• Subject List
  • Take a Tour
  • For Authors
  • Subscriber Services
  • Publications
  • African American Studies
  • African Studies
  • American Literature
  • Anthropology
  • Architecture Planning and Preservation
  • Art History
  • Atlantic History
  • Biblical Studies
  • British and Irish Literature
  • Childhood Studies
  • Chinese Studies
  • Cinema and Media Studies
  • Communication

Criminology

  • Environmental Science
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • International Law
  • International Relations
  • Islamic Studies
  • Jewish Studies
  • Latin American Studies
  • Latino Studies
  • Linguistics
  • Literary and Critical Theory
  • Medieval Studies
  • Military History
  • Political Science
  • Public Health
  • Renaissance and Reformation
  • Social Work
  • Urban Studies
  • Victorian Literature
  • Browse All Subjects

How to Subscribe

  • Free Trials

In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Qualitative Methods in Criminology

Introduction.

  • Chicago School
  • Mid-20th Century
  • Current Status
  • Qualitative Research and Life-Course Theory
  • The Lived Experience of Crime
  • The Lived Experience of Criminalization and Punishment
  • The Law in Action
  • Ethnography
  • Interview-Based Studies
  • Content Analysis
  • Case Studies
  • Focus Groups
  • Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
  • Positivist versus Post-Positivist Approaches
  • Inductive versus Deductive Approaches
  • Cases and Generalizability
  • Internal Validity
  • Anthologies of Qualitative Research in Criminology
  • Continued Challenges for Qualitative Research in Criminology

Related Articles Expand or collapse the "related articles" section about

About related articles close popup.

Lorem Ipsum Sit Dolor Amet

Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Aliquam ligula odio, euismod ut aliquam et, vestibulum nec risus. Nulla viverra, arcu et iaculis consequat, justo diam ornare tellus, semper ultrices tellus nunc eu tellus.

  • Active Offender Research
  • Critical Criminology
  • Measuring Crime
  • Narrative Criminology
  • Self-Report Crime Surveys
  • Snitching and Use of Criminal Informants
  • Street Code

Other Subject Areas

Forthcoming articles expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section.

  • Education Programs in Prison
  • Mixed Methods Research in Criminal Justice and Criminology
  • Victim Impact Statements
  • Find more forthcoming articles...
  • Export Citations
  • Share This Facebook LinkedIn Twitter

Qualitative Methods in Criminology by Jamie Fader LAST MODIFIED: 26 July 2017 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195396607-0225

Qualitative research formed the basis of much of the early American criminological canon. In the mid-20th century, however, criminology took a decidedly quantitative turn with advanced analytical technology and increased federal funding for survey research. As criminology has fully embraced positivism, qualitative research has been generally marginalized and practicing scholars have struggled to publish or secure funding. Quantitative standards of evaluation are often incorrectly applied to qualitative work. In the last two decades, we have seen a re-emergence in qualitative research in criminology, accompanied by a new appreciation for its unique value for generating and refining theory, as well as documenting the lived experience of offending and criminal justice system involvement. The ascendance of the life-course paradigm is both a cause and consequence of the renewed status of qualitative research. Although qualitative researchers are enjoying a renaissance within the field of criminology, they also face serious obstacles erected by demands for increased speed and volume of publications, heavy reliance on seemingly objective metrics of publication quality, and human subjects concerns.

American criminology can trace its roots to University of Chicago Sociology Department, which produced several decades of urban research starting in the early 20th century known as the Chicago School tradition. Robert Ezra Park, one of the department’s founders and a former journalist, urged his students to leave the comforts of the university behind and engage directly in the surrounding communities, documenting social disorganization, community institutions, social inequality, gangs, and other forms of crime and vice.

back to top

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login .

Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here .

