helps researchers identify gaps in existing research and literature related to their research question. This allows them to develop new research questions and hypotheses to fill those gaps.
  • Developing Theoretical Framework: Literature review helps researchers develop a theoretical framework for their research. By analyzing and synthesizing existing literature, researchers can identify the key concepts, theories, and models that are relevant to their research.
  • Selecting Research Methods : Literature review helps researchers select appropriate research methods and techniques based on previous research. It also helps researchers to identify potential biases or limitations of certain methods and techniques.
  • Data Collection and Analysis: Literature review helps researchers in data collection and analysis by providing a foundation for the development of data collection instruments and methods. It also helps researchers to identify relevant data sources and identify potential data analysis techniques.
  • Communicating Results: Literature review helps researchers to communicate their results effectively by providing a context for their research. It also helps to justify the significance of their findings in relation to existing research and literature.

Purpose of Literature Review

Some of the specific purposes of a literature review are as follows:

  • To provide context: A literature review helps to provide context for your research by situating it within the broader body of literature on the topic.
  • To identify gaps and inconsistencies: A literature review helps to identify areas where further research is needed or where there are inconsistencies in the existing literature.
  • To synthesize information: A literature review helps to synthesize the information from multiple sources and present a coherent and comprehensive picture of the current state of knowledge on the topic.
  • To identify key concepts and theories : A literature review helps to identify key concepts and theories that are relevant to your research question and provide a theoretical framework for your study.
  • To inform research design: A literature review can inform the design of your research study by identifying appropriate research methods, data sources, and research questions.

Characteristics of Literature Review

Some Characteristics of Literature Review are as follows:

  • Identifying gaps in knowledge: A literature review helps to identify gaps in the existing knowledge and research on a specific topic or research question. By analyzing and synthesizing the literature, you can identify areas where further research is needed and where new insights can be gained.
  • Establishing the significance of your research: A literature review helps to establish the significance of your own research by placing it in the context of existing research. By demonstrating the relevance of your research to the existing literature, you can establish its importance and value.
  • Informing research design and methodology : A literature review helps to inform research design and methodology by identifying the most appropriate research methods, techniques, and instruments. By reviewing the literature, you can identify the strengths and limitations of different research methods and techniques, and select the most appropriate ones for your own research.
  • Supporting arguments and claims: A literature review provides evidence to support arguments and claims made in academic writing. By citing and analyzing the literature, you can provide a solid foundation for your own arguments and claims.
  • I dentifying potential collaborators and mentors: A literature review can help identify potential collaborators and mentors by identifying researchers and practitioners who are working on related topics or using similar methods. By building relationships with these individuals, you can gain valuable insights and support for your own research and practice.
  • Keeping up-to-date with the latest research : A literature review helps to keep you up-to-date with the latest research on a specific topic or research question. By regularly reviewing the literature, you can stay informed about the latest findings and developments in your field.

Advantages of Literature Review

There are several advantages to conducting a literature review as part of a research project, including:

  • Establishing the significance of the research : A literature review helps to establish the significance of the research by demonstrating the gap or problem in the existing literature that the study aims to address.
  • Identifying key concepts and theories: A literature review can help to identify key concepts and theories that are relevant to the research question, and provide a theoretical framework for the study.
  • Supporting the research methodology : A literature review can inform the research methodology by identifying appropriate research methods, data sources, and research questions.
  • Providing a comprehensive overview of the literature : A literature review provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on a topic, allowing the researcher to identify key themes, debates, and areas of agreement or disagreement.
  • Identifying potential research questions: A literature review can help to identify potential research questions and areas for further investigation.
  • Avoiding duplication of research: A literature review can help to avoid duplication of research by identifying what has already been done on a topic, and what remains to be done.
  • Enhancing the credibility of the research : A literature review helps to enhance the credibility of the research by demonstrating the researcher’s knowledge of the existing literature and their ability to situate their research within a broader context.

Limitations of Literature Review

Limitations of Literature Review are as follows:

  • Limited scope : Literature reviews can only cover the existing literature on a particular topic, which may be limited in scope or depth.
  • Publication bias : Literature reviews may be influenced by publication bias, which occurs when researchers are more likely to publish positive results than negative ones. This can lead to an incomplete or biased picture of the literature.
  • Quality of sources : The quality of the literature reviewed can vary widely, and not all sources may be reliable or valid.
  • Time-limited: Literature reviews can become quickly outdated as new research is published, making it difficult to keep up with the latest developments in a field.
  • Subjective interpretation : Literature reviews can be subjective, and the interpretation of the findings can vary depending on the researcher’s perspective or bias.
  • Lack of original data : Literature reviews do not generate new data, but rather rely on the analysis of existing studies.
  • Risk of plagiarism: It is important to ensure that literature reviews do not inadvertently contain plagiarism, which can occur when researchers use the work of others without proper attribution.

About the author

' src=

Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

You may also like

Research Objectives

Research Objectives – Types, Examples and...

Data collection

Data Collection – Methods Types and Examples

Data Analysis

Data Analysis – Process, Methods and Types

Research Questions

Research Questions – Types, Examples and Writing...

Future Research

Future Research – Thesis Guide

Purpose of Research

Purpose of Research – Objectives and Applications

Research Methods

  • Getting Started
  • Literature Review Research
  • Research Design
  • Research Design By Discipline
  • SAGE Research Methods
  • Teaching with SAGE Research Methods

Literature Review

  • What is a Literature Review?
  • What is NOT a Literature Review?
  • Purposes of a Literature Review
  • Types of Literature Reviews
  • Literature Reviews vs. Systematic Reviews
  • Systematic vs. Meta-Analysis

Literature Review  is a comprehensive survey of the works published in a particular field of study or line of research, usually over a specific period of time, in the form of an in-depth, critical bibliographic essay or annotated list in which attention is drawn to the most significant works.

Also, we can define a literature review as the collected body of scholarly works related to a topic:

  • Summarizes and analyzes previous research relevant to a topic
  • Includes scholarly books and articles published in academic journals
  • Can be an specific scholarly paper or a section in a research paper

The objective of a Literature Review is to find previous published scholarly works relevant to an specific topic

  • Help gather ideas or information
  • Keep up to date in current trends and findings
  • Help develop new questions

A literature review is important because it:

  • Explains the background of research on a topic.
  • Demonstrates why a topic is significant to a subject area.
  • Helps focus your own research questions or problems
  • Discovers relationships between research studies/ideas.
  • Suggests unexplored ideas or populations
  • Identifies major themes, concepts, and researchers on a topic.
  • Tests assumptions; may help counter preconceived ideas and remove unconscious bias.
  • Identifies critical gaps, points of disagreement, or potentially flawed methodology or theoretical approaches.
  • Indicates potential directions for future research.

All content in this section is from Literature Review Research from Old Dominion University 

Keep in mind the following, a literature review is NOT:

Not an essay 

Not an annotated bibliography  in which you summarize each article that you have reviewed.  A literature review goes beyond basic summarizing to focus on the critical analysis of the reviewed works and their relationship to your research question.

Not a research paper   where you select resources to support one side of an issue versus another.  A lit review should explain and consider all sides of an argument in order to avoid bias, and areas of agreement and disagreement should be highlighted.

A literature review serves several purposes. For example, it

  • provides thorough knowledge of previous studies; introduces seminal works.
  • helps focus one’s own research topic.
  • identifies a conceptual framework for one’s own research questions or problems; indicates potential directions for future research.
  • suggests previously unused or underused methodologies, designs, quantitative and qualitative strategies.
  • identifies gaps in previous studies; identifies flawed methodologies and/or theoretical approaches; avoids replication of mistakes.
  • helps the researcher avoid repetition of earlier research.
  • suggests unexplored populations.
  • determines whether past studies agree or disagree; identifies controversy in the literature.
  • tests assumptions; may help counter preconceived ideas and remove unconscious bias.

As Kennedy (2007) notes*, it is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the original studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.

Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are several approaches to how they can be done, depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Listed below are definitions of types of literature reviews:

Argumentative Review      This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e.g., educational reform; immigration control], argumentative approaches to analyzing the literature can be a legitimate and important form of discourse. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews.

Integrative Review      Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication.

Historical Review      Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical reviews are focused on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research.

Methodological Review      A review does not always focus on what someone said [content], but how they said it [method of analysis]. This approach provides a framework of understanding at different levels (i.e. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches and data collection and analysis techniques), enables researchers to draw on a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection and data analysis, and helps highlight many ethical issues which we should be aware of and consider as we go through our study.

Systematic Review      This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?"

Theoretical Review      The purpose of this form is to concretely examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review help establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework.

* Kennedy, Mary M. "Defining a Literature."  Educational Researcher  36 (April 2007): 139-147.

All content in this section is from The Literature Review created by Dr. Robert Larabee USC

Robinson, P. and Lowe, J. (2015),  Literature reviews vs systematic reviews.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39: 103-103. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12393

related literature in relation to research

What's in the name? The difference between a Systematic Review and a Literature Review, and why it matters . By Lynn Kysh from University of Southern California

related literature in relation to research

Systematic review or meta-analysis?

A  systematic review  answers a defined research question by collecting and summarizing all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria.

A  meta-analysis  is the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of these studies.

Systematic reviews, just like other research articles, can be of varying quality. They are a significant piece of work (the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at York estimates that a team will take 9-24 months), and to be useful to other researchers and practitioners they should have:

  • clearly stated objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies
  • explicit, reproducible methodology
  • a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies
  • assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies (e.g. risk of bias)
  • systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies

Not all systematic reviews contain meta-analysis. 

Meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies. By combining information from all relevant studies, meta-analysis can provide more precise estimates of the effects of health care than those derived from the individual studies included within a review.  More information on meta-analyses can be found in  Cochrane Handbook, Chapter 9 .

A meta-analysis goes beyond critique and integration and conducts secondary statistical analysis on the outcomes of similar studies.  It is a systematic review that uses quantitative methods to synthesize and summarize the results.

An advantage of a meta-analysis is the ability to be completely objective in evaluating research findings.  Not all topics, however, have sufficient research evidence to allow a meta-analysis to be conducted.  In that case, an integrative review is an appropriate strategy. 

Some of the content in this section is from Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: step by step guide created by Kate McAllister.

  • << Previous: Getting Started
  • Next: Research Design >>
  • Last Updated: Aug 21, 2023 4:07 PM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.udel.edu/researchmethods

Examples

Review of Related Literature (RRL)

Ai generator.

related literature in relation to research

The Review of Related Literature (RRL) is a crucial section in research that examines existing studies and publications related to a specific topic. It summarizes and synthesizes previous findings, identifies gaps, and provides context for the current research. RRL ensures the research is grounded in established knowledge, guiding the direction and focus of new studies.

What Is Review of Related Literature (RRL)?

The Review of Related Literature (RRL) is a detailed analysis of existing research relevant to a specific topic. It evaluates, synthesizes, and summarizes previous studies to identify trends, gaps, and conflicts in the literature. RRL provides a foundation for new research, ensuring it builds on established knowledge and addresses existing gaps.

Format of Review of Related Literature (RRL)

The Review of Related Literature (RRL) is a critical part of any research paper or thesis . It provides an overview of existing research on your topic and helps to establish the context for your study. Here is a typical format for an RRL:

1. Introduction

  • Purpose : Explain the purpose of the review and its importance to your research.
  • Scope : Define the scope of the literature reviewed, including the time frame, types of sources, and key themes.

2. Theoretical Framework

  • Concepts and Theories : Present the main theories and concepts that underpin your research.
  • Relevance : Explain how these theories relate to your study.

3. Review of Empirical Studies

  • Sub-theme 1 : Summarize key studies, including methodologies, findings, and conclusions.
  • Sub-theme 2 : Continue summarizing studies, focusing on different aspects or variables.
  • Sub-theme 3 : Include any additional relevant studies.

4. Methodological Review

  • Approaches : Discuss the various methodologies used in the reviewed studies.
  • Strengths and Weaknesses : Highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies.
  • Gaps : Identify gaps in the existing research that your study aims to address.

5. Synthesis and Critique

  • Integration : Integrate findings from the reviewed studies to show the current state of knowledge.
  • Critique : Critically evaluate the literature, discussing inconsistencies, limitations, and areas for further research.

6. Conclusion

  • Summary : Summarize the main findings from the literature review.
  • Research Gap : Clearly state the research gap your study will address.
  • Contribution : Explain how your study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge.

7. References

  • Citation Style : List all the sources cited in your literature review in the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
Review of Related Literature (RRL) 1. Introduction This review examines research on social media’s impact on mental health, focusing on anxiety and depression across various demographics over the past ten years. 2. Theoretical Framework Anchored in Social Comparison Theory and Uses and Gratifications Theory, this review explores how individuals’ social media interactions affect their mental health. 3. Review of Empirical Studies Adolescents’ Mental Health Instagram & Body Image : Smith & Johnson (2017) found Instagram use linked to body image issues and lower self-esteem among 500 high school students. Facebook & Anxiety : Brown & Green (2016) showed Facebook use correlated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of 300 students. Young Adults’ Mental Health Twitter & Stress : Davis & Lee (2018) reported higher stress levels among heavy Twitter users in a survey of 400 university students. LinkedIn & Self-Esteem : Miller & White (2019) found LinkedIn use positively influenced professional self-esteem in 200 young professionals. Adult Mental Health General Social Media Use : Thompson & Evans (2020) found moderate social media use associated with better mental health outcomes, while excessive use correlated with higher anxiety and depression in 1,000 adults. 4. Methodological Review Studies used cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal designs, and mixed methods. Cross-sectional surveys provided large data sets but couldn’t infer causation. Longitudinal studies offered insights into long-term effects but were resource-intensive. Mixed methods enriched data through qualitative insights but required careful integration. 5. Synthesis and Critique The literature shows a complex relationship between social media and mental health, with platform-specific and demographic-specific effects. However, reliance on self-reported data introduces bias, and many cross-sectional studies limit causal inference. More longitudinal and experimental research is needed. 6. Conclusion Current research offers insights into social media’s mental health impact but leaves gaps, particularly regarding long-term effects and causation. This study aims to address these gaps through comprehensive longitudinal analysis. 7. References Brown, A., & Green, K. (2016). Facebook Use and Anxiety Among High School Students . Psychology in the Schools, 53(3), 257-264. Davis, R., & Lee, S. (2018). Twitter and Psychological Stress: A Study of University Students . Journal of College Student Development, 59(2), 120-135. Miller, P., & White, H. (2019). LinkedIn and Its Effect on Professional Self-Esteem . Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(1), 78-90. Smith, J., & Johnson, L. (2017). The Impact of Instagram on Teen Body Image . Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(5), 555-560. Thompson, M., & Evans, D. (2020). The Relationship Between Social Media Use and Mental Health in Adults . Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(4), 201-208.

Review of Related Literature (RRL) Examples

Review of related literature in research, review of related literature in research paper, review of related literature qualitative research.

Review-of-Related-Literature-RRL-in-Research-Edit-Download-Pdf

Review of Related Literature Quantitative Research

Review-of-Related-Literature-RRL-in-Quantitative-Research-Edit-Download-Pdf

More Review of Related Literature (RRL) Examples

  • Impact of E-learning on Student Performance
  • Effectiveness of Mindfulness in Workplace
  • Green Building and Energy Efficiency
  • Impact of Technology on Healthcare Delivery
  • Effects of Nutrition on Cognitive Development in Children
  • Impact of Employee Training Programs on Productivity
  • Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity
  • Impact of Parental Involvement on Student Achievement
  • Effects of Mobile Learning on Student Engagement
  • Effects of Urban Green Spaces on Mental Health

Purpose of the Review of Related Literature (RRL)

The Review of Related Literature (RRL) serves several critical purposes in research:

  • Establishing Context : It situates your research within the broader field, showing how your study relates to existing work.
  • Identifying Gaps : It highlights gaps, inconsistencies, and areas needing further exploration in current knowledge, providing a clear rationale for your study.
  • Avoiding Duplication : By reviewing what has already been done, it helps ensure your research is original and not a repetition of existing studies.
  • Building on Existing Knowledge : It allows you to build on the findings of previous research, using established theories and methodologies to inform your work.
  • Theoretical Foundation : It provides a theoretical basis for your research, grounding it in existing concepts and theories.
  • Methodological Insights : It offers insights into the methods and approaches used in similar studies, helping you choose the most appropriate methods for your research.
  • Establishing Credibility : It demonstrates your familiarity with the field, showing that you are well-informed and have a solid foundation for your research.
  • Supporting Arguments : It provides evidence and support for your research questions, hypotheses, and objectives, strengthening the overall argument of your study.