  • About Criminology »
  • Meet the Editorial Board »
  • Adler, Freda
  • Adversarial System of Justice
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences
  • Aging Prison Population, The
  • Airport and Airline Security
  • Alcohol and Drug Prohibition
  • Alcohol Use, Policy and Crime
  • Alt-Right Gangs and White Power Youth Groups
  • Animals, Crimes Against
  • Back-End Sentencing and Parole Revocation
  • Bail and Pretrial Detention
  • Batterer Intervention Programs
  • Bentham, Jeremy
  • Big Data and Communities and Crime
  • Biosocial Criminology
  • Black's Theory of Law and Social Control
  • Blumstein, Alfred
  • Boot Camps and Shock Incarceration Programs
  • Burglary, Residential
  • Bystander Intervention
  • Capital Punishment
  • Chambliss, William
  • Chicago School of Criminology, The
  • Child Maltreatment
  • Chinese Triad Society
  • Civil Protection Orders
  • Collateral Consequences of Felony Conviction and Imprisonm...
  • Collective Efficacy
  • Commercial and Bank Robbery
  • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
  • Communicating Scientific Findings in the Courtroom
  • Community Change and Crime
  • Community Corrections
  • Community Disadvantage and Crime
  • Community-Based Justice Systems
  • Community-Based Substance Use Prevention
  • Comparative Criminal Justice Systems
  • CompStat Models of Police Performance Management
  • Confessions, False and Coerced
  • Conservation Criminology
  • Consumer Fraud
  • Contextual Analysis of Crime
  • Control Balance Theory
  • Convict Criminology
  • Co-Offending and the Role of Accomplices
  • Corporate Crime
  • Costs of Crime and Justice
  • Courts, Drug
  • Courts, Juvenile
  • Courts, Mental Health
  • Courts, Problem-Solving
  • Crime and Justice in Latin America
  • Crime, Campus
  • Crime Control Policy
  • Crime Control, Politics of
  • Crime, (In)Security, and Islam
  • Crime Prevention, Delinquency and
  • Crime Prevention, Situational
  • Crime Prevention, Voluntary Organizations and
  • Crime Trends
  • Crime Victims' Rights Movement
  • Criminal Career Research
  • Criminal Decision Making, Emotions in
  • Criminal Justice Data Sources
  • Criminal Justice Ethics
  • Criminal Justice Fines and Fees
  • Criminal Justice Reform, Politics of
  • Criminal Justice System, Discretion in the
  • Criminal Records
  • Criminal Retaliation
  • Criminal Talk
  • Criminology and Political Science
  • Criminology of Genocide, The
  • Cross-National Crime
  • Cross-Sectional Research Designs in Criminology and Crimin...
  • Cultural Criminology
  • Cultural Theories
  • Cybercrime Investigations and Prosecutions
  • Cycle of Violence
  • Deadly Force
  • Defense Counsel
  • Defining "Success" in Corrections and Reentry
  • Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
  • Digital Piracy
  • Driving and Traffic Offenses
  • Drug Control
  • Drug Trafficking, International
  • Drugs and Crime
  • Elder Abuse
  • Electronically Monitored Home Confinement
  • Employee Theft
  • Environmental Crime and Justice
  • Experimental Criminology
  • Family Violence
  • Fear of Crime and Perceived Risk
  • Felon Disenfranchisement
  • Feminist Theories
  • Feminist Victimization Theories
  • Fencing and Stolen Goods Markets
  • Firearms and Violence
  • Forensic Science
  • For-Profit Private Prisons and the Criminal Justice–Indust...
  • Gangs, Peers, and Co-offending
  • Gender and Crime
  • Gendered Crime Pathways
  • General Opportunity Victimization Theories
  • Genetics, Environment, and Crime
  • Green Criminology
  • Halfway Houses
  • Harm Reduction and Risky Behaviors
  • Hate Crime Legislation
  • Healthcare Fraud
  • Hirschi, Travis
  • History of Crime in the United Kingdom
  • History of Criminology
  • Homelessness and Crime
  • Homicide Victimization
  • Honor Cultures and Violence
  • Hot Spots Policing
  • Human Rights
  • Human Trafficking
  • Identity Theft
  • Immigration, Crime, and Justice
  • Incarceration, Mass
  • Incarceration, Public Health Effects of
  • Income Tax Evasion
  • Indigenous Criminology
  • Institutional Anomie Theory
  • Integrated Theory
  • Intermediate Sanctions
  • Interpersonal Violence, Historical Patterns of
  • Interrogation
  • Intimate Partner Violence, Criminological Perspectives on
  • Intimate Partner Violence, Police Responses to
  • Investigation, Criminal
  • Juvenile Delinquency
  • Juvenile Justice System, The
  • Kornhauser, Ruth Rosner
  • Labeling Theory
  • Labor Markets and Crime
  • Land Use and Crime
  • Lead and Crime
  • LGBTQ Intimate Partner Violence
  • LGBTQ People in Prison
  • Life Without Parole Sentencing
  • Local Institutions and Neighborhood Crime
  • Lombroso, Cesare
  • Longitudinal Research in Criminology
  • Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
  • Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Crime, The
  • Mass Media, Crime, and Justice
  • Mediation and Dispute Resolution Programs
  • Mental Health and Crime
  • Merton, Robert K.
  • Meta-analysis in Criminology
  • Middle-Class Crime and Criminality
  • Migrant Detention and Incarceration
  • Mixed Methods Research in Criminology
  • Money Laundering
  • Motor Vehicle Theft
  • Multi-Level Marketing Scams
  • Murder, Serial
  • National Deviancy Symposia, The
  • Nature Versus Nurture
  • Neighborhood Disorder
  • Neutralization Theory
  • New Penology, The
  • Offender Decision-Making and Motivation
  • Offense Specialization/Expertise
  • Organized Crime
  • Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs
  • Panel Methods in Criminology
  • Peacemaking Criminology
  • Peer Networks and Delinquency
  • Performance Measurement and Accountability Systems
  • Personality and Trait Theories of Crime
  • Persons with a Mental Illness, Police Encounters with
  • Phenomenological Theories of Crime
  • Plea Bargaining
  • Police Administration
  • Police Cooperation, International
  • Police Discretion
  • Police Effectiveness
  • Police History
  • Police Militarization
  • Police Misconduct
  • Police, Race and the
  • Police Use of Force
  • Police, Violence against the
  • Policing and Law Enforcement
  • Policing, Body-Worn Cameras and
  • Policing, Broken Windows
  • Policing, Community and Problem-Oriented
  • Policing Cybercrime
  • Policing, Evidence-Based
  • Policing, Intelligence-Led
  • Policing, Privatization of
  • Policing, Proactive
  • Policing, School
  • Policing, Stop-and-Frisk
  • Policing, Third Party
  • Polyvictimization
  • Positivist Criminology
  • Pretrial Detention, Alternatives to
  • Pretrial Diversion
  • Prison Administration
  • Prison Classification
  • Prison, Disciplinary Segregation in
  • Prison Education Exchange Programs
  • Prison Gangs and Subculture
  • Prison History
  • Prison Labor
  • Prison Visitation
  • Prisoner Reentry
  • Prisons and Jails
  • Prisons, HIV in
  • Private Security
  • Probation Revocation
  • Procedural Justice
  • Property Crime
  • Prosecution and Courts
  • Prostitution
  • Psychiatry, Psychology, and Crime: Historical and Current ...
  • Psychology and Crime
  • Public Criminology
  • Public Opinion, Crime and Justice
  • Public Order Crimes
  • Public Social Control and Neighborhood Crime
  • Punishment Justification and Goals
  • Qualitative Methods in Criminology
  • Queer Criminology
  • Race and Sentencing Research Advancements
  • Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice
  • Racial Threat Hypothesis
  • Racial Profiling
  • Rape and Sexual Assault
  • Rape, Fear of
  • Rational Choice Theories
  • Rehabilitation
  • Religion and Crime
  • Restorative Justice
  • Risk Assessment
  • Routine Activity Theories
  • School Bullying
  • School Crime and Violence
  • School Safety, Security, and Discipline
  • Search Warrants
  • Seasonality and Crime
  • Self-Control, The General Theory:
  • Sentencing Enhancements
  • Sentencing, Evidence-Based
  • Sentencing Guidelines
  • Sentencing Policy
  • Sex Offender Policies and Legislation
  • Sex Trafficking
  • Sexual Revictimization
  • Situational Action Theory
  • Social and Intellectual Context of Criminology, The
  • Social Construction of Crime, The
  • Social Control of Tobacco Use
  • Social Control Theory
  • Social Disorganization
  • Social Ecology of Crime
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Social Networks
  • Social Threat and Social Control
  • Solitary Confinement
  • South Africa, Crime and Justice in
  • Sport Mega-Events Security
  • Stalking and Harassment
  • State Crime
  • State Dependence and Population Heterogeneity in Theories ...
  • Strain Theories
  • Street Robbery
  • Substance Use and Abuse
  • Surveillance, Public and Private
  • Sutherland, Edwin H.
  • Technology and the Criminal Justice System
  • Technology, Criminal Use of
  • Terrorism and Hate Crime
  • Terrorism, Criminological Explanations for
  • Testimony, Eyewitness
  • Therapeutic Jurisprudence
  • Trajectory Methods in Criminology
  • Transnational Crime
  • Truth-In-Sentencing
  • Urban Politics and Crime
  • US War on Terrorism, Legal Perspectives on the
  • Victimization, Adolescent
  • Victimization, Biosocial Theories of
  • Victimization Patterns and Trends
  • Victimization, Repeat
  • Victimization, Vicarious and Related Forms of Secondary Tr...
  • Victimless Crime
  • Victim-Offender Overlap, The
  • Violence Against Women
  • Violence, Youth
  • Violent Crime
  • White-Collar Crime
  • White-Collar Crime, The Global Financial Crisis and
  • White-Collar Crime, Women and
  • Wilson, James Q.
  • Wolfgang, Marvin
  • Women, Girls, and Reentry
  • Wrongful Conviction
  • Privacy Policy
  • Cookie Policy
  • Legal Notice
  • Accessibility