How to Write Review of Related Literature (RRL)

Writing a Review of Related Literature (RRL) involves several key steps. Here’s a step-by-step guide:

1. Define the Scope and Objectives

  • Determine the Scope : Decide on the breadth of the literature you will review, including specific themes, time frame, and types of sources.
  • Set Objectives : Clearly define the purpose of the review. What do you aim to achieve? Identify gaps, establish context, or build on existing knowledge.

2. Search for Relevant Literature

  • Identify Keywords : Use keywords and phrases related to your research topic.
  • Use Databases : Search academic databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, JSTOR, etc., for relevant articles, books, and papers.
  • Select Sources : Choose sources that are credible, recent, and relevant to your research.

3. Evaluate and Select the Literature

  • Read Abstracts and Summaries : Quickly determine the relevance of each source.
  • Assess Quality : Consider the methodology, credibility of the authors, and publication source.
  • Select Key Studies : Choose studies that are most relevant to your research questions and objectives.

4. Organize the Literature

  • Thematic Organization : Group studies by themes or topics.
  • Chronological Organization : Arrange studies in the order they were published to show the development of ideas over time.
  • Methodological Organization : Categorize studies by the methods they used.

5. Write the Review

  • State the purpose and scope of the review.
  • Explain the importance of the topic.
  • Theoretical Framework : Present and discuss the main theories and concepts.
  • Summarize key studies, including their methodologies, findings, and conclusions.
  • Organize by themes or other chosen organizational methods.
  • Methodological Review : Discuss the various methodologies used, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Synthesis and Critique : Integrate findings, critically evaluate the literature, and identify gaps or inconsistencies.
  • Summarize the main findings from the literature review.
  • Highlight the research gaps your study will address.
  • State how your research will contribute to the existing knowledge.

6. Cite the Sources

  • Use Appropriate Citation Style : Follow the required citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • List References : Provide a complete list of all sources cited in your review.

What is an RRL?

An RRL summarizes and synthesizes existing research on a specific topic to identify gaps and guide future studies.

Why is RRL important?

It provides context, highlights gaps, and ensures new research builds on existing knowledge.

How do you write an RRL?

Organize by themes, summarize studies, evaluate methodologies, identify gaps, and conclude with relevance to current research.

What sources are used in RRL?

Peer-reviewed journals, books, conference papers, and credible online resources.

How long should an RRL be?

Length varies; typically 10-20% of the total research paper.

What are common RRL mistakes?

Lack of organization, insufficient synthesis, over-reliance on outdated sources, and failure to identify gaps.

Can an RRL include non-scholarly sources?

Primarily scholarly, but reputable non-scholarly sources can be included for context.

What is the difference between RRL and bibliography?

RRL synthesizes and analyzes the literature, while a bibliography lists sources.

How often should an RRL be updated?

Regularly, especially when new relevant research is published.

Can an RRL influence research direction?

Yes, it identifies gaps and trends that shape the focus and methodology of new research.

Twitter

Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

10 Examples of Public speaking

20 Examples of Gas lighting

Student Academic Success Center

Related work / literature review / research review, download pdf handout:   literature reviews, watch video:   literature reviews.

A  literature review, research review,  or  related work   section compares, contrasts, synthesizes, and provides introspection about the available knowledge for a given topic or field. The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably (as they are here), but while both can refer to a section of a longer work, “literature review” can also describe a stand-alone paper.

When you start writing a literature review, the most straightforward course may be to compile all relevant sources and compare them, perhaps evaluating their strengths and weaknesses. While this is a good place to start, your literature review is incomplete unless it creates something new through these comparisons. Luckily, our resources can help you do this!

With these resources, you’ll learn:

  • How to write a literature review that  contributes  rather than  summarizes
  • Common mistakes to avoid
  • Useful phrases to show agreement and disagreement between sources

Need one-on-one help with your literature review or research article? Schedule an appointment with one of our consultants now!

Schedule an Appointment

Quick Links

  • Academic Calendar
  • Academic Integrity
  • Bias Reporting and Response
  • Statement of Assurance
  • Documents, Forms, and News [Internal Staff Only]

Other Helpful Departments

  • Disability Resources
  • Center for Student Diversity & Inclusion
  • Graduate Education
  • Office of International Education
  • University Health Services
  • Harvard Library
  • Research Guides
  • Faculty of Arts & Sciences Libraries

Literature: A Research Guide for Graduate Students

Research dos & don'ts.

  • Get Started
  • Find a Database

DON'T reinvent the wheel

Many scholars have spent their entire careers in your field, watching its developments in print and in person. Learn from them! The library is full of specialized guides, companions, encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliographies, histories and other "reference" sources that will help orient you to a new area of research. Similarly, every works cited list can be a gold mine of useful readings.

  • Techniques for finding where a particular publication is cited (reverse footnote-mining) [Harvard Library FAQ]
  • Top resources and search tips for locating scholarly companions and guides [general topic guide for literary research]
  • The literature section of the Loker Reading Room reference collection [HOLLIS browse]
  • James Harner's Literary Research Guide: an Annotated Listing of Reference Sources in English Literary Studies [HOLLIS record with ONLINE ACCESS]

DO get to know your field

Know Your Field , a module from Unabridged On Demand, offers tips, thought prompts, and links to resources for quickly learning about and staying current with an area of scholarly study.

DON'T treat every search box like Google or ChatGPT

Break free of the search habits that Google and generative AI have taught you! Learn to pay attention to how a search system operates and what is in it, and to adjust your search inputs accordingly.

Google and generative AI interfaces train you to type in your question as you would say it to another person. They give you the illusion of a search box that can read your thoughts and that access the entire internet. That's not what's actually happening, of course! Google is giving you the results others have clicked on most while generative AI is giving you the output that is most probable based on your input. Other search systems, like the library catalog, might be matching your search inputs to highly structured, human-curated data. They give the best results when you select specific keywords and make use of the database's specialized search tools. 

Learn more about searching:

  • Database Search Tips from MIT: a great, concise introduction to Booleans, keywords v. subjects, and search fields
  • Improve Your Search , a module from our library research intensive, Unabridged On Demand

Search technique handouts

  • "Search Smarter" Bookmark Simple steps to improve your searching, plus a quick guide to the search commands HOLLIS uses
  • Decoding a database A two-page guide to the most effective ways to quickly familiarize yourself with a new system.
  • Optimize Your Search A 3-column review of the basic search-strategy differences between Google and systems like JSTOR or HOLLIS.

DO adjust your language

Searching often means thinking in someone else's language, whether it's the librarians who created HOLLIS's subject vocabularies, or the scholars whose works you want to find in JSTOR, or the people of another era whose ideas you're trying to find in historical newspapers. The Search Vocabulary page on the general topic guide for literary studies is a great place to start for subject vocabularies.

DON'T search in just one place

Judicious triangulation is the key to success. No search has everything. There's always one more site you could  search. Strike a balance by always searching at least 3-4 ways.

DO SEARCH A VARIETY OF RESOURCES:

  • Your library catalog ,  HOLLIS
  • A subject-specific scholarly index , such as the MLA International Bibliography , LION (Literature Online) , or the IMB (International Medieval Bibliography)
  • A full-text collection of scholarship,  such as JSTOR or ProjectMuse
  • One of Google's full-text searches,   Google Scholar or Google Books

DO look beyond the library's collections

The library purchases and licenses materials for your use. There's plenty of other material that's freely available or that you would need to travel to see---please let me help you find it!

  • << Previous: Find a Database

Except where otherwise noted, this work is subject to a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which allows anyone to share and adapt our material as long as proper attribution is given. For details and exceptions, see the Harvard Library Copyright Policy ©2021 Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings

Preview improvements coming to the PMC website in October 2024. Learn More or Try it out now .

  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • Int J Environ Res Public Health

Logo of ijerph

Well-Being and Romantic Relationships: A Systematic Review in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Adolescence and emerging adulthood are both stages in which romantic relationships play a key role in development and can be a source of both well-being and negative outcomes. However, the limited number of studies prior to adulthood, along with the multiplicity of variables involved in the romantic context and the considerable ambiguity surrounding the construct of well-being, make it difficult to reach conclusions about the relationship between the two phenomena. This systematic review synthesizes the results produced into this topic over the last three decades. A total of 112 studies were included, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. On the one hand, these works revealed the terminological heterogeneity in research on well-being and the way the absence of symptoms of illness are commonly used to measure it, while on the other hand, they also showed that romantic relationships can be an important source of well-being for both adolescents and emerging adults. The findings underline the importance of providing a better definition of well-being, as well as to attribute greater value to the significance of romantic relationships. Devoting greater empirical, educational, and community efforts to romantic development in the stages leading up to adulthood are considered necessary actions in promoting the well-being of young people.

1. Introduction

Since World War II, most conceptualizations of health have been focused on the absence of illness and disability [ 1 ]. Psychology was concentrated on repairing damage within a disease model of human functioning [ 2 ], paying almost exclusive attention to pathology and neglecting the study of the positive features that make life worth living [ 2 ]. It is currently known that the absence of pathology does not necessarily correlate with positive dimensions of health and well-being [ 3 , 4 ], and psychologists have begun to admit well-being as a relevant aim of study, as well as the factors that contribute to its encouragement [ 5 ]. Positive psychology was recently established as a new perspective specifically addressing the study of well-being, quality of life, strengths, and resources [ 2 , 6 ]. Within this framework, diverse approaches have emerged. In a general sense, well-being can be understood as optimal psychological functioning and experience [ 7 ]. More specifically, some theorists have defined it as a state characterized by a high degree of satisfaction with life and the experience of high levels of positive affect [ 8 ], while others have focused on the notion of a process of fulfilling human potentials, capacities, and virtues [ 7 ]. Despite this systematization of the theory, the diversity of terminology found in the different studies has led to a certain degree of controversy. Although, admittedly, this situation has contributed to a productive scientific debate, it has also led to considerable ambiguity and theoretical and methodological confusion. On the other hand, these approaches represent mainly personal evaluations of what well-being means, and they deal only fleetingly with the social dimension of the individuals involved. In this sense, it has been previously established that the desire for interpersonal attachment (the need to belong) is a fundamental human motivation [ 9 ], especially when it refers to romantic relationships. So important is relatedness that some theorists have defined it as a basic human need, essential for well-being [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. For example, in their 2002 study, Diener and Seligman examined extremely happy people to determine necessary conditions for entering this group [ 13 ]. They found that good and strong personal relationships were ubiquitous in these people. Nevertheless, the topic of relationships is complex and close relationships are multifaceted, justifying with this a study of specificity, in terms of the aspects of relationships that can promote well-being [ 7 ].

1.1. Romantic Relationships and Well-Being in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

From an evolutionary point of view, adolescence and emerging adulthood (the periods which span the second and third decades of life [ 14 , 15 ]) have been described as being vitally important in terms of the development of romantic relationships [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Defined as “mutually acknowledged ongoing voluntary interactions” [ 18 , 19 ], these relationships, unlike others such as friendships, are characterized by a particular intensity, specific expressions of affection, and initiation in erotic sexual encounters [ 19 ]. Previous studies have shown that these experiences are frequent during adolescence and tend to consolidate over time [ 20 , 21 ], representing an important context for learning and training for future intimate relationships [ 14 ]. By middle adolescence, most boys and girls have been involved in at least one romantic relationship [ 21 ], providing them with a scenario characterized by greater intimacy, support, and importance as their age advances [ 22 , 23 ]. As adolescents approach emerging adulthood, the time they devote to their romantic partners increases [ 24 , 25 ], and they use these relationships to look for company, emotional security, intimacy, and the feeling of love they provide, until they reach a stage when they are ready to take decisions over questions of long-term commitment, such as cohabitation and marriage [ 26 , 27 ]. According to the developmental task theory, during adolescence, romantic involvement is an emerging developmental task, which will eventually become a salient developmental task in adulthood [ 28 ].

Romantic relationships and experiences are important sources of emotional bonding and contribute to the development of a positive self-concept and greater social integration [ 29 , 30 ]. The successful establishment and maintenance of romantic relationships can have important repercussions in later stages of life [ 15 ], and has been described to contribute to people’s mental and physical health and, therefore, to their well-being [ 31 ]. From this perspective, romantic relationships, when sustained over time, constitute a transformation of the attachment bond. The quality of the relationship, the history of the shared experiences, the sense of attachment, and the beliefs which arise from the whole experience have all been recognized as modulating the well-being of the partners [ 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ]. Despite the fact that the wide range of aspects mentioned in the research makes it difficult to establish how direct an effect these relationships have on well-being, there is a broad consensus in the literature that love is one of the strengths most closely linked to personal happiness [ 41 , 42 ], and is associated with higher rates of self-esteem, safety, satisfaction with life, positive affect, and achievement of personal and relational goals [ 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, romantic relationships have also been associated with negative outcomes, especially during adolescence. Thus, studies have suggested that romantic involvement may be related to the presence of different forms of violence [ 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ], experiencing internalizing symptoms such as depression or anxiety (e.g., [ 37 , 51 , 52 ]), poorer psychosocial functioning [ 53 ], or delinquency [ 54 ].

1.2. The Present Study

Following these considerations, the empirical evidence suggests the important role that romantic relationships can play in people’s well-being, however, the number of studies focusing on stages prior to adulthood remain relatively limited, consequently not providing clarifying results. Moreover, the wide range of intervening variables in the romantic context and the relative ambiguity of the concept of well-being make it difficult to draw conclusions. Therefore, a work of synthesis is required to gather together the accumulated empirical knowledge and facilitate an understanding of the findings made so far in relation to the association between well-being and romantic relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. To do this, the general aim of this study was to carry out an exhaustive review of the existing literature in order to delve deeper into this topic. In particular, a specific aim was established: To identify the variables of romantic relationships that studies have associated with the well-being of young people.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. literature search and quality assurance.

A structured search was carried out between July and September 2017 in the following databases of high-quality standards, which include peer-reviewed studies: Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scielo. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Declaration was applied [ 55 ], following its protocol for the planning, preparation, and publication of systematic reviews and meta-analyses [ 56 ]. The search terms used included keywords in Spanish and English which were considered to be indicators of well-being (bienestar*, well-being*, wellbeing*, “wellbeing”, felicidad*, happiness*, “fortalezas psicológicas”, “psychological strengths”, florecimiento*, flourishing*, “desarrollo positivo”, “positive development”) and keywords linked to romantic relationships (dating*, “relaciones sentimentales”, “sentimental relationships”, “relaciones románticas”, “romantic relationships”, cortejo*, courtship*, “relaciones íntimas”, “intimate relationships”). In order to achieve a comprehensive overview of the state of research in this field, the search did not include any specific terms (e.g., psychological well-being, subjective well-being, hedonia, eudaimonia, hooking up, friends with benefits, etc.).

2.2. Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

The inclusion criteria were established following the PICOS (acronym for Participants, Interventions, Comparisons, Outcomes and Study design) format [ 57 ]:

  • Type of participants: Adolescents and emerging adults of both sexes, ranging in age from 13 to 29 years old, or those whose average age is included in that range, with no known mental disorders, and those of any origin or nationality.
  • Type of studies: Empirical studies written in English or Spanish and published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Type of outcome measurements: In a first stage, studies were included which made explicit reference to the search descriptors in the title, summary, and/or keywords. In a second stage, studies were included with specific analyses of the link between romantic relationships and any of the previous indicators.
  • Type of designs: Quantitative and qualitative.

Additional exclusion criteria included theoretical studies, doctoral theses, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, book chapters, reports from conferences or symposia, letters to the editor, minutes of meetings or informative notes, and studies in which the authors did not provide information about the participants’ age.

2.3. Data Coding and Extraction

Three matrices of documentary records were created specifically for this work. In the first, quantitative data on the search results were collected for each database consulted and each of the descriptors used. In the second, information was gathered from each selected or unselected study (e.g., title, author/s, year of publication, sample size, age of participants, study objectives, methodology, or reason for exclusion, where appropriate). The third recorded the well-being measures and the specific variables of the romantic context analyzed by the studies. The selection of studies was performed in different stages [ 58 ] ( Figure 1 ). The identification stage was limited to articles published in English and Spanish between 1990 and 2017 (inclusive). This first phase yielded a total of 3229 studies. In the screening stage, the duplicates were discarded, which left a total of 2866 studies. Next, two reviewers selected the studies whose title, summary, or keywords contained any of the search descriptors used, which produced a total of 461 eligible studies and a total of 2405 rejected studies. In the eligibility stage, all the reviewers independently assessed the full text of the potential studies to be included, initially reaching a level of agreement of over 90% and resolving any discrepancies through a process of discussion and consensus. In the included stage, the three reviewers jointly agreed on the full sample of studies, resulting in a total of 112 studies. The software packages Mendeley version 1.17.12 (Elsevier Inc., New York, NY, USA) and SPSS version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) were used to carry out the process of coding and obtaining the results.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is ijerph-16-02415-g001.jpg

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) flow diagram.

3.1. Characteristics of the Included Studies

This work has reviewed nearly three decades of research (1990–2017) on well-being and romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Of the 112 studies included (see Table 1 ), 9% were published in the 1990s, 27% in the first decade of this century, and 64% were published since 2010. The total number of participants was 278,871, with the amount of participants ranging from 30 in some studies [ 59 , 60 ] to 81,247 participants in another [ 47 ]. The general age range was from 12 to 70 years, with the average age never surpassing 29 years in any of the studies. Overall, 83% of the studies (n = 93) were directed at emerging adulthood, while 17% (n = 19) focused on adolescence. Regarding the well-being measures observed, the studies analyzed used as many as 142 different variables, of which the most commonly employed were life satisfaction (35.3%), depression (25%), affect (positive and negative, 22.8%), self-esteem (17.6%), relationship satisfaction (15.4%), anxiety (11%), happiness (8.1%) and stress (5.9%).

Characteristics and main findings of the included studies.

Reference Age Range/School Level, Mean Age (SD)Well-Being MeasuresMain Findings
[ ]81,2479th–12th grades, NR (NR)Mood, stress, sadness, worry, hopelessness, and life satisfaction.Date violence and rape are associated with higher rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower scores of well-being.
[ ] Study 4119NR, 21 (NR)Level of happiness.Explicit expressions of commitment were positively related with happiness.
[ ] Study 57318–57, 28 (NR)Positive emotion.
[ ]55320–30, 23.42 (3.27)Happiness, interest in life, life satisfaction, positive affect; autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being); social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence and social integration (Keyes’ model of social well-being).Single individuals reported lower well-being than partnered individuals.
[ ]15120–26, 22.48 (2.01)Happiness, interest in life, life satisfaction, positive affect; autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being); social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence and social integration (Keyes’ model of social well-being).Voluntarily and involuntarily single young adults differed neither regarding well-being.
[ ] Step 218520–32, 22.59 (3.23)Happiness, interest in life and life satisfaction, positive affect; autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being); social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence and social integration (Keyes’ model of social well-being).Relationship status satisfaction was found to be a good predictor of life satisfaction and well-being.
[ ]67 couples19–56, 25.16 (6.33)Daily relationship satisfaction and daily relationship connection.Gratitude from interactions predicted increases in relationship connection and satisfaction.
[ ]53 couples23–53, 29 (NR)Life satisfaction and relationship satisfaction.Partner responsiveness to gratitude expressions was related with greater well-being.
[ ] Study 277 couplesMales: NR, 19.90 (2.31)
Females: NR, 19.30 (1.20)
Life satisfaction.As efficacy expectations shared between partners increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased.
[ ]63 couplesNR, 21.60 (2.79)Happiness toward the relationship, closeness and intimacy.Relationship identification predicted association between partner transgressions and well-being.
[ ]30916–24, NR (NR)Life satisfaction, positive/negative affect, optimism and self-esteem.Minority stress components were negatively related to well-being, however, the impact of “expected rejection” on well-being was buffered for those involved in a romantic relationship.
[ ] Study 176NR, 22.43 (5.11)Sadness.Relationship maintenance behaviors were negatively associated with sadness when intimates subsequently reported high relationship satisfaction, but positively associated when intimates subsequently reported low relationship satisfaction.
[ ] Study 3135NR, 26.90 (4.57)Depressive mood.Tendency to compromise during problem-solving was associated with less depressive mood among people who subsequently were more satisfied with their relationship.
[ ]13917–51, 28.4 (6.9)Mood, capacity to enjoy and relax, and capacity for social contact.Implicit attitudes towards partners correlated significantly with explicit attitudes, secure attachment, and well-being.
[ ] Study 18918–23, 19.3 (NR)Relationship satisfaction.Higher trait mindfulness predicted higher relationship satisfaction and greater capacities to respond constructively to relationship stress.
[ ] Study 260 couples18–25, 20.05 (NR)Relationship satisfaction.Trait mindfulness was found to predict lower emotional stress responses and positive pre- and post-conflict change in perception of the relationship.
[ ]35015–19, 17 (1.27)Self-esteem, internalized homophobia, depression, and anxiety.Involvement in same-sex relationships was associated with self-esteem and internalized homophobia, where the timing and sequence of both had different effects on males and females.
[ ]52Males: NR, 22.29 (3.13)
Females: NR, 21.29 (2.40)
Relationship satisfaction.Couples who reminisced about events involving shared laugher reported higher relationship satisfaction.
[ ]158418–25, 20.19 (NR)Mental health problems, physical health problems, and overweight/obesity.Individuals in committed relationships experienced fewer mental health problems and were less likely to be overweight/obese.
[ ] Study 17718–39, 20 (3.19)Positive and negative affect.People who were single for a shorter period of time were more likely to report higher levels of well-being.
[ ] Study 223618–49, 21.71 (5.63)Positive and negative affect.People who started a new relationship quickly had higher well-being compared to those who waited longer to begin their subsequent relationship.
[ ]62 couplesNR, 19.47 (1.53)Autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being); life satisfaction and affect-balance.Authenticity was related to engaging in healthy relationship behaviors, which in turn predicted positive relationship outcomes and greater well-being.
[ ] Study 1202NR, 18.81 (2.09)Self-esteem, affect-balance, vitality, and life satisfaction.Self-determined sexual motives positively predicted well-being.
[ ] Study 2147NR, 19.10 (1.76)Self-esteem and life satisfaction.Self-determined sexual motivation, sexual need satisfaction, well-being, and relational quality were positively intercorrelated.
[ ] Study 344 couplesNR, 19.10 (1.76)Self-esteem and life satisfaction.Men’s and women’s self-determined sexual motivation predicted their own well-being, and men’s self-determined sexual motivation also predicted women’s well-being.
[ ]12,20312–19, 15 (NR)Depression, conflicts, loneliness, anxiety, mental clarity, irritation, school performance, distrust, and to find it difficult to handle problems.Adolescents in violent relationships are more likely to experience negative well-being outcomes.
[ ]19013–19, 15.9 (1.29)Anxiety, depression, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and traumatic symptomology (stress and dissociation).Increasing levels of dating violence were related to higher levels of post-traumatic stress and dissociation in girls. Victimization was related to higher levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress in boys.
[ ] Study 111219–54, 22.04 (4.37)Depressed mood, self-esteem, life satisfaction, fatigue, perceived acceptance by one’s partner, relatedness, and relationship satisfaction.Emotional suppression was related to a greater depressive mood, greater fatigue, lower self-esteem, lower life satisfaction, and less relationship satisfaction.
[ ]221417–25, 19.36 (1.51)Difficulties in interpersonal relations, difficulties in social roles, and symptom distress.Distress symptoms, difficulties in interpersonal relations, and difficulties in social roles were predicted by secure attachments to romantic relationships, among others.
[ ]9918–33, 23.12 (2.43)Anxiety and depression.Endorsement of marriage myths predicted positive experiences, whereas benevolent sexism predicted negative experiences.
[ ]104018–24, 21.02 (1.92)Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-esteem, and sense of personal competency.Negative appraisals of breakups were associated with lower well-being. Positive appraisals were associated with greater anxiety symptoms, self-esteem, and a sense of personal competency.
[ ]227314–19, NR (NR)Positive self-view, depressive feelings, alienation and expectation of success in school, relationships, work, and health.Being in a dating relationship was associated with less alienation, more positive views of the self, and higher general expectations for success. Among sexually active youth, daters had lower levels of depression than non-daters.
[ ]12,84118–32, NR (NR)Earnings, high relative income, and stability of employment histories.Well-being had a weaker association with cohabitation than with marriage.
[ ]541414–18+, NR (NR)Quality of life (stress, depression, problems with emotions, physical health, and suicide ideation and attempts) and life satisfaction.Among girls, dating violence victimization was associated with poor health-related quality of life and suicidal ideation or attempts. Among boys, dating violence perpetration was associated with a poor health-related quality of life and suicide attempts, and lower scores of life satisfaction.
[ ] Study 110218–25, 20.9 (1.7)Depression and anxiety symptoms, relationship satisfaction, romantic attachment security, and relationship decision making.Romantic competence was associated with greater security, healthier decision making, greater satisfaction, and fewer internalizing symptoms.
[ ] Study 2187NR, 19.65 (3.51)Depression and anxiety symptoms, relationship satisfaction, and romantic attachment security.
[ ] Study 389 couplesMales: NR, 20.65 (1.82)
Females: NR, 20.16 (1.63)
Relationship satisfaction, romantic attachment security, and relationship decision making.
[ ]102 couplesNR, 25.40 (5.08)Autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being)Touch was associated with enhanced affect in the partner and with intimacy and positive affect in the actor. Participants who were touched more often during the diary study week reported better well-being 6 months later.
[ ] Study 122119–28, 22.49 (4.65)Global happiness.Romantic relationship quality was positively related to happiness.
[ ] Study 218718–29, 22.02 (3.02)Life satisfaction and positive and negative affect.
[ ]31118–28, 22.75 (4.74)Life satisfaction and positive and negative affect.Romantic relationship quality and conflict were predictors of happiness.
[ ] Study 143UndergraduateRelationship satisfaction and commitment.Limiting people’s attention to attractive alternatives reduced relationship satisfaction and commitment and increased positive attitudes toward infidelity.
[ ]12515–23, NR (NR)Depression, anxiety, physical symptomology, perceived stress, self-esteem, mastery, and self-efficacy.Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect.
[ ]222College studentsLife satisfaction and affect balance.Well-being was positively associated with good-quality relationships.
[ ]15 couples18–35, 24.9 (4.3)Autonomy, competency, self-esteem, general life satisfaction, clarity/certain in life, social satisfaction, and social support.Perceived understanding among romantic partners was positively associated with well-being.
[ ]63 (time 1)NR, 19.10 (NR)
-time 1-
Life satisfaction, emotional well-being, self-esteem, loneliness, relationship satisfaction, and relationship breakup.The Michelangelo phenomenon was positively associated with well-being.
[ ] Study 153 couples (time 1)NR, 19.94 (NR)
-time 1-
Intimacy, agreement, effective problem solving, and shared activities.A high and mutual commitment to the relationship was positively related to greater adjustment.
[ ]1311NR, 20.5 (NR)Body satisfaction, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation.Scores of well-being were generally consistent across sex partner categories (stranger, casual, close, exclusive, spouse, other), and no significant associations between partner type and well-being were found.
[ ]23518–27, 21.73 (1.64)Life satisfaction and positive and negative affect.Relationship quality and need satisfaction were directly and indirectly related to well-being.
[ ]56715–19, 16.1 (1.01)Psychological deterioration.Psychological deterioration was one of the most common consequences of violence in dating relationships.
[ ]Married: 65 couples
Dating: 66 couples
Married: NR, 28.39 (7.05) Dating: NR, 21.49 (2.14)Relational satisfaction and stability.A greater breadth of positive relationship experiences was concurrently and longitudinally associated with well-being.
[ ]150015–25, 21.50 (2.99)Expressions of love and support, communication, and perceived risk of negative relationship outcomes.Congruence between relationship ideals and experiences was positively associated to well-being.
[ ]58 couplesMales: NR, 22 (NR)
Females: NR, 21 (NR)
Relationship satisfaction.Paying more attention to positive partner behaviors rather than negative partner behaviors was positively associated to well-being.
[ ]3018–25, 23.4 (NR)Level of happiness.Romantic involvement was associated to a positive quality of life, positive feelings of happiness, and reducing negative states such as anger and sadness.
[ ]1582North America: 18–54, 19 (0.13)
Africa: 17–45, 25.18 (0.23)
Europe: 17–66, 23 (0.35)
Life satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, and personal satisfaction.Attachment security was the main predictor of well-being in the American and European samples, while in the Mozambican samples it was the Eros love style. Attachment security and well-being was not gender-specific.
[ ]61 couples16–20, NR (NR)Depressive symptomatology and self-esteem.Romantic relationships characterized by inequality in the contribution of emotional resources and in decision-making, were associated with greater psychological symptomatology.
[ ]105 couples17–26, 19.2 (1.8)Life satisfaction and positive and negative affect.Higher goal conflict was directly associated with lower relationship quality and lower well-being.
[ ] Study 256Male: 18–22, 19.3 (1.3)
Female: 18–20, 18.5 (0.6)
Happiness, anger, worry, and sadness.Engaging in goal-congruent activities with a partner was associated with the highest reports of well-being.
[ ] Study 118719–54, 21.51 (3.35)Daily life satisfaction.Single people high in avoidance goals were just as happy as people involved in a relationship. In addition, individuals high in approach goals experienced greater well-being, but particularly when they were involved in a relationship.
[ ]9218-27, 20.34 (2.28)Perceived impact of body feedback.Positive messages from partners about the own body increased confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings.
[ ]130 couplesMales: NR, 26.5 (4.2)
Females: NR, 25.4 (3.5)
Marital satisfaction.High levels of positive affect in conflict situations were positively associated with relationship satisfaction and stability.
[ ]37,855NR, 29.8 (4.4)Life satisfaction and positive affect.Divorce predicted higher well-being when initial relationship quality was poor.
[ ]Sample 1: 78 couples
Sample 2: 132 couples
Sample 1: 21–55, 25 (5.9) Sample 2: 18–67, 24.2 (5.8)Psychological need fulfillment (relatedness, autonomy and competence—self-determination theory).Anxious and avoidant attachment predicted lower well-being.
[ ]6818–36, 25.52 (3.74)Depression, life satisfaction, and perceived stress.Communal coping was unrelated to psychological distress. Partner overinvolvement in diabetes management had a mixed relation to outcomes, whereas partner under involvement was uniformly related to poor outcomes.
[ ]38714–17, 15.47 (1.05)
-at enrolment-
Relationship quality, partner meets needs, fertility control attitudes, condom use efficacy, sexual negativity, sexual satisfaction, absence of genital pain, partner sexual communication, closeness to family, partner’s closeness to family, general communication with family, substance use, smoking, depression, thrill seeking, self-esteem, anticrime attitudes, anti-deviance attitudes, peer substance use, religiosity, attitudes toward education, community group membership, school group membership, and volunteer work.Higher sexual health was significantly associated with less substance use, lower self-reported depression, lower thrill seeking, higher self-esteem, having fewer friends who use substances, higher religiosity, better social integration, a lower frequency of delinquent behavior and crime, and more frequent community group membership.
[ ]30 couples18–25, 19.4 (NR)Relationship quality satisfaction.Correspondence between personal and normative scripts, and agreement between partners on personal scripts predicted well-being.
[ ] Study 1a99NR, 18.72 (1.02)Relationship valuation.As participants’ chronic promotion concerns increased, the association between autonomy support and relationship valuation was stronger.
[ ] Study 1b112NR, 27.78 (9.49)Commitment and relationship satisfaction.The perceived support of one’s autonomy needs within a romantic relationship was positively associated with well-being.
[ ] Study 3a87 couplesNR, 20.55 (2.03)Relationship quality.Support for autonomy was judged more relevant among individuals concerned with promotion, while support for relatedness would be judged more relevant among individuals concerned with prevention.
[ ] Study 215318–38, 20.1 (2.4)Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, quality, conflict, and commitment.Approach motives for sacrifice were positively associated with well-being and relationship quality, while avoidance motives for sacrifice were negatively associated with well-being.
[ ] Part 280 couples18–60, 23.9 (6.4)Positive and negative emotions and life satisfaction.Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in well-being.
[ ]12418–38, 20.2 (2.6)Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, closeness, fun, and conflict.Approach sex motives were positively associated with well-being, while avoidance sex motives were negatively associated.
[ ]295Males: 18–21, 19.25 (NR)
Females: 18–21, 19.19 (NR)
Self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, and avoidance.Romantic relationship intimacy was positively associated to well-being
[ ]691NR, 23 (NR)Relationship happiness, life satisfaction, general happiness, distress symptoms, and self-esteem.Individuals in happy relationships reported a higher level of well-being than did individuals in unhappy relationships. Married individuals reported the highest level of well-being, followed cohabiting, steady dating, and casual dating.
[ ]184At age ≈ 14: 14.26 (0.76)
At age ≈ 15: 15.21 (0.81)
At age ≈ 25: 25.67 (0.96)
Positive and negative affect.Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems and healthy adjustment to adulthood.
[ ]19317–23, 19.16 (1.20)Relationship satisfaction and commitment.Sexual compliance was negatively associated with well-being.
[ ]113In-relationship group: NR, 21.8 (0.3)
No-relationship group: NR, 21 (0.2)
Subjective happiness.Being in a romantic relationship was associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness.
[ ] Study 162 couples18–37, 21.52 (3.51)Positive and negative affect and life satisfaction.Autonomy support between romantic partners was significantly positively related to goal progress. The beneficial effect of autonomy support was mediated by enhanced autonomous goal motivation.
[ ] Study 342618–58, 26.50 (7.53)Autonomy support similarly promoted progress at vicarious goals.
[ ]231 couplesNR, 27.10 (NR)
-time 4-
Dyadic adjustment.Locomotion was positively associated with partner affirmation, movement toward the ideal self, and well-being.
[ ]5121–29, 27.02 (1.88)Depressive symptoms and life satisfaction.Relationship quality and forming subsequent romantic relationships after breakup did not predict the changes in well-being, whereas remaining single after a breakup was negatively associated with depressive symptoms.
[ ]7317–29, 19.5 (2.3)Positive and negative emotions and life.Higher levels of interdependence increased well-being if partners suppressed their negative emotions during sacrifice.
[ ]209NR, 19.6 (1.6)Psychological distress, alienation, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological maturity.Self-determination and a secure attachment style were both positively associated to well-being.
[ ] Study136218–57, 22.87 (7.47)Physical and psychological symptoms and relationship commitment.Greater romantic secrecy was associated with reduced commitment to relationship and more reported health symptoms.
[ ] Study236818–59, 22.47 (6.98)Physical and psychological symptoms and relationship commitment.Romantic secrecy was negatively associated with relational commitment and positively related to negative affect.
[ ]32,47911–16, 13.6 (1.4)Life satisfaction.Experiences of dating violence were associated with poorer well-being.
[ ]203 couplesNR, 22.69 (5.49)Positive and negative affect and life satisfaction.Partner perfectionist concerns were negatively associated to well-being.
[ ]100NR, 26.4 (0.86)Happiness and positive and negative affect.High levels of intimacy were positively associated to well-being.
[ ]20,000
(4 cohorts)
C1-T1: 18; T10: 33
C2-T1: 17; T10: 30
C3-T1: 16; T9: 24
C4-T1: 17; T4: 20
Life satisfaction.Marriage and de facto relationships were positively associated to well-being.
[ ] Study 1473NR, 19.96 (2.81)Depressive symptoms.Experiencing situations of physical or psychological abuse was associated with lower levels of well-being.
[ ]277NR, 29.79 (6.54)Depressive symptoms, relationship satisfaction, and sexual functioning.Communication had a beneficial effect on both the individual and the dyadic level in the context of existence of sexual problems.
[ ]12,5047th –12th gradesDepressive symptoms.Interracial daters had greater odds of risk for depression than their non-dating and same-race dating peers. Experiencing a romantic breakup explained the elevated risk of depression for daters in general, and same-race daters specifically, but not interracial daters.
[ ]123913–18, 15 (1.63)Life satisfaction.A significant, although weak interaction effect of stress related to romantic relationships by sense of coherence was found in association with life satisfaction for boys. The other interaction effects were nonsignificant in both genders
[ ]46117–21, 18.90 (1.14)Loneliness, academic satisfaction, and stress.A secure attachment style was positively associated with well-being.
[ ]121 couplesNR, 19.5 (NR)Relationship satisfaction, ambivalence, and conflict.Partner idealization was positively associated with well-being.
[ ]314European Americans: 18–59, 26.8 (10.5)
Mexican Americans: 17–55, 26.1 (7.8)
Relational self-esteem and depression.Power inequality was associated with a lack of authentic self-expression in both populations. A lack of authenticity negatively impacted psychological health, especially for Mexican Americans.
[ ]264 couplesMales: NR, 27 (NR)
Females: NR, 25 (NR)
Happiness with the marriage, satisfaction with the marriage, happiness with the level of equity in the marriage, perceived stability of the marriage, perceived certainty that they would still be married in 5 years, and frequency of thoughts of leaving the spouse.Reporting abundant and positive experiences and giving positive meaning to them were associated with improved levels of well-being over time.
[ ]83217–54, 20 (2.85)Psychological distress.Young adults who reported negative and ambivalent emotional reactions to hooking up also reported lower well-being.
[ ]122Victims: NR, 19.2 (NR)
Nonvictims: NR, 19 (NR)
Psychological distress.Psychological distress was not significantly predicted by coping strategies or the interaction of control and coping in situations of relationship violence.
[ ]25619–28, 23 (2.55)Life satisfaction with life and positive and negative affect.The maintenance of relational behaviors driven by self-determined motives was positively associated to well-being.
[ ]161Undergraduate, 17–66, NR (NR)Depression symptoms, life satisfaction, satisfaction with oneself, and physical health.Having a romantic relationship was associated significantly with well-being, however, results showed that they may be detrimental to women’s well-being
[ ]176NR, 20.94 (3.07)Somatization, depression, anxiety and self-esteem.Male gender roles, such as success, competitiveness, or power, were negatively associated with the well-being of partners.
[ ]255 couplesMales: 20–45, 28.93 (4.05)
Females: 20–45, 27.20 (3.31)
Relationship adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire.Dyadic empathy was positively associated to well-being.
[ ] Study 240018–26, 19.62 (1.95)Psychiatric disorders.Low relationship quality levels were negatively associated to well-being.
[ ] Study 1187 couplesNR, 24.97 (4.62)
-time 1-
Dyadic adjustment.Partner similarity was positively associated to well-being.
[ ] Study 2137 couplesNR, 26.45 (4.56)
-time 3-
[ ]5818–23, 18.8 (1.1)Religious well-being and existential well-being.Forgiveness was associated with greater well-being.
[ ]50 couples18–70, 22.75 (10.60)Depression, life satisfaction, empathic concern, and relationship satisfaction.Emotional interdependence between partners was positively related to well-being, especially regarding positive emotions.
[ ]17624–29, 24.13 (1.84)Depression and anxiety.Higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms predicted increases in negative romantic experiences.
[ ]5316Boys: NR, 16.06 (1.51)
Girls: NR, 15.76 (1.48)
Severe depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt.Romantic relationship inauthenticity was positively associated with the risk of depression, suicide ideation and attempt, but only for girls.
[ ]281818–30, 24 (3.86)
-waves 1 and 3-
Life satisfaction.Relationship status was related to well-being, reporting married young adults the highest level.
[ ]11013–18, 16.7 (NR)Depression, anxiety, self-esteem, mastery, and life satisfaction.A high-quality relationship was associated with increased self-esteem.
[ ]456411–21, 16.16 (1.51)Depression and anxiety.Interracial daters experienced more symptoms of depression and anxiety and poorer family relationships than same-race daters.
[ ]100 (time 4)Age 29
-time 4-
Depression and anxiety.Romantic relationships turning points were related to well-being. A negative turning point was associated to greater depressive symptoms. A positive turning point or a formal turning point were associated to more healthy romantic relationships and a lower number of symptoms.
[ ]11,69518–28, 21.82 (1.85)Life satisfaction.Married young adults reported higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships, those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22.
[ ]46616.22, 17.82 (0.92)Depression symptoms and self-esteem.Dating violence victimization was linked with symptoms of depression and a lower self-esteem.
[ ]325815–21, NR (NR)Self-esteem, depression, isolation, verbal aggression, delinquent behaviors, benevolent sexism, and hostile sexism.Adolescents who had a very good-quality relationship reported higher levels of psychological adjustment.
[ ] Study 1127 couplesNR, 23.33 (3.65)Life satisfaction, stress, and relationship satisfaction.Self-control significantly predicted higher life satisfaction and lower stress. However, relationship satisfaction was not significantly predicted by self-control.
[ ] Study 2149 couplesNR, 25.83 (4.41)Life satisfaction, subjective well-being, psychological and dyadic adjustment.Self-control predicted higher life satisfaction, well-being, psychological adjustment, dyadic adjustment, and relationship satisfaction.
[ ]66618–24, NR (NR)Depression, anxiety, life satisfaction and self-esteem.Hook-ups were associated with higher well-being for women and lower well-being for men.
[ ]119NR, 23 (2.28)Autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, positive relationships, and self-acceptance (Ryff’s model of psychological well-being).Positive relationship quality was found to be a mediator between forgiveness (seeking and self) and well-being.
[ ]14518–25, 21.10 (1.75)Happiness, psychological distress, and self-esteem.Low attachment anxiety in romantic relationships predicted happiness; low attachment anxiety and high self-efficacy predicted low psychological distress; less fear of negative evaluation from the partner and high self-efficacy positively predicted self-esteem.
[ ]48418–25, 19.13 (1.47)Depressive symptoms.Higher relationship quality was positively associated with well-being.
[ ] Study 260NR, 19.7 (2.78)Depressive symptoms.Self-blame predicted depressive affect to the extent that participants forgave themselves.
[ ]50617–24, 20.79 (1.24)Relational self-esteem and relational depression.Higher levels of self-compassion were related to greater likelihood to compromise, as well as greater authenticity, lower levels of emotional turmoil, and higher levels of well-being.
[ ]3121–24, 22.1 (0.98)General affect and life satisfaction.Forgiveness was positively related to improvement in anxiety, depression, and well-being.
[ ]148 couples17–29, 20.8 (3.8)Anxiety, depressed mood, positive well-being, self-control, general health, and vitality.Individuals with better well-being reported more positive romantic behaviors.