Powered by:

  • [66.249.64.20|195.158.225.230]
  • 195.158.225.230

No internet connection.

All search filters on the page have been cleared., your search has been saved..

  • All content
  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopedias
  • Sign in to my profile No Name

Not Logged In

  • Sign in Signed in
  • My profile No Name

Not Logged In

  • Business & Management
  • Counseling & Psychotherapy
  • Criminology & Criminal Justice
  • Geography, Earth & Environmental Science
  • Health & Social Care
  • Media, Communication & Cultural Studies
  • Politics & International Relations
  • Social Work
  • Information for instructors
  • Information for librarians
  • Information for students and researchers

qualitative research in criminology pdf

Criminological Research: Understanding Qualitative Methods

  • Edition: Second Edition
  • By: Emma Wincup
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
  • Series: Introducing Qualitative Methods
  • Publication year: 2017
  • Online pub date: December 15, 2020
  • Discipline: Criminology & Criminal Justice
  • Subject: Research Methods for Criminology & Criminal Justice (general) , Qualitative Research
  • DOI: https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781473982802
  • Keywords: crime , criminal justice , criminology , ethnography , focus groups , interviews , qualitative data analysis , qualitative research , social research , young people Show all Show less
  • Print ISBN: 9781446209141
  • Online ISBN: 9781473982802
  • Buy the book icon link

Subject index

Good research starts with careful planning and a thorough understanding of the research process. The abilities to design a research study and to evaluate those conducted by others are core skills every student of criminology must learn. With guidance from theoretical considerations through the steps of the research process, this book equips you with the necessary tools to carry out a successful, ethical study. This is a completely updated new edition, and it features • A new skills-focused chapter on how to evaluate existing qualitative studies and design new ones • Rich examples from real research making the ideas and concepts concrete • New in-depth case studies on fashion counterfeiting, electronic monitoring and youth justice to illustrate the realities of conducting qualitative research • A full discussion of the politics of research, issues of access, ethics and managing risk in the field • Thought-provoking exercises reinforce practical research skills This book is the perfect guide to theory and practice for any student undertaking qualitative research on crime or criminal justice.