Note: NR = information not reported.

3.2. Variables of Romantic Relationships Related to Well-Being in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

Achieving the specific aim of this study involved reviewing the variables of romantic relationships which have been associated with well-being during adolescence and emerging adulthood. These variables were sorted into two categories: First, the label “relational variables”, where studies analyzing characteristics of romantic relationships and the processes that take place within them were grouped. Secondly, the label “personal variables”, which gathered the studies that examined individual variables involved in establishing, forming, and/or developing romantic relationships (see Table 2 ).

Categories, specific romantic variables, and measurement constructs of the included studies.

CategoryVariables (Number of Studies)Measurement ConstructsIncluded Studies (Reference)
Relationship status (17)Singlehood; relationship status (single/married/engaged/cohabiting/divorced, dating steadily/dating multiple people, etc.).[ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ]
Relationship quality (15)Relationship adjustment; intimacy; communication; expectations about the future; conflicts; companionship; intimacy; reliable alliance; affection; relationship satisfaction; commitment; trust; passion; love; social support; depth; conflict; relationship happiness; acceptance; understanding; dyadic adjustment; positive and negative partner behaviors.[ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ]
Relationship history and experiences (12)Relationship development; oral history coding; gratitude; daily interactions with partner; perception of partner responsiveness to gratitude expression; reminiscing about laughter; positive and negative events; relationship power; abuse; conflicts or disagreements; courtship story; relationship violence; negative romantic experiences; turning points.[ , , , , , , , , , , , ]
Commitment and intimacy (7)Expression of commitment; mutuality; level of commitment; relationship status; long term orientation; feelings of psychological attachment; closeness; security; care; understanding; perceptions of positive intimacy; intimacy frequency and intensity; sexual intimacy; intimacy narrative.[ , , , , , , ]
Romantic attachment (7)Romantic attachment style.[ , , , , , , ]
Communication and conflict resolution (5)Partner messages; reciprocity; affect; disclosure of sexual problems; dyadic empathy; self-compassion.[ , , , , ]
Need fulfillment (7)Autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction (SDT); social support.[ , , , , , , ]
Relational and personal goals (6)Michelangelo phenomenon; goal progress; goal congruence; goal support.[ , , , , , ]
Dating violence (7)Physical/verbal/sexual/psychological/ emotional victimization; physical/emotional/verbal aggression; rape.[ , , , , , , ]
Sexual minority youth (3)Same sex relationships.[ , , ]
Interracial relationships (2)Interracial daters; same-sex daters; non-daters.[ , ]
Sexuality (2)Sexual activity; sexual health.[ , ]
Others (7)Emotional interdependenceDaily interactions; mood; partner support; daily emotions.[ , , ]
Shared efficacyRelationship efficacy of dyad.[ ]
Partner perfectionistic concernsSocially prescribed perfectionism; concern over mistakes; self-criticism.[ ]
Neurological effectStriatum gray matter density.[ ]
Personal VariablesRomantic relationship inauthenticity (1)Ideal romantic relationship events vs. actual events.[ ]
Sense Of Coherence (1)Comprehensibility; manageability; meaningfulness.[ ]
Positive and negative affect (1)Affective arousal.[ ]
Relationship expectations and believes (4)Relationship scripts; marriage myths; benevolent sexism; positive illusions.[ , , , ]
Behaviors (9)Negative maintenance behaviors; authenticity; theory of mind; sexual compliance; self-control.[ , , , , , , , , ]
Motivation (8)Forgiveness; approach and avoidance motives; emotional suppression and expression; sacrifice.[ , , , , , , , ]
Coping (4)Explicit attitudes towards partner; mindfulness; coping strategies.[ , , , ]
Others (4)ReactanceAttitude toward infidelity. [ ]
Gender role conflictMen’s thoughts and feelings concerning gender role behaviors.[ ]
Romantic CompetenceInsight; mutuality; emotion regulation.[ ]
AbilitiesSelf-efficacy; relational anxiety.[ ]

A total of 87 studies analyzed the association between romantic relationships and well-being based on relational variables. Relationship status, relationship quality, and relationship history and experiences were the variables most commonly focused on in the studies. In general, particularly during emerging adulthood, participants involved in a romantic relationship showed higher levels of well-being than those who were single. More specifically, it was suggested that staying single, either voluntarily or involuntarily, and remaining so in order to avoid the negative consequences of relationships (avoidance goals) was not associated with well-being, with the best predictor being satisfaction with that status. Particular aspects of relationship status, such as the stability of the relationship or the experience of splitting up, have been widely studied. Studies that equated commitment to romantic status suggested that a higher level of commitment or stability in the relationship (marriage vs. cohabitants, non-marital relationships, casual relationships, etc.) leads to a greater well-being. In this regard, a specific case analyzed was hook-up experiences. These expressions of sexuality, outside the context of a committed relationship, were only negatively associated with well-being in one study. Similarly, the experiences of separation or divorce have been identified with increased well-being if these events were evaluated positively, if the quality of the relationship was poor, or if a new relationship started shortly after the separation.

Along similar lines, the studies also evaluated the role of well-being in relationship quality, with relationship satisfaction, commitment and intimacy being the most common indicators. Throughout the periods of adolescence and emerging adulthood, high levels of quality in the relationship were positively associated with well-being, while, similarly, low levels of quality were linked to negative effects. In cases of transgression, the quality of the relationship was also identified as a mediator between forgiveness and the well-being of the transgressor. Close to the findings regarding relationship quality are those associated with relationship history and experiences. The studies in this line showed that reporting and remembering a large number of positive experiences, such as shared laughter, being at a formal or positive relational turning point, or expressing gratitude towards the partner, were all positively associated with well-being, while negative experiences, such as arguments, transgressions, power imbalance, or violence, were associated with a decrease in well-being levels.

When considered independently and not as indicators of the relationship quality, rates of commitment and intimacy between partners have also been identified as variables which can influence well-being: High levels of commitment to the relationship and intimacy between romantic partners were positively associated, where low levels of commitment showed an inverse relationship. Likewise, romantic attachment can also have important implications. The studies indicate that a secure romantic attachment would be most beneficial, while avoidant and anxious attachment have been suggested as reliable predictors of low levels of well-being.

Communication and conflict resolution between partners have both been identified as variables with a significant effect on well-being. On one hand, the disclosure of sexual problems and receiving positive body feedback from the partner were both positively associated with well-being, while on the other hand, showing high levels of positive affect in conflict situations was found to be a good predictor of relationship stability and satisfaction. Likewise, self-compassion and dyadic empathy (empathy specifically expressed towards the romantic partner) were variables found to have a positive effect, where more self-compassionate individuals were more likely to resolve interpersonal conflicts by balancing their needs to their partner’s needs, feeling more authentic and less emotionally turmoiled. Similarly, high levels of empathy in couples in the transition to parenthood led to improved levels of well-being in the partners.

Variables concerning need fulfillment and achieving relational and personal goals have also been identified as related to well-being. A partner’s support to personal needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Self-Determination Theory [ 8 ]), or the maintenance of relational behaviors driven by self-determined motives, were positively associated with well-being. Similar results were found in relation to the effects of the achievement of the ideal self and the congruence of the goals between partners. According to the studies, romantic partners can significantly influence what we become, having important implications for well-being, as well as the pursuit and involvement in activities aimed to achieve shared goals.

In the studies conducted during adolescence, violence occurring within the relationship (dating violence) in either form, both as a victim and as a perpetrator, has emerged as a highly significant negative variable for well-being, being associated to symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress, and low levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction, among other symptoms. Other relational variables associated with well-being during adolescence were the maintenance of same-sex relationships and interracial relationships, as well as sexuality. The negative impact caused by expected rejection due to sexual orientation was buffered by involvement in same-sex relationships, as well as improved self-esteem and decreased levels of internalized homophobia. Conversely, interracial daters were found to be more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety, as well as to perceive less support from parents and family, compared to same-race daters and non-daters. In relation to sexuality, results showed that the influence of sexual activity in depression was differentially associated with romantic status, where sexual relations associated with greater depressive symptoms corresponded to those that occurred outside the context of a romantic relationship. On the other hand, longitudinal data associated high sexual health with higher levels of well-being in adolescent girls, using indicators such as physical, mental/emotional, and social health.

To a lesser extent, the studies reviewed addressed aspects related to relationship dynamics and their association with well-being. Research into emotional interdependence (i.e., partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time), shared relationship efficacy (i.e., partners’ shared expectations about the joint ability to maintain satisfactorily the relationship), partner-specific perfectionism concerns, or the effect of relationships at the neurological level has rarely been contrasted with other studies. Despite this, the first two aspects were established as characteristics of healthy relationships with a positive influence on well-being, however, concerns about perfectionistic demands of the partner (perceived partner’s expectations about one’s own mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfection) generated and evoked socially negative behaviors, which in turn had a deleterious effect on negative affect and life satisfaction.

Regarding the personal variables, a total of 25 works studied their relationship with well-being. Here, the variable which received the most attention was the belief system. It has been shown that, during adolescence, the imbalance between romantic expectations and reality (romantic relationship inauthenticity) is associated with a greater risk of depression and suicidal behavior, while the Sense of Coherence (SOC), a dispositional orientation or a coping resource which reflects a person’s capacity to respond to stressful situations and life events, is linked with greater life satisfaction. In emerging adulthood, relationship expectations and beliefs were also suggested as factors influencing well-being. The congruence between previous expectations and reality, or between the ideal and the real romantic relationship, has been identified as a good indicator of well-being. There is no general consensus over the results for other kinds of beliefs, such as positive illusions (idealizing the partner), marriage myths, or benevolent sexism, although a number of studies have addressed them. The tendency is that the first two seem to be beneficial for well-being, while the latter showed a negative association.

In addition, certain types of behaviors, which may be induced by beliefs, also seem to impact well-being. On the one hand, behaviors which diminished satisfaction with the relationship, such as sexual compliance (voluntary maintenance of unwanted sex with a partner), have been negatively associated with well-being. On the other hand, behaviors linked to self-knowledge or positive management of the relationship, such as making attributions and reasoning about the mental state of others (i.e., theory of mind), self-control, authenticity (acting in a way which is congruent with one’s own values, beliefs, and needs), or the use of effective coping strategies in stressful events, were positively associated with well-being. In this sense, focusing on the problem or perceiving the situation as controllable had positive effects on well-being in cases of abuse or violence within the relationship. In less serious cases, maintaining an implicitly positive attitude towards the partner and mindfulness obtained similar results.

Regarding cognitive, emotional, and behavioral motivation, self-forgiveness or approach and avoidance motives were revealed as indicators of well-being. According to the analyzed studies, forgiving the partner or forgiving oneself, regarding harmful relationships events, was positively related to well-being. Moreover, engaging sexually with the partner increased well-being, but only when these motives were based on approximation towards positive consequences (e.g., happiness of the partner or promoting the intimacy of the relationship) and not on the avoidance of negative consequences. Similar results were found in relation to sacrifice. Self-sacrificing aimed at achieving beneficial goals, that is, pro-social behavior which gives priority to benefits to the relationship over personal benefit, has also been positively related to well-being. Conversely, emotional suppression, limiting one’s partner’s attention towards attractive alternatives, or the pursuit of traditionally masculine roles (e.g., success, competition, or power) negatively affected the partner. Finally, the level of romantic competence and other skills that promote the establishment and successful maintenance of relationships, such as perceived self-efficacy, or the ability to control relational anxiety, have been strongly linked to positive results, as well as a greater ability to make better decisions and feel more confident and satisfied with the relationship.

4. Discussion

The main aim of this study has been to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on the association between romantic relationships and well-being during adolescence and emerging adulthood, focusing on identifying the specific variables associated with well-being in the romantic context.

In the first place, it is important to stress that well-being has been historically been measured in many different ways. The great number of variables observed have produced a potential problem of construct validity. It seems clear that the multiple conceptual and operational definitions used in the empirical studies on well-being hinder rather than help when it comes to defining this construct [ 151 , 152 ]. It is therefore important to continue trying to bring clarity to a field which is still in evolution, with previous works and new approaches still trying to be integrated [ 6 ]. Although this has its positive side, it also highlights a greater need for improving the theoretical approaches, making them more global in terms of personality and also more precise in terms of the relationship between personality traits and relational styles in romantic processes. Another aspect which may contribute to the lack of clarity in the concept of well-being is the continued use of symptoms of mental illness as an indicator. While it is true that not all of the studies reviewed used this clinical approach, but rather adopted models from positive psychology (e.g., [ 22 , 33 , 44 , 85 , 97 , 98 ]), there is still a prevalent tendency to conceptualize well-being in terms of the absence of disease or clinical symptoms, rather than providing a positive approximation to the concept. This is quite surprising, especially considering that it has previously been established that health and mental illness work in a relatively independent manner [ 153 ], and that the factors which make either reduce do not necessarily cause the other to increase [ 154 ]. The concept of mental health proposed by positive psychology is therefore of particular relevance here, although the definition used (the existence of a high level of well-being and the absence of mental illness) [ 153 , 155 ] suggests the need to develop a methodologically diverse theory which would include the full spectrum of well-being [ 151 ] and to adopt a theoretical approach according to the concepts measured, which, as of yet, none is present in the reviewed works.

In the second place, it is clear that the scientific literature stresses the importance of romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood [ 18 , 156 , 157 ], however, the small number of studies which have focused specifically on these stages show that there is a need to provide a specific psycho-evolutionary focus. Based on the works reviewed, it can be stated that romantic relationships are significantly associated with well-being in adolescents, although a number of different personal and relational variables can be understood as risk factors. A low SOC, a lack of authenticity, or the presence of violence in relationships [ 37 , 48 , 49 , 59 , 78 , 83 , 108 , 122 , 142 ], are harmful to adolescents, all of which can be explained from different perspectives. On the one hand, according to the normative trajectory model [ 158 ], early romantic experiences can compromise the well-being of adolescents when dealing with non-normative development events. On the other hand, the stress and coping model [ 159 ] postulates that romantic relationships are intrinsically challenging, requiring skills and resources that adolescents may not have. Following studies like those of [ 160 ] and [ 161 ], it is also plausible to pose the counter-argument that high levels of well-being could act as a protective factor, promoting healthy behaviors. Research with adult populations has already established this association and suggests that people with high levels of life satisfaction are more involved in intimate activities and relationships and have better relationships [ 13 , 85 , 162 ]. The association between well-being and romantic experiences during adolescence seems, therefore, to operate under a bidirectional pattern of influence, revealing with this the existence of a more complex relationship between both processes. Besides this, it is also especially important to remember that the romantic development of adolescents does not take place in a social vacuum, so it is vitally important for the well-being of adolescents to have social contexts which provide support and emotional understanding as they face the demands and challenges that this new evolutionary task lays on them [ 163 ].

Just like in adolescence, involvement in romantic relationships can be a significant source of well-being in emerging adulthood. The research reviewed suggests that young adults who have romantic relationships are happier, feel more satisfied with their lives, have fewer problems with mental and physical illness, show greater positive affect, and have better levels of self-esteem than single people. However, as noted above, the phenomenon of romantic relationships is complex and multifaceted and is associated with both relational and personal factors, and not only with their presence or absence. The relationship quality, the satisfaction of the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness and a secure attachment with the partner have been indicated as strong indicators of well-being [ 7 , 164 ]. In addition, variables such as high levels of commitment, intimacy, communication, providing support to achieve personal and relational goals, good conflict management, approach motives (in contrast to avoidance), authenticity, or having strategies for coping with stressful situations, are also associated with good results, as confirmed by other studies [ 165 , 166 ]. Finally, personal skills and having the competence to maintain healthy and satisfying relationships are important factors which, according to some studies, can reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, increase satisfaction with the relationship, the development of a secure attachment, and foster better decision-making. For this reason, romantic relationships based on principles of mental and emotional health and romantic competence [ 23 , 167 ] are considered to be among the prime sources of well-being during emerging adulthood.

5. Conclusions

Based on these results, one of the main conclusions from this study is the invaluable role which romantic relationships play in well-being during adolescence and emerging adulthood. As a result, this work supports their consideration as developmental assets [ 14 ]. However, the numerous benefits which are associated with them call for certain parameters to be agreed on. A relationship which is beneficial for well-being would, in general terms, have high-quality levels, through which the partners can develop their potential, achieve personal and shared goals, and maintain a secure attachment. To achieve this, people must achieve certain cognitive, emotional, and behavioral skills. It is proposed that these principles be integrated into a more parsimonious analysis, which could aid our understanding of positive romantic relationships. From this viewpoint, this study proposes romantic well-being as a new term of analysis and suggests that in future research it can be understood and evaluated as a specific category. One of the main strengths of this work, therefore, is the initial approach of a new theoretical model, termed the multidimensional model of romantic well-being, whose dimensions correspond to the particular factors which, according to the research, play an especially important role in achieving positive results, namely relationship quality, need fulfillment, the achievement of personal and relational goals, romantic attachment, and the development of individual skills.

Regarding the empirical approach to well-being, the main conclusion here is that it is necessary to understand the concept of well-being in of itself, without continually referring to a disease or symptom. This distorts the construct and prevents from relating it to dimensions which are also complex and rather diverse, such as those involved in the psycho-evolutionary task of adolescents maintaining a romantic relationship. Therefore, further research is required to establish a common, shared, and reliable theoretical and methodological framework for well-being, also allowing the ability to address the scientific study of romantic relationships in stages prior to adulthood, especially during adolescence. It is essential to adopt educational, clinical, and community models which focus on the need to promote positive, healthy, and satisfactory relationships, as well as raising awareness of this need among all professionals responsible for people’s health.

Author Contributions

This study has been developed with the contribution of all its authors. Conceptualization, C.V. and R.O.-R.; Methodology, M.G.-L. and C.V.; Formal analysis, M.G.-L; Writing—original draft preparation, M.G.-L.; Writing—review and editing, M.G.-L., C.V. and R.O.-R; Supervision, C.V. and R.O.-R.

This research was funded by Plan Nacional, España, into the frame of the national project “Competencia Socio-Moral y Ecología del Grupo de Iguales en la Violencia entre Escolares: un Estudio Longitudinal y Transaccional” [PSI2016-74871-R].

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

PhilNews

  • #WalangPasok
  • Breaking News
  • Photography
  • ALS Exam Results
  • Aeronautical Engineering Board Exam Result
  • Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering Board Exam Result
  • Agriculturist Board Exam Result
  • Architecture Exam Results
  • BAR Exam Results
  • CPA Exam Results
  • Certified Plant Mechanic Exam Result
  • Chemical Engineering Exam Results
  • Chemical Technician Exam Result
  • Chemist Licensure Exam Result
  • Civil Engineering Exam Results
  • Civil Service Exam Results
  • Criminology Exam Results
  • Customs Broker Exam Result
  • Dental Hygienist Board Exam Result
  • Dental Technologist Board Exam Result
  • Dentist Licensure Exam Result
  • ECE Exam Results
  • ECT Board Exam Result
  • Environmental Planner Exam Result
  • Featured Exam Results
  • Fisheries Professional Exam Result
  • Geodetic Engineering Board Exam Result
  • Guidance Counselor Board Exam Result
  • Interior Design Board Exam Result
  • LET Exam Results
  • Landscape Architect Board Exam Result
  • Librarian Exam Result
  • Master Plumber Exam Result
  • Mechanical Engineering Exam Results
  • MedTech Exam Results
  • Metallurgical Engineering Board Exam Result
  • Midwives Board Exam Result
  • Mining Engineering Board Exam Result
  • NAPOLCOM Exam Results
  • Naval Architect and Marine Engineer Board Exam Result
  • Nursing Exam Results
  • Nutritionist Dietitian Board Exam Result
  • Occupational Therapist Board Exam Result
  • Ocular Pharmacologist Exam Result
  • Optometrist Board Exam Result
  • Pharmacist Licensure Exam Result
  • Physical Therapist Board Exam
  • Physician Exam Results
  • Principal Exam Results
  • Professional Forester Exam Result
  • Psychologist Board Exam Result
  • Psychometrician Board Exam Result
  • REE Board Exam Result
  • RME Board Exam Result
  • Radiologic Technology Board Exam Result
  • Real Estate Appraiser Exam Result
  • Real Estate Broker Exam Result
  • Real Estate Consultant Exam Result
  • Respiratory Therapist Board Exam Result 
  • Sanitary Engineering Board Exam Result 
  • Social Worker Exam Result
  • UPCAT Exam Results
  • Upcoming Exam Result
  • Veterinarian Licensure Exam Result 
  • X-Ray Technologist Exam Result
  • Programming
  • Smartphones
  • Web Hosting
  • Social Media
  • SWERTRES RESULT
  • EZ2 RESULT TODAY
  • STL RESULT TODAY
  • 6/58 LOTTO RESULT
  • 6/55 LOTTO RESULT
  • 6/49 LOTTO RESULT
  • 6/45 LOTTO RESULT
  • 6/42 LOTTO RESULT
  • 6-Digit Lotto Result
  • 4-Digit Lotto Result
  • 3D RESULT TODAY
  • 2D Lotto Result
  • English to Tagalog
  • English-Tagalog Translate
  • Maikling Kwento
  • EUR to PHP Today
  • Pounds to Peso
  • Binibining Pilipinas
  • Miss Universe
  • Family (Pamilya)
  • Life (Buhay)
  • Love (Pag-ibig)
  • School (Eskwela)
  • Work (Trabaho)
  • Pinoy Jokes
  • Tagalog Jokes
  • Referral Letters
  • Student Letters
  • Employee Letters
  • Business Letters
  • Pag-IBIG Fund
  • Home Credit Cash Loan
  • Pick Up Lines Tagalog
  • Pork Dishes
  • Lotto Result Today
  • Viral Videos

Related Literature – What Is Review Of Related Literature (RRL)?

Here are top 5 things to know about your review of related literature (rrl).

FACTS ABOUT RELATED LITERATURE – When conducting research, especially one academic in nature, you would most likely need to include an RRL.

Related literature is defined as a composition of facts, studies, principles, which are related to your research topic. Furthermore, you can find RRL materials in books, professional journals, articles, and other forms of publication.

However, before we continue to discuss more facts about the RRL, we need to know the difference between related studies and related literature.

Related Literature – What Is Review Of Related Literature (RRL)?

RELATED STUDIES VS RELATED LITERATURE

Official and public offices along with University thesis’ are examples of related studies . These are publicized source materials that have been peer-reviewed or sourced through facts and intensive research.

Meanwhile, related literature can stem from journalists, officials, or any influential figure. As such, the opinions, facts, and other details introduced can greatly affect the public’s opinion and thinking.

What is RRL?

Quick Answer: The RRL ( review of related literature ) is an overview of pre-existing literature which holds a relation to the topic of an individual’s research, thesis, or dissertation topic.

Moreover, through an RRL, researchers can identify potentially better topics through an excess of already available studies. With this, individuals can then identify the strengths and weaknesses of a given study.

Best Sources For Related Studies

Having access to primary sources of information are key when creating an RRL. Thus, researchers should include the following for their RRL:

  • Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, records, eyewitness reports, and memoirs
  • Research articles, clinical reports, case studies, and dissertations
  • Poetry, music, video, and photography

Importance of RRL and research studies:

The goal of literature or research studies is to get a better grasp of the existing research and discussions on a certain topic or field of study. Additionally, it can provide information in the form of a written report as well as conducting aiding the development of your field expertise.

Thanks for reading. We aim to provide our readers with the freshest and most in-demand content. Come back next time for the latest news here on Philnews.