Front Matter

  • About the Authors
  • Preface and Acknowledgements
  • Preface and Acknowledgements from the Previous Edition

Part I: FOUNDATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN CRIMINOLOGY

  • Chapter 1: Qualitative Approaches to Criminological Research
  • Chapter 2: The Politics of Researching Crime and Justice
  • Chapter 3: Ethics in Criminological Research

Part II: THE RESEARCH PROCESS

  • Chapter 4: Negotiating and Sustaining Access
  • Chapter 5: Using Existing Qualitative Data
  • Chapter 6: Interviews and Focus Groups
  • Chapter 7: Ethnography
  • Chapter 8: Working with Qualitative Data: Analysis, Writing and Dissemination

Part III: BEING A QUALITATIVE RESEARCHER

  • Chapter 9: Researching Women’s Experiences of Electronic Monitoring
  • Chapter 10: Using Focus Groups to Explore Young People’s Perceptions of Fashion Counterfeiting
  • Chapter 11: Researching with Young People who are Vulnerable and ‘Difficult to Reach’
  • Chapter 12: Conclusion: Becoming a Qualitative Researcher

Back Matter

Sign in to access this content, get a 30 day free trial, more like this, sage recommends.

We found other relevant content for you on other Sage platforms.

Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can save clips, playlists and searches

  • Sign in/register

Navigating away from this page will delete your results

Please save your results to "My Self-Assessments" in your profile before navigating away from this page.

Sign in to my profile

Sign up for a free trial and experience all Sage Learning Resources have to offer.

You must have a valid academic email address to sign up.

Get off-campus access

  • View or download all content my institution has access to.

Sign up for a free trial and experience all Sage Knowledge has to offer.

  • view my profile
  • view my lists

Advertisement

Advertisement

A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top Criminology and Criminal Justice Journals from 2010 to 2019

  • Published: 01 July 2020
  • Volume 45 , pages 1060–1079, ( 2020 )

Cite this article

  • Heith Copes 1 ,
  • Blake Beaton 1 ,
  • David Ayeni 2 ,
  • Dean Dabney 2 &
  • Richard Tewksbury 3  

2190 Accesses

19 Citations

13 Altmetric

Explore all metrics

With the growth of qualitative research within the fields of criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) it is important to examine discipline standards and expectations of how to collect and analyze qualitative data and to present research findings. Our aim here is to assess qualitative research published in 17 top CCJ journals during the period of 2010 to 2019. We found that the number of qualitative articles published in these years increased over the previous two decades; however, the relative percentage of all articles remained relatively stable. During this period, 11.3% of all articles in the 17 CCJ journals used qualitative methods. In addition, we provide general patterns related to methodology and to presentation of findings. The results give insights into discipline standards and expectations and points to substantive areas that are under-studied (e.g., victims) and to issues relating to methodological transparency.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price includes VAT (Russian Federation)

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Rent this article via DeepDyve

Institutional subscriptions

For the current analysis we include only articles that used interviews or observations with participants. We exclude content analysis of existing documents (including online forums) and qualitative responses to questionnaires.

Only articles listed as “Research Articles” were included in the total number count. We excluded those listed as Editorials and Policy Responses.

We included only those articles that explicitly addressed crime, victimization, and criminal justice processes or actors in determining the overall article count and total qualitative articles. We excluded articles that focused solely on non-criminal or non-criminal justice topics (e.g., sexual deviance, student cheating, etc.).

We only included articles that appeared in the Criminology, and not the Criminal Law, Comments, or Symposia sections.

We included articles published in general issues as well as special or thematic issues, some of which involved a guest editor. None of the special issues revolved around themes that precluded or prescribed articles based on qualitative data collection.

We make no claim as to whether these articles are “better” or more deserving of this attention. We simply state that because of their high profile they may influence authors more than articles in other journals.

This sampling threshold was chosen to allow for a robust yet manageable number of articles to be included in the analysis.

When determining sample size for focus groups we included the total number of participants who were included in all focus groups.