READ ALSO: Grade 10 Science Module DepEd – Learner’s Module PDF Free

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Profile image of kristine kaye racho

A collective body of research work, related to involved variables i.e. mental health, spiritual intelligence, altruism, school environment and academic achievement was examined extensively, so that proper guidelines and directions from objectives, hypotheses, methodologies and findings may be sought to assist the various steps of the present study like determination of objectives, formulation of hypotheses, to select methodology and to get understanding of relationships between different related variables. Following was the (chronological wise) related literature discussed. 2.1 Mental Health Bhan (1972) studied the deterioration in interest as a function of insecure mental health during and after the period of certain academic specialization. The sample was drawn from the students studying for M.A. or M. Sc. and from the persons who settled down in life after passing M. A. or M. Sc. Interests in outdoor and physical activities deteriorated in the case of in-course group due to insecurity of mental health. Interests in such fields like literary activities, welfare and humanitarian activities, outdoor and physical activities, gregarious and social activities deteriorated in the case of after course group due to insecurity of mental health. Interest fields which were not found to deteriorate in the case of in course group due to insecurity of mental health were scientific interest, literary interest, gregarious interest and domestic interest. Interest fields which were not found to deteriorate in the case of after course group due to insecurity of mental health were scientific interest and domestic interest. Security–insecurity was a stable characteristic of personality and was caused by long-standing factors which affected from early childhood. Banreti (1975) studied attitudinal, situational and mental health correlates of academic achievement at the undergraduate university level. The relationship between levels of academic achievement of first-year university students and various attitudinal, situational and mental health factors was examined. Petersen (1977) studied achievement history, school environment, and mental health as longitudinal predictors of achievement. In this seven year longitudinal study predictors of achievement for first graders were measured against actual school achievement of the same students in the seventh and eighth grades. Three sets of variables were obtained in the first grade. Achievement history, family environment, and mental health were used as measures. Mental health was assessed by teacher ratings of classroom adaptation and psychiatric symptoms of the students. Achievement history was identified by early school achievement

Related Papers

Journal of the Gujarat research society, UGC-Care listed, Vol. 21, Issue: 11, ISSN: 0374-8588, Nov.

Alkshendra Kunal Ashok

related literature in relation to research

Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences

Mahmood sadry

Several factors may contribute to better academic progress and mental health could be one of those factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between mental health and academic progress of students of faculty of education, Kunduz University. It was descriptive-correlational study. All students of the department of education (1614) are being taken as the population of the study out of which 310 students were selected as sample with a confidence level of 95% and an error percentage of 0.05%. In order to collect data, the GHQ-28 Questionnaire was used to measure mental health status, and the average grades of students were used to measure academic achievement. The collected data have been analyzed through SPSS-24 software. The findings of the research showed that the level of academic progress among students was higher than the desired level (p&lt;α=0.05&lt;0.05, μ=78, 6&gt;75), and the level of mental health in all dimensions and the overall dimension was at no...

Shumaila Khurshid

In today's world, young scholars are confronting numerous emotional and mental well-being issues which are influencing their scholastic accomplishment. So in the light of the fact we examined depression, stress and anxiety among students and how these issues are much linked with their scholastic accomplishment and the study concentrated on knowing the difference between gender and mental health issues prevailing among students. DASS was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among students and a self-developed Academic Performance Scale were used to measure adolescents' scholastic accomplishments. Moreover, the sample of the study was randomly selected from 10 schools situated in city Rawalpindi, which was comprised of 200 (100 males and 100 females) students enrolled in the 9 th class. Pearson Correlation and t-test were used to analyze the data in order to test the hypothesis. Results exposed negative effects of stress and depression on adolescents' scholastic accomplishment whereas the positive relationship between anxiety and scholastic accomplishment. Furthermore, findings indicated significant difference among gender, for instance, as compared to male students, females experience a high level of depression, anxiety and stress. The results of the study would have practical implications for schools administration to help adolescents to deal with their mental health issues by conducting workshops, seminar and by providing counseling services.

Academic Journal of Psychological Studies

World of Researches Publication WRP

In this paper, the concept of mental health and academic performance in a variety of research has been investigated. At first, the concept of mental health is been discussed and its dimensions are introduced. Then, the concept of academic performance and the factors affecting it are also introduced. Some studies have shown that mental health can increase learners' academic performance. Stress and anxiety reduction as well as the increase of self-efficacy of agents are among the possible factors. However, it seems appropriate academic performance is also able to increase students' mental health by producing positive emotions and excitement. At the end of the article, strategies to increase mental health and academic performance of students are presented.

BEST Journals

In the present study an attempt was made to elaborate the relationship between academic achievement and mental health of adolescents belonging to the Ludhiana and Moga district of Punjab .The sample of 300 adolescents (150 rural and 150 urban ) were taken from various govt. schools. Tools used for the study were the Mental Health Battery (Singh and Gupta 2005) and the academic achievement was assessed by the results of their matriculation board examination in the subject of mathematics. Results clearly indicated that there is a highly significant relation between academic achievement and certain dimensions of mental health namely overall adjustment and intelligence for the sample as a whole.

Journal Of Nursing And Midwifery Sciences

Leila M Jouybari

Gyanesh Kumar Tiwari

The present study attempted to assess the role of mental health symptoms in predicting and shaping the academic achievement of the female graduate students. A two hundred and thirty nine females studying in undergraduate courses belonging to high (M = 18.76, SD = 1.63), middle (M = 18.59, SD = 1.43), and low (M = 18.32, SD = 1.00) socioeconomic status (SES)Maged 16 to 24 years took part in the study whose mental health symptoms, socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement were measured by standardized psychometric tools. The results of the study revealed that emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems components of mental health symptoms have negative correlations with the scores of academic achievement of the participants whereas the scores of pro-social behaviour component of mental health symptoms of the female students exhibited a positive correlation with the scores of academic achievement. The high, middle and low socioeconomic status of the participants affected their mental health symptoms and academic achievement. The regression analyses showed that the mental health

Maninder Grewal

IJCIRAS Research Publication

This article is all about a study of mental health and mental disorders and how they affect the different aspects of education of school students. The main endeavour has been to discuss several sides of maintaining good mental health and its impact on the academic sides of school students. This paper has pointed out with the vivid description how the absence of good mental health causes serious mental disorders such as Anxiety ,Alcoholism, Depression, Delinquency and Crime, and ADHD etc. This writing has shown how the study of mental health has helped school authorities and parents understand their roles and responsibilities in dealing with the emotional sides of school going children.

QUEST JOURNALS

Academic Achievement is the first and importance in the context of an education system aimed at progressive scholastic development of the students success in any academic task has always been of special interest to educators, parents and society at large (Ajayi, 2006). In fact, complete education system revolves around the sole objective of academic achievement of students. Today mental health issues in adolescents are considered as a growing concern in the School and for the community counsellors and educators. The present era of educational scene is changing very rapidly due to increasing competition in every sphere of life. This stress is reflected in their academic performance. The sample was comprised of 100 students including 50 girls and 50 boys of Private schools of Chandigarh. In order to see the Academic achievement of X class adolescents of Chandigarh in relation to their Mental Health. The study was an attempt to find out the relationship between the academic achievement and their mental health. For analyzing the data correlation and t-test was used. The results revealed there is positive correlation between Academic Achievement and mental health, which means if Mental Health is high the academic score will be high and vice versa and there is no significant difference between boys and girls on the variable Academic achievement and mental health.

Loading Preview

Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the paper by clicking the button above.

RELATED PAPERS

IRA International Journal of Education and Multidisciplinary Studies (ISSN 2455-2526)

DR. AFA DUL MUJIABA

Marrie Sophja Peralta

Romulo Sinabutar

Proceeding of International Interdisciplinary Conference And Research Expo (IICARE)

FAIZAL RISDIANTO

IRJMETS Publication

International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science (IRJMETS)

http://www.jceri.com

Dr. M . Mahendraprabu

IJRAR PUBLICATION

PARIMAL SARKAR

IJAR Indexing

Moyegun, Oluwasegun

Moyegun Oluwasegun

Mediterranean Journal of Humanities

Edina Ajanovic

Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research)

Dr.Ghansham Kamble

International Journal of Scientific Research

Dr. KC Barmola

Journal on Educational Psychology

TAMILSELVI B

Science Park Research Organization & Counselling

IJIP Journal

Deepak Pandey

Dr. khawla alsaida

Prince Appiah , Alexander Menschikov

International Journal of Arts, Humanities &amp; Social Science

Drboonleang M O N G Thumthong

Mental Health & Prevention

Gabriele Helga Franke

The Researchers

Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal

Mara Mierksel S. Liad , Psychology and Education

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

A systematic literature review of imperfect quality items: challenges, opportunities, and insights with reference to SDGs

  • S.I. : OR for Sustainability in Supply Chain Management
  • Published: 20 June 2024

Cite this article

related literature in relation to research

  • Prerna Gautam   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0482-3664 1 ,
  • Sumit Maheshwari   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-4771-6797 2 , 3 ,
  • Ahmad Hasan   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6241-2287 4 &
  • Chandra K. Jaggi   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6179-8376 4  

109 Accesses

Explore all metrics

Every business sector has inventory problems whether they are realized or not. The occurrence of imperfect quality items (IQI) in the inventory is obvious and cannot be overlooked. As mismanagement of these items may end up in waste emancipation and harmful environmental impacts. Copious work has been done in the area of inventory modeling for IQI with varying demand patterns which calls for a systematic review framework so as to assist the researchers and professionals with the direction of flow of the current and existing research. The present Systematic Literature Review (SLR) studies the inventory models with varying demand patterns under the presence of IQI. This study considered 107 peer-reviewed articles for the SLR obtained after a detailed study of 782 articles through the Web of Science database. VOSviewer has been used for the network analysis and visualization. The software provide the insights to identify and analyze the linkage between the considered problem for the bibliometric analysis and the relationship between the authors, keywords, countries etc. The insights are presented as to how the management of IQI can be a benchmark for an organization and contribute to several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The time span for this study is from 2010 to 2024 * (up to 29 February).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price includes VAT (Russian Federation)

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Rent this article via DeepDyve

Institutional subscriptions

related literature in relation to research

Similar content being viewed by others

related literature in relation to research

Concepts and forms of greenwashing: a systematic review

related literature in relation to research

Supply chain disruptions and resilience: a major review and future research agenda

related literature in relation to research

Artificial intelligence and big data analytics for supply chain resilience: a systematic literature review

Availability of data and materials.

The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article. Derived data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author [[email protected]] on request.

Ahmed, I., & Sultana, I. (2014). A literature review on inventory modeling with reliability consideration. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations, 5 (1), 169–178.

Article   Google Scholar  

Alamri, A. A., & Syntetos, A. A. (2018). Beyond LIFO and FIFO: Exploring an Allocation-In-Fraction-Out (AIFO) policy in a two-warehouse inventory model. International Journal of Production Economics, 206 , 33–45.

Alamri, O. A. (2023). Sustainable supply chain model for defective growing items (Fishery) with trade credit policy and fuzzy learning effect. Axioms, 12 (5), 436.

Alamri, O. A., Jayaswal, M. K., & Mittal, M. (2023). A supply chain model with learning effect and credit financing policy for imperfect quality items under fuzzy environment. Axioms, 12 (3), 260.

Alharbi, M. G. (2022). Carbon reduction technology based on imperfect production system for deteriorating items with warranty periods and greenness dependent demand. Sustainability, 14 (22), 15061.

Ali, H., Das, S., & Shaikh, A. A. (2023). Investigate an imperfect green production system considering rework policy via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimizer algorithm. Expert Systems with Applications, 214 , 119143.

Asghar, I., & Kim, J. S. (2020). An automated smart EPQ-based inventory model for technology-dependent products under stochastic failure and repair rate. Symmetry, 12 (3), 388.

Bachar, R. K., Bhuniya, S., Ghosh, S. K., AlArjani, A., Attia, E., Uddin, M. S., & Sarkar, B. (2023). Product outsourcing policy for a sustainable flexible manufacturing system with reworking and green investment. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 20 , 1376–1401.

Bakker, M., Riezebos, J., & Teunter, R. H. (2012). Review of inventory systems with deterioration since 2001. European Journal of Operational Research, 221 (2), 275–284.

Barman, H., Roy, S. K., Sakalauskas, L., & Weber, G. W. (2023). Inventory model involving reworking of faulty products with three carbon policies under neutrosophic environment. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 57 , 102081.

Bhatnagar, P., Kumar, S., & Yadav, D. (2022). A single-stage cleaner production system with waste management, reworking, preservation technology, and partial backlogging under inflation. RAIRO-Operations Research, 56 (6), 4327–4346.

Bhavani, G. D., & Mahapatra, G. S. (2023). Inventory system with generalized triangular neutrosophic cost pattern incorporating maximum life-time-based deterioration and novel demand through PSO. Soft Computing, 27 (5), 2385–2402.

Bhavani, G. D., Georgise, F. B., Mahapatra, G. S., & Maneckshaw, B. (2022). Neutrosophic cost pattern of inventory system with novel demand incorporating deterioration and discount on defective items using particle swarm algorithm. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2022.

Bhuniya, S., Sarkar, B., & Pareek, S. (2019). Multi-product production system with the reduced failure rate and the optimum energy consumption under variable demand. Mathematics, 7 (5), 465.

Bräuer, I., & Buscher, U. (2018). A note on ‘Pricing and ordering decisions in a supply chain with imperfect quality items and inspection under buyback of defective items.’ International Journal of Production Research, 56 (15), 5272–5277.

Bushuev, M. A., Guiffrida, A., Jaber, M. Y., & Khan, M. (2015). A review of inventory lot sizing review papers. Management Research Review, 38 (3), 283–298.

Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E., Marquez-Rios, O. A., Sanchez-Romero, I., & Mandal, B. (2022). Optimizing price, lot size and backordering level for products with imperfect quality, different holding costs and non-linear demand. Revista De La Real Academia De Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Serie a. Matemáticas, 116 , 48.

Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E., Plaza-Makowsky, M. J. L., Sevilla-Roca, M. A., Núñez-Baumert, J. M., & Mandal, B. (2021). An inventory model for imperfect quality products with rework, distinct holding costs, and nonlinear demand dependent on price. Mathematics, 9 (12), 1362.

Chakraborty, A., Pal, S., Mondal, S. P., & Alam, S. (2022). Nonlinear pentagonal intuitionistic fuzzy number and its application in EPQ model under learning and forgetting. Complex & Intelligent Systems, 8 (2), 1307–1322.

Chang, H. C., & Ho, C. H. (2010). Exact closed-form solutions for “optimal inventory model for items with imperfect quality and shortage backordering.” Omega, 38 (3), 233–237.

Chaudhary, V., Kulshrestha, R., & Routroy, S. (2018). State-of-the-art literature review on inventory models for perishable products. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 15 (3), 306–346.

Chauhan, A., Sharma, N. K., Tayal, S., Kumar, V., & Kumar, M. (2022). A sustainable production model for waste management with uncertain scrap and recycled material. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 24 (5), 1797–1817.

Chen, T. H. (2017). Optimizing pricing, replenishment and rework decision for imperfect and deteriorating items in a manufacturer-retailer channel. International Journal of Production Economics, 183 , 539–550.

Chen, T. H., & Tsao, Y. C. (2014). Optimal lot-sizing integration policy under learning and rework effects in a manufacturer–retailer chain. International Journal of Production Economics, 155 , 239–248.

Chen, Y., Liu, C., Li, H., & Xue, X. (2023). How do countries along the Maritime Silk Road perform in sustainable use of natural resources? Progress of natural resources-related SDGs. Ecological Indicators, 149 , 110194.

Chiu, C. Y., Yang, M. F., Tang, C. J., & Lin, Y. (2013). Integrated imperfect production inventory model under permissible delay in payments depending on the order quantity. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 9 (4), 945.

Chung, C. J. (2013). Investigating imperfect process and demand effects on inspection scheduling and supply chain replenishment policy. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 64 (1), 31–44.

Chung, C. J., & Wee, H. M. (2012). Economic replenishment plan with imperfect production process and business-return dependent demand. Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research, 29 (06), 1250036.

Das, S., Ali, H., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2023a). Impact of emission and service constraint for an imperfect production system under two level Hamiltonian. Optimal Control Applications and Methods, 44 (5), 2796–2820.

Das, S., Mandal, G., Akhtar, F., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2024a). Pricing and dynamic service policy for an imperfect production system: Extended Pontryagin’s maximum principle for interval control problems. Expert Systems with Applications, 238 , 122090.

Das, S., Mandal, G., Manna, A. K., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2023b). Effects of emission reduction and rework policy in a production system of green products: An interval valued optimal control theoretic approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 179 , 109212.

Das, S., Manna, A. K., Shaikh, A. A., & Konstantaras, I. (2023c). Analysis of a production system of green products considering single-level trade credit financing via a parametric approach of intervals and meta-heuristic algorithms. Applied Intelligence, 53 (16), 19532–19562.

Das, S., Mondal, R., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2022). An application of control theory for imperfect production problem with carbon emission investment policy in interval environment. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 359 (5), 1925–1970.

Das, S., Shaikh, A. A., Bhunia, A. K., & Konstantaras, I. (2024b). Warranty, free service and rework policy for an imperfect manufacturing system with SAR sensitive demand under emission taxation. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 187 , 109765.

Dash, A., Giri, B. C., & Kumar Sarkar, A. (2023). Coordination and defect management strategy for a two-level supply chain under price and sales effort-sensitive demand. International Journal of Systems Science: Operations & Logistics, 10 (1), 2103198.

Google Scholar  

Datta, T. K. (2017). Inventory system with defective products and investment opportunity for reducing defective proportion. Operational Research, 17 (1), 297–312.

De-la-Cruz-Márquez, C. G., Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E., & Mandal, B. (2021). An inventory model for growing items with imperfect quality when the demand is price sensitive under carbon emissions and shortages. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 221 , 1–23.

De-la-Cruz-Márquez, C. G., Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E., Porter, J. D., Loera-Hernández, I. D. J., Smith, N. R., Céspedes-Mota, A., & Bourguet-Díaz, R. E. (2023). An inventory model for growing items when the demand is price sensitive with imperfect quality, inspection errors, carbon emissions, and planned backorders. Mathematics, 11 (21), 4421.

Dolai, M., Banu, A., & Mondal, S. K. (2023). Analyzing an imperfect production inventory model for green products considering learning effect on screening process under advertisement dependent credit period. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 19 (8), 1–29.

Fan, X., Gong, Y., Xu, X., & Zou, B. (2019). Optimal decisions in reducing loss rate of returnable transport items. Journal of Cleaner Production, 214 , 1050–1060.

Fink, A. (2019). Conducting research literature reviews: From the internet to paper . Sage publications.

Gautam, P., & Khanna, A. (2018). An imperfect production inventory model with setup cost reduction and carbon emission for an integrated supply chain. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 6 (3), 271–286.

Gautam, P., Kishore, A., Khanna, A., & Jaggi, C. K. (2019). Strategic defect management for a sustainable green supply chain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 233 , 226–241.

Gautam, P., Maheshwari, S., & Jaggi, C. K. (2022a). Sustainable production inventory model with greening degree and dual determinants of defective items. Journal of Cleaner Production, 367 , 132879.

Gautam, P., Maheshwari, S., Hasan, A., Kausar, A., & Jaggi, C. K. (2022b). Optimal inventory strategies for an imperfect production system with advertisement and price reliant demand under rework option for defectives. RAIRO-Operations Research, 56 (1), 183–197.

Gautam, P., Maheshwari, S., Kausar, A., & Jaggi, C. K. (2021). Inventory Models for Imperfect Quality Items: A Two-Decade Review. Advances in Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Business Management , 185–215.

Genc, T. S. (2021). Implementing the United Nations sustainable development Goals to supply chains with behavioral consumers.  Annals of Operations Research , 1–32.

Guchhait, P., Maiti, M. K., & Maiti, M. (2013). Production-inventory models for a damageable item with variable demands and inventory costs in an imperfect production process. International Journal of Production Economics, 144 (1), 180–188.

He, L., Peng, H., Niu, Z., Lu, H., & Xie, X. (2015). Optimal production planning for manufacturing systems with instantaneous stock-dependent demand and imperfect yields. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2015 , 1–14.

Huang, H., He, Y., & Li, D. (2018). Coordination of pricing, inventory, and production reliability decisions in deteriorating product supply chains. International Journal of Production Research, 56 (18), 6201–6224.

Jafaripour, Z., Sajadi, S. M., & Molana, S. M. (2022). An optimal two-level supply chain model for Small-and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) considering rework for new products and price-dependent demands. Scientia Iranica, 29 (3E), 1622–1637.

Jagadeesan, V., Rajamanickam, T., Schindlerova, V., Subbarayan, S., & Cep, R. (2023). A study on two-warehouse inventory systems with integrated multi-purpose production unit and partitioned rental warehouse. Mathematics, 11 (18), 3986.

Jaggi, C. K., Mittal, M., & Khanna, A. (2013). Effects of inspection on retailer’s ordering policy for deteriorating items with time-dependent demand under inflationary conditions. International Journal of Systems Science, 44 (9), 1774–1782.

Jaggi, C. K., Khanna, A., & Kishore, A. (2016). Production inventory policies for defective items with inspection errors, sales return, imperfect rework process and backorders. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1715 (1), 020062.

Jain, M., Sharma, N., & Singh, P. (2023). Sustainable inventory prediction with random defect and rework using Bat algorithm. RAIRO-Operations Research, 57 (2), 481–501.

Janssen, L., Claus, T., & Sauer, J. (2016). Literature review of deteriorating inventory models by key topics from 2012 to 2015. International Journal of Production Economics, 182 , 86–112.

Jauhari, W. A., Pujawan, I. N., & Suef, M. (2023). Sustainable inventory management with hybrid production system and investment to reduce defects. Annals of Operations Research, 324 (1), 543–572.

Jayaswal, M. K., Mittal, M., Alamri, O. A., & Khan, F. A. (2022). Learning EOQ model with trade-credit financing policy for imperfect quality items under cloudy fuzzy environment. Mathematics, 10 (2), 246.

Khan, M., Jaber, M. Y., Guiffrida, A. L., & Zolfaghari, S. (2011). A review of the extensions of a modified EOQ model for imperfect quality items. International Journal of Production Economics, 132 (1), 1–12.

Khanna, A., Gautam, P., & Jaggi, C. K. (2016a). Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1715 (1), 020065.

Khanna, A., Gautam, P., & Jaggi, C. K. (2017). Inventory modeling for deteriorating imperfect quality items with selling price dependent demand and shortage backordering under credit financing. International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, 2 (2), 110–124.

Khanna, A., Gautam, P., Sarkar, B., & Jaggi, C. K. (2020a). Integrated vendor–buyer strategies for imperfect production systems with maintenance and warranty policy. RAIRO-Operations Research, 54 (2), 435–450.

Khanna, A., Kishore, A., Sarkar, B., & Jaggi, C. K. (2020b). Inventory and pricing decisions for imperfect quality items with inspection errors, sales returns, and partial backorders under inflation. RAIRO-Operations Research, 54 (1), 287–306.

Khanna, A., Mittal, M., Gautam, P., & Jaggi, C. (2016b). Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages. Decision Science Letters, 5 (1), 45–60.

Khara, B., Dey, J. K., & Mondal, S. K. (2021). An integrated imperfect production system with advertisement dependent demand using branch and bound technique. Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal, 33 (2), 508–546.

Khedlekar, U. K., & Tiwari, R. K. (2018). Imperfect production model for sensitive demand with shortage. Reliability: Theory & Applications, 13 (51), 43–54.

Kumar, N., Manna, A. K., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2021). Application of hybrid binary tournament-based quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization on an imperfect production inventory problem. Soft Computing, 25 (16), 11245–11267.

Kundu, A., Guchhait, P., Panigrahi, G., & Maiti, M. (2017). An imperfect EPQ model for deteriorating items with promotional effort dependent demand. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 33 (1), 649–666.

Lin, H. J. (2019). An economic production quantity model with backlogging and imperfect rework process for uncertain demand. International Journal of Production Research, 59 (2), 467–482.

Lin, S. W., Wou, Y. W., & Julian, P. (2011). Note on minimax distribution free procedure for integrated inventory model with defective goods and stochastic lead time demand. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35 (5), 2087–2093.

Lok, Y. W., Supadi, S. S., & Wong, K. B. (2022). EOQ models for imperfect items under time varying demand rate. Processes, 10 (6), 1220.

Luo, X. R., Chu, C. H., & Chao, H. C. (2020). Novel solution method for inventory models with stochastic demand and defective units. Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 1–13.

Ma, W. N., Gong, D. C., & Lin, G. C. (2010). An optimal common production cycle time for imperfect production processes with scrap. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 52 , 724–737.

Maddah, B., & Jaber, M. Y. (2008). Economic order quantity for items with imperfect quality: Revisited. International Journal of Production Economics, 112 (2), 808–815.

Maddah, B., Moussawi, L., & Jaber, M. Y. (2010). Lot sizing with a Markov production process and imperfect items scrapped. International Journal of Production Economics, 124 (2), 340–347.

Mahata, S., & Debnath, B. K. (2023). The impact of R&D expenditures and screening in an economic production rate (EPR) inventory model for a flawed production system with imperfect screening under an interval-valued environment. Journal of Computational Science, 69 , 102027.

Maity, K. (2014). Advertisement policy, reliability dependent imperfect production and environmental pollution control problem in fuzzy-rough environment. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, 22 (06), 845–863.

Malik, A. I., & Kim, B. S. (2020). A multi-constrained supply chain model with optimal production rate in relation to quality of products under stochastic fuzzy demand. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 149 , 106814.

Malleeswaran, B., & Uthayakumar, R. (2023). A single-manufacturer multi-retailer sustainable reworking model for green and environmental sensitive demand under discrete ordering cost reduction. Journal of Management Analytics, 10 (1), 109–128.

Malumfashi, M. L., Ismail, M. T., & Ali, M. K. M. (2022). An EPQ model for delayed deteriorating items with two-phase production period, exponential demand rate and linear holding cost. Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society, 45 (Suppl 1), 395–424.

Mandal, A., & Pal, B. (2021). Effects of green innovation and advertisement in an imperfect production-based competitive supply chain under two-tier credit facility. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, 44 (17), 13227–13251.

Manna, A. K., & Bhunia, A. K. (2022). Investigation of green production inventory problem with selling price and green level sensitive interval-valued demand via different metaheuristic algorithms. Soft Computing, 26 (19), 10409–10421.

Manna, A. K., Benerjee, T., Mondal, S. P., Shaikh, A. A., & Bhunia, A. K. (2021). Two-plant production model with customers’ demand dependent on warranty period of the product and carbon emission level of the manufacturer via different meta-heuristic algorithms. Neural Computing and Applications, 33 , 14263–14281.

Manna, A. K., Das, B., Dey, J. K., & Mondal, S. K. (2018). An EPQ model with promotional demand in random planning horizon: Population varying genetic algorithm approach. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 29 (7), 1515–1531.

Manna, A. K., Das, S., Shaikh, A. A., Bhunia, A. K., & Moon, I. (2023). Carbon emission controlled investment and warranty policy based production inventory model via meta-heuristic algorithms. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 177 , 109001.

Manna, A. K., Dey, J. K., & Mondal, S. K. (2017). Imperfect production inventory model with production rate dependent defective rate and advertisement dependent demand. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 104 , 9–22.

Manna, A. K., Dey, J. K., & Mondal, S. K. (2020). Effect of inspection errors on imperfect production inventory model with warranty and price discount dependent demand rate. RAIRO-Operations Research, 54 (4), 1189–1213.

Manna, A. K., Rahman, M. S., Shaikh, A. A., Bhunia, A. K., & Konstantaras, I. (2022). Modeling of a carbon emitted production inventory system with interval uncertainty via meta-heuristic algorithms. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 106 , 343–368.

Masoudipour, E., Amirian, H., & Sahraeian, R. (2017). A novel closed-loop supply chain based on the quality of returned products. Journal of Cleaner Production, 151 , 344–355.

Mittal, M., Jain, V., Pandey, J. T., Jain, M., & Dem, H. (2023). Optimizing inventory management: A comprehensive analysis of models integrating diverse fuzzy demand functions. Mathematics, 12 (1), 70.

Mokhtari, H., Naimi-Sadigh, A., & Salmasnia, A. (2017). A computational approach to economic production quantity model for perishable products with backordering shortage and stock-dependent demand. Scientia Iranica, 24 (4), 2138–2151.

Mosca, A., Vidyarthi, N., & Satir, A. (2019). Integrated transportation–inventory models: A review. Operations Research Perspectives, 6 , 100101.

Moussawi-Haidar, L., Salameh, M., & Nasr, W. (2016). Production lot sizing with quality screening and rework. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40 (4), 3242–3256.

Nobil, A. H., Sedigh, A. H. A., & Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E. (2020). Reorder point for the EOQ inventory model with imperfect quality items. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11 (4), 1339–1343.

Nodoust, S., Mirzazadeh, A., & Weber, G. W. (2020). An evidential reasoning approach for production modeling with deteriorating and ameliorating items. Operational Research, 20 , 1–19.

Pal, B. (2018). Optimal production model with quality sensitive market demand, partial backlogging and permissible delay in payment. RAIRO-Operations Research, 52 (2), 499–512.

Pal, B., Mandal, A., & Sana, S. S. (2021). Two-phase deteriorated supply chain model with variable demand and imperfect production process under two-stage credit financing. RAIRO-Operations Research, 55 (2), 457–480.

Pal, B., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2012). Three-layer supply chain–a production-inventory model for reworkable items. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 219 (2), 530–543.

Pal, B., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2013a). Maximizing profits for an EPQ model with unreliable machine and rework of random defective items. International Journal of Systems Science, 44 (3), 582–594.

Pal, B., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2013b). A mathematical model on EPQ for stochastic demand in an imperfect production system. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 32 (1), 260–270.

Pal, B., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2014). Joint pricing and ordering policy for two echelon imperfect production inventory model with two cycles. International Journal of Production Economics, 155 , 229–238.

Pal, B., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2015). Two-echelon manufacturer–retailer supply chain strategies with price, quality, and promotional effort sensitive demand. International Transactions in Operational Research, 22 (6), 1071–1095.

Pal, S., & Mahapatra, G. S. (2017). A manufacturing-oriented supply chain model for imperfect quality with inspection errors, stochastic demand under rework and shortages. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 106 , 299–314.

Palanivel, M., & Uthayakumar, R. (2016). An inventory model with imperfect items, stock dependent demand and permissible delay in payments under inflation. RAIRO-Operations Research, 50 (3), 473–489.

Panja, S., & Mondal, S. K. (2019). Analyzing a four-layer green supply chain imperfect production inventory model for green products under type-2 fuzzy credit period. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 129 , 435–453.

Panja, S., & Mondal, S. K. (2023). Sustainable production inventory management through bi-level greening performance in a three-echelon supply chain. Operational Research, 23 (1), 16.

Papachristos, S., & Konstantaras, I. (2006). Economic ordering quantity models for items with imperfect quality. International Journal of Production Economics, 100 (1), 148–154.

Paul, S. K., Sarker, R., Essam, D., & Lee, P. T. W. (2019). A mathematical modelling approach for managing sudden disturbances in a three-tier manufacturing supply chain. Annals of Operations Research, 280 (1–2), 299–335.

Pereira, V., & Costa, H. G. (2015). A literature review on lot size with quantity discounts: 1995–2013. Journal of Modelling in Management, 10 (3), 341–359.

Porteus, E. L. (1986). Optimal lot sizing, process quality improvement and setup cost reduction. Operations Research, 34 (1), 137–144.

Rad, M. A., Khoshalhan, F., & Glock, C. H. (2014). Optimizing inventory and sales decisions in a two-stage supply chain with imperfect production and backorders. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 74 , 219–227.

Rahman, M. S., Manna, A. K., Shaikh, A. A., Konstantaras, I., & Bhunia, A. K. (2023). Optimal decision making, using interval uncertainty techniques, of a production-inventory model under warranty-linked demand and carbon tax regulations. Soft Computing, 27 (6), 2903–2920.

Rini, A., Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E., & Jaggi, C. K. (2022). Strategic decisions in an imperfect quality and inspection scenario under two-stage credit financing with order overlapping approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 195 , 116426.

Rosenblatt, M. J., & Lee, H. L. (1986). Economic production cycles with imperfect production processes. IIE Transactions, 18 (1), 48–55.

Rout, C., Paul, A., Kumar, R. S., Chakraborty, D., & Goswami, A. (2020). Cooperative sustainable supply chain for deteriorating item and imperfect production under different carbon emission regulations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 272 , 122170.

Roy, M. D., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2011). An optimal shipment strategy for imperfect items in a stock-out situation. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54 (9–10), 2528–2543.

Roy, M. D., Sana, S. S., & Chaudhuri, K. (2014). An economic production lot size model for defective items with stochastic demand, backlogging and rework. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 25 (2), 159–183.

Ruidas, S., Seikh, M. R., & Nayak, P. K. (2021). A production inventory model with interval-valued carbon emission parameters under price-sensitive demand. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 154 , 107154.

Ruidas, S., Seikh, M. R., & Nayak, P. K. (2023a). A production inventory model for high-tech products involving two production runs and a product variation. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 19 (3), 2178–2205.