We only coded an article as not recorded if the authors specifically mentioned that they chose not to record interviews

We recognize that including these five as top tier is an artificial ranking and that others (i.e., criminologists in non-US countries) likely have different assessments of top tier journals.

For victims who experienced both sexual and physical victimization we classified them as “sex crimes.”

Armstrong, E. K. (2020). Political ideology and research: How neoliberalism can explain the paucity of qualitative criminological research. Alternatives : Global, Local, Political doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0304375419899832 .

Boeri, M., & Shukla, R. K. (Eds.). (2019). Inside ethnography: Researchers reflect on the challenges of reaching hidden populations. University of California Press.

Bourke, B. (2014). Positionality: Reflecting on the research process. The Qualitative Report, 19 (33), 1–9.

Google Scholar  

Buckler, K. (2008). The quantitative/qualitative divide revisited: A study of published research, doctoral program curricula, and journal editor perceptions. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 19 , 383–403.

Article   Google Scholar  

Clear, T.R. (2006). 2006 Survey Report . http://www.adpccj.com/documents/2006survey.pdf .

Copes, H., Brown, A., & Tewksbury, R. (2011). A content analysis of ethnographic research published in top criminology and criminal justice journals from 2000-2009. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 22 , 341–359.

Copes, H., Hochstetler, A., & Brown, A. (2013). Inmates’ retrospective experiences of prison interviews. Field Methods, 25 , 182–196.

Copes, H., & Miller, J. M. (Eds.). (2015). eThe Routledge handbook of qualitative criminology. Routledge.

DeJong, C., & St. George, S. (2018). Measuring journal prestige in criminal justice and criminology. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 29 (2), 290–309.

Kleck, G., Tark, J., & Bellows, J. J. (2006). What methods are most frequently used in research in criminology and criminal justice? Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 , 147–152.

Lane, J., Myers, D.L., Koetzele, D. & Armstrong, G. (2019). Association of Doctoral Programs in Criminology & Criminal Justice (ADPCCJ) 2019 Survey Report . http://www.adpccj.com/documents/2019survey.pdf .

Miller, J., & Palacios, W. R. (Eds.). (2015). Qualitative research in criminology. Transaction Publishers.

Panfil, V. R., & Miller, J. (2014). Beyond the straight and narrow: The import of queer criminology for criminology and criminal justice. The Criminologist, 39 (4), 1–9.

Rice, S., & Maltz, M. (2018). Doing ethnography in criminology: Discovery through fieldwork. Springer.

Roche, S. P., Fenimore, D. M., & Jennings, W. G. (2019). Trends in top journals in criminology and criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 30 (4), 551–566.

Sorensen, J. (2009). An assessment of the relative impact of criminal justice and criminology journals. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37 , 505–511.

Sorensen, J., Snell, C., & Rodriguez, J. J. (2006). An assessment of criminal justice and criminology journal prestige. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 17 , 297–322.

Tewksbury, R., Dabney, D., & Copes, H. (2010). The prominence of qualitative research in criminology and criminal justice scholarship. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 21 , 391–411.

Tewksbury, R., DeMichele, M. T., & Miller, J. M. (2005). Methodological orientations of articles appearing in criminal justice’s top journals: Who publishes what and where. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 16 (2), 265–279.

Tewksbury, R., & Mustaine, E. E. (2011). How many authors does it take to write an article? An assessment of criminology and criminal justice research article author composition. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 22 (1), 12–23.

Topalli, V., Dickinson, T., & Jacques, S. (2020). Learning from criminals: Active offender research for criminology. Annual Review of Criminology, 3 , 189–215.

Woodward, V. H., Webb, M. E., Griffin, O. H., & Copes, H. (2016). The current state of criminological research in the United States: An examination of research methodologies in criminology and criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 27 (3), 340–361.

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1201 University Boulevard; Suite 210, Birmingham, AL, 35040, USA

Heith Copes & Blake Beaton

Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA

David Ayeni & Dean Dabney

Louisville, USA

Richard Tewksbury

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Heith Copes .