Ruidas, S., Seikh, M. R., Nayak, P. K., & Tseng, M. L. (2023b). An interval-valued green production inventory model under controllable carbon emissions and green subsidy via particle swarm optimization. Soft Computing, 27 (14), 9709–9733.

Salameh, M. K., & Jaber, M. Y. (2000). Economic production quantity model for items with imperfect quality. International Journal of Production Economics, 64 (1), 59–64.

Salas-Navarro, K., Florez, W. F., & Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E. (2024). A vendor-managed inventory model for a three-layer supply chain considering exponential demand, imperfect system, and remanufacturing. Annals of Operations Research, 332 , 329–371.

Salas-Navarro, K., Romero-Montes, J. M., Acevedo-Chedid, J., Ospina-Mateus, H., Florez, W. F., & Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E. (2023). Vendor managed inventory system considering deteriorating items and probabilistic demand for a three-layer supply chain. Expert Systems with Applications, 218 , 119608.

Sana, S. S. (2023). The effects of green house gas costs on optimal pricing and production lotsize in an imperfect production system. RAIRO-Operations Research, 57 (4), 2209–2230.

Sarkar, B. (2012a). An inventory model with reliability in an imperfect production process. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 218 (9), 4881–4891.

Sarkar, B. (2012b). An EOQ model with delay in payments and stock dependent demand in the presence of imperfect production. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 218 (17), 8295–8308.

Sarkar, B. (2019). Mathematical and analytical approach for the management of defective items in a multi-stage production system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 218 , 896–919.

Sarkar, B., & Moon, I. (2011). An EPQ model with inflation in an imperfect production system. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 217 (13), 6159–6167.

Sarkar, B., Joo, J., Kim, Y., Park, H., & Sarkar, M. (2022). Controlling defective items in a complex multi-phase manufacturing system. RAIRO-Operations Research, 56 (2), 871–889.

Sarkar, B., Mandal, P., & Sarkar, S. (2014). An EMQ model with price and time dependent demand under the effect of reliability and inflation. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 231 , 414–421.

Sarkar, B., Seok, H., Jana, T. K., & Dey, B. K. (2023). Is the system reliability profitable for retailing and consumer service of a dynamical system under cross-price elasticity of demand? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 75 , 103439.

Sepehri, A., & Gholamian, M. R. (2023). A green inventory model with imperfect items considering inspection process and quality improvement under different shortages scenarios. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 25 (4), 3269–3297.

Sepehri, A., Mishra, U., & Sarkar, B. (2021). A sustainable production-inventory model with imperfect quality under preservation technology and quality improvement investment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 310 , 127332.

Sett, B. K., Dey, B. K., & Sarkar, B. (2020). Autonomated inspection policy for smart factory—An improved approach. Mathematics, 8 (10), 1815.

Seuring, S., & Müller, M. (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16 (15), 1699–1710.

Shah, N. H., & Shukla, K. T. (2010). Optimal production schedule in declining market for an imperfect production system. International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 1 (1–4), 89–99.

Shah, N. H., Patel, D. G., & Shah, D. B. (2018). EPQ model for returned/reworked inventories during imperfect production process under price-sensitive stock-dependent demand. Operational Research, 18 (2), 343–359.

Shekarian, E., Kazemi, N., Abdul-Rashid, S. H., & Olugu, E. U. (2017). Fuzzy inventory models: A comprehensive review. Applied Soft Computing, 55 , 588–621.

Sivashankari, C. K., & Sana, S. S. (2023). Two ways of shortages in imperfect production system with price-sensitive demand, before and after reworking, scrap and price-break even point: a comparative statement. Annals of Operations Research, 1–31.

Sivashankari, C. K., & Valarmathi, R. (2023). Optimal pricing and production lot-size policies in imperfect production system with price-sensitive demand, reworking, scrap, and sales return. Operational Research, 23 (3), 43.

Slama, I., Ben-Ammar, O., Dolgui, A., & Masmoudi, F. (2020). New mixed integer approach to solve a multi-level capacitated disassembly lot-sizing problem with defective items and backlogging. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 56 , 50–57.

Su, R. H., Weng, M. W., & Yang, C. T. (2021). Effects of corporate social responsibility activities in a two-stage assembly production system with multiple components and imperfect processes. European Journal of Operational Research, 293 (2), 469–480.

Taleizadeh, A. A., Kalantari, S. S., & Cárdenas-Barrón, L. E. (2015a). Determining optimal price, replenishment lot size and number of shipments for an EPQ model with rework and multiple shipments. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 11 (4), 1059.

Taleizadeh, A. A., Noori-daryan, M., & Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. (2015b). Pricing and ordering decisions in a supply chain with imperfect quality items and inspection under buyback of defective items. International Journal of Production Research, 53 (15), 4553–4582.

Thomé, A. M. T., Scavarda, L. F., & Scavarda, A. J. (2016). Conducting systematic literature review in operations management. Production Planning & Control, 27 (5), 408–420.

Tiwari, S., Daryanto, Y., & Wee, H. M. (2018). Sustainable inventory management with deteriorating and imperfect quality items considering carbon emission. Journal of Cleaner Production, 192 , 281–292.

Tiwari, S., Wee, H. M., & Sarkar, S. (2017). Lot-sizing policies for defective and deteriorating items with time-dependent demand and trade credit. European Journal of Industrial Engineering, 11 (5), 683–703.

Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14 (3), 207–222.

Uthayakumar, R., & Rameswari, M. (2012). An economic production quantity model for defective items with trapezoidal type demand rate. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 154 (3), 1055–1079.

Wee, H. M., Yu, J., & Chen, M. C. (2007). Optimal inventory model for items with imperfect quality and shortage backordering. Omega, 35 (1), 7–11.

Yu, J. C. P. (2013). A collaborative strategy for deteriorating inventory system with imperfect items and supplier credits. International Journal of Production Economics, 143 (2), 403–409.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank the editors and anonymous reviewers for their insightful feedback in significantly shaping the manuscript.

The first author would like to acknowledge the grant (No. 2021426) received from her host institution IIT Kanpur.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Management Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, India

Prerna Gautam

Shailesh J. Mehta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076, India

Sumit Maheshwari

GL Bajaj Institute of Management and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 201306, India

Department of Operational Research, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, New Academic Block, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India

Ahmad Hasan & Chandra K. Jaggi

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chandra K. Jaggi .

Ethics declarations

Informed consent.

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

There is no involvement of human participation and/or animals.

Additional information

Publisher's note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Gautam, P., Maheshwari, S., Hasan, A. et al. A systematic literature review of imperfect quality items: challenges, opportunities, and insights with reference to SDGs. Ann Oper Res (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-024-06084-4

Download citation

Received : 10 November 2020

Accepted : 29 May 2024

Published : 20 June 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-024-06084-4

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Environment
  • Sustainability
  • Strategic planning
  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research

Cart

  • SUGGESTED TOPICS
  • The Magazine
  • Newsletters
  • Managing Yourself
  • Managing Teams
  • Work-life Balance
  • The Big Idea
  • Data & Visuals
  • Reading Lists
  • Case Selections
  • HBR Learning
  • Topic Feeds
  • Account Settings
  • Email Preferences

Research: The Most Common DEI Practices Actually Undermine Diversity

  • Traci Sitzmann,
  • Shoshana Schwartz,
  • Mary Lee Stansifer

related literature in relation to research

Organizations over-rely on approaches that consistently fail to diversify management ranks — and overlook those that have proven effective.

While companies say they champion diversity, there are glaring disparities in diverse representation within managerial ranks. The authors examine the impact of various management practices on diverse representation in managerial roles and how often each management practice is utilized in organizations, shedding light on why organizations are not making greater progress toward diverse representation. Despite not working well for attaining diverse representation, diversity training is widely used in organizations. In contrast, formal mentoring programs and targeted recruitment are effective for increasing diverse representation but are underused. Indeed, the relationship between how often management practices are implemented in organizations and their effectiveness in attaining diverse representation is negative and strong. This article breaks down the practices organizations should utilize to achieve diverse representation, underscoring the need to shift toward practices that increase diverse representation in management.

Despite the U.S. population’s growing diversity , managerial roles are still predominantly held by white men. While the largest firms have been pledging to recruit and train Black workers for over 40 years, there has been little increase in Black representation in managerial roles during this timeframe. In a 2021 analysis , Black employees held only 7% of managerial roles despite comprising 14% of all employees. Women have difficulty attaining leadership roles despite evidence that “women are more likely than men to lead in a style that is effective.”

  • TS Traci Sitzmann is a Professor of Management and Workforce Development Scholar at the University of Colorado Denver.
  • SS Shoshana Schwartz is an Assistant Professor of Management at Christopher Newport University’s Luter School of Business.
  • MS Mary Lee Stansifer is an Assistant Teaching Professor at the University of Colorado Denver.

Partner Center

IMAGES

  1. SOLUTION: How to write a review of related literature (RRL)

    related literature in relation to research

  2. How to make review of related literature in research by mariosmtx

    related literature in relation to research

  3. A complete Guide to Literature Review in Research

    related literature in relation to research

  4. The review of related literature

    related literature in relation to research

  5. Review of Related Literature

    related literature in relation to research

  6. 🎉 Sample review of related literature. Sample review of related

    related literature in relation to research

VIDEO

  1. Review of Related Literature and Studies Part 1

  2. Review of Related Literature (RRL) Sample / Research / Thesis / Quantitative

  3. VID20240614103333 Trim ANALYSIS RELATION RESEARCH QUESTION CP 5 DISCUSSION RESEARCH QUESTION 1mp4

  4. Literature Review Process (With Example)

  5. Reviews of Related Literature : Research Topic

  6. Ph.D. Chapter two Literature Review for a Thesis| HOW TO WRITE CHAPTE TWO for Ph.D

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write Review of Related Literature (RRL) in Research

    Tips on how to write a review of related literature in research. Given that you will probably need to produce a number of these at some point, here are a few general tips on how to write an effective review of related literature 2. Define your topic, audience, and purpose: You will be spending a lot of time with this review, so choose a topic ...

  2. How to Write a Literature Review

    Examples of literature reviews. Step 1 - Search for relevant literature. Step 2 - Evaluate and select sources. Step 3 - Identify themes, debates, and gaps. Step 4 - Outline your literature review's structure. Step 5 - Write your literature review.

  3. 5. The Literature Review

    A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that ...

  4. (PDF) CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

    INTRODUCTION. A review of literature is a classification and evaluation of what accredited scholars and. researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as a ...

  5. Review of Related Literature: Format, Example, & How to Make RRL

    A review of related literature (RRL) is a part of the research report that examines significant studies, theories, and concepts published in scholarly sources on a particular topic. An RRL includes 3 main components: A short overview and critique of the previous research.

  6. Steps in Conducting a Literature Review

    A literature review is an integrated analysis-- not just a summary-- of scholarly writings and other relevant evidence related directly to your research question.That is, it represents a synthesis of the evidence that provides background information on your topic and shows a association between the evidence and your research question.

  7. What is a Literature Review? How to Write It (with Examples)

    A literature review is a critical analysis and synthesis of existing research on a particular topic. It provides an overview of the current state of knowledge, identifies gaps, and highlights key findings in the literature. 1 The purpose of a literature review is to situate your own research within the context of existing scholarship ...

  8. What is the importance of a review of related literature in the study

    Hello Kenn - Welcome to the forum! A review of related - and preferably recent - literature is meant to set your research in the context of what is currently known about the topic and to establish that what you have to offer is novel, something different from what has been already attempted.The review also reassures the referees that you are familiar with current developments in your ...

  9. Literature Review

    Types of Literature Review are as follows: Narrative literature review: This type of review involves a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of the available literature on a particular topic or research question. It is often used as an introductory section of a research paper. Systematic literature review: This is a rigorous and ...

  10. Literature Review Research

    Literature Review is a comprehensive survey of the works published in a particular field of study or line of research, usually over a specific period of time, in the form of an in-depth, critical bibliographic essay or annotated list in which attention is drawn to the most significant works.. Also, we can define a literature review as the collected body of scholarly works related to a topic:

  11. PDF Literature Review: An Overview

    The literature review provides a way for the novice researcher to convince the proposal the reviewers that she is knowledgeable about the related research and the "intellectual traditions" that support the proposed study. The literature review provides the researcher with an opportunity to identify any gaps that may exist in the body of ...

  12. A Beginner's Guide To Review Of Related Literature

    Review of Related Literature. When writing a review of related literature, it is essential to define the topic, audience, and purpose of the research. Choosing an intriguing topic that sparks your interest is crucial, as it will keep you engaged throughout the process. Tailoring your language to the intended audience is equally important.

  13. Review of Related Literature (RRL)

    The Review of Related Literature (RRL) is a crucial section in research that examines existing studies and publications related to a specific topic. It summarizes and synthesizes previous findings, identifies gaps, and provides context for the current research. RRL ensures the research is grounded in established knowledge, guiding the direction and focus of new studies.

  14. Related Work / Literature Review / Research Review

    Related Work / Literature Review / Research Review Download PDF Handout: Literature Reviews Watch Video: Literature Reviews A literature review, research review, or related work section compares, contrasts, synthesizes, and provides introspection about the available knowledge for a given topic or field. The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably (as they are here), but while both can ...

  15. How does the review of related literature (RRL) help the ...

    Coming to your question, pinpointing exactly how an RRL would help the accuracy and validity of your research is a bit difficult without knowing the field of your research. However, broadly, as regards accuracy , a comprehensive RRL will ensure that your hypothesis is formulated considering all that is known about the topic and that the ...

  16. (PDF) Review of related literature

    R.I.E., Bhopal. [email protected]. Introduction. "Review of related Literature" is mostly known as the second chapter in almost every. empirical thesis. But it is the very first step to ...

  17. Literature: A Research Guide for Graduate Students

    A guide to help get you started on your graduate work in English, Comparative Literature, and related fields. NOTE: This guide is a supplement to the general topic guide Literary Research in Harvard Libraries.

  18. PDF Chapter II Review of Related Literature 2.0 Introduction

    The review of related literature is "the selection of available documents (both published and unpublished) on the topic, which contain information, ideas, data and ... evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed" (Hart, 1998, p.13; Cited in Schryen, Wagner & Benlian, 2015).It is relative to existing knowledge ...

  19. What is a related work? A typology of relationships in research literature

    activity that a researcher may defer until writing up the results of the project, in which. case, it is primarily an activity one does because one "has to" rather than an activity. that can ...

  20. PDF MODULE FOUR: Review of Related Literature

    a literature is necessary: (a) determining what research has been done on the research topic, (b) determining what level of theory and knowledge development relevant to the research topic, (c) determining relevance of the current/existing knowledge in relation to research problem. Major Steps to Literature Review

  21. Well-Being and Romantic Relationships: A Systematic Review in

    1.1. Romantic Relationships and Well-Being in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. From an evolutionary point of view, adolescence and emerging adulthood (the periods which span the second and third decades of life [14,15]) have been described as being vitally important in terms of the development of romantic relationships [16,17,18].Defined as "mutually acknowledged ongoing voluntary ...

  22. Related Literature

    Quick Answer: The RRL ( review of related literature) is an overview of pre-existing literature which holds a relation to the topic of an individual's research, thesis, or dissertation topic. Moreover, through an RRL, researchers can identify potentially better topics through an excess of already available studies.

  23. (PDF) REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. kristine kaye racho. A collective body of research work, related to involved variables i.e. mental health, spiritual intelligence, altruism, school environment and academic achievement was examined extensively, so that proper guidelines and directions from objectives, hypotheses, methodologies and findings may be ...

  24. A systematic literature review of imperfect quality items ...

    The remaining of the paper is structured as follows: Sect. 2 performs extensive review of literature related to IQI Sect. 3 discusses the research methodology in detail, Sect. 4 performs the content analysis, Sect. 5 presents an in-depth discussion of the subject and provides the useful insights along with answers to the research questions ...

  25. A systematic review of the relationship between alexithymia and

    Elucidating psychological characteristics associated with emotional eating may further inform interventions for this behaviour related to eating psychopathology. The present systematic review aimed to examine the relationship between alexithymia and self-reported emotional eating in adults, and provide a narrative synthesis of the existing literature. Using the PRISMA method for systematic ...

  26. Research on consumers' purchase intention of cultural and creative

    Chinese traditional cultural symbols possess great aesthetic and cultural value, and are widely utilized in product design. In this study, we explore the relationship between metaphor design based on traditional cultural symbols, customer experience and cultural identity, and further estimate how these three variables stimulate consumers' perceived value to generate consumers' purchase ...

  27. Research: The Most Common DEI Practices Actually Undermine Diversity

    Indeed, the relationship between how often management practices are implemented in organizations and their effectiveness in attaining diverse representation is negative and strong.