Additional information

Publisher’s note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Copes, H., Beaton, B., Ayeni, D. et al. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top Criminology and Criminal Justice Journals from 2010 to 2019. Am J Crim Just 45 , 1060–1079 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-020-09540-6

Download citation

Received : 07 February 2020

Accepted : 03 June 2020

Published : 01 July 2020

Issue Date : December 2020

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-020-09540-6

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Qualitative research
  • Ethnographic research
  • Content analysis
  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research

No internet connection.

All search filters on the page have been cleared., your search has been saved..

  • All content
  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopedias
  • Expert Insights
  • Foundations
  • How-to Guides
  • Journal Articles
  • Little Blue Books
  • Little Green Books
  • Project Planner
  • Tools Directory
  • Sign in to my profile No Name

Not Logged In

  • Sign in Signed in
  • My profile No Name

Not Logged In

  • Religious Studies and Qualitative Research
  • Q Methodology
  • Controversy Studies in Science and Technology Studies
  • Qualitative Communication Research
  • Ethnography in Human Geography
  • Qualitative Research Methods for Human Resources Management
  • Ethnography in Martial Arts Studies
  • Case Study Research in Business and Management
  • Crime and Violence, Research Methods for the Study of
  • Folklore and Oral Cultures
  • Prosopography
  • Moral Panics
  • Qualitative Research in Social Work
  • Qualitative Research on Food and Foodways

Qualitative Research in Criminology

  • Praxiography
  • Multispecies Research

Discover method in the Methods Map

  • By: James Treadwell | Edited by: Paul Atkinson, Sara Delamont, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug & Richard A.Williams
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
  • Publication year: 2019
  • Online pub date: September 17, 2019
  • Discipline: Sociology , Criminology and Criminal Justice
  • Methods: Survey research , Theory , Research questions
  • Length: 4k+ Words
  • DOI: https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781526421036847209
  • Online ISBN: 9781529748277 More information Less information
  • What's Next

As a social science, criminology has long made use of empirical research undertaken by an array of scholars working in a range of subject areas. Yet criminology as an academic subject sphere has also long been as much about theoretical explanations for crime and that explains at least in part why the discipline can appear divided and fractious, not only on empirical and methodological grounds (and historically the division between quantitative and qualitative criminology might be said to be one of the subject’s fault lines) but also in terms of the continual disputes around the nature, character, and causes of crime. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences. While the latter is largely more dominant, it is important to note from the outset that not all criminological research is empirical but that some takes a theoretical form. Criminological theory can of course be a rich resource in generating research questions, as criminological theories do many things:

  • They help us explain or understand things such as why some people commit crimes or more crimes than others, why some people quit and others continue, and what the expected effect of good families, harsh punishment, or other factors might be on crime.
  • They help us make predictions about the criminological world, such as what the effect would be on the rate of property crimes if unemployment were to substantially increase.
  • They help us organise and make sense of empirical findings in a discipline.
  • They help guide research.
  • They help guide public policy, such as what should be done to reduce the level of public violence.

Hence, criminologists, who connect their work to theories in their discipline, can generate better ideas about what to look for in a study and develop conclusions with more implications for other research. Building and evaluating theory are, therefore, among the most important objectives of a social science like criminology.

Positivistic numerical research formed the basis of much of the early British and American criminological canon and many of the theories and ideas that still dominate today. Positivist criminologists attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behaviour. Criminological positivism largely did not concern itself with the abstract and unprovable but rather with the tangible and quantifiable. Through the acquisition of “objective knowledge,” it was assumed that most social problems can be better understood and treated. Hence, the key characteristic of the positive school is its emphasis on applying the methods of the natural sciences to the study of human behaviour.

Unlike quantitative research methods, qualitative criminological approaches are designed to capture life as participants experience it, rather than in categories predetermined by the researcher. These methods typically involve exploratory research questions, inductive reasoning, an orientation to social context and human subjectivity, and the meanings attached by participants to events and to their lives. Indeed, Emma Wincup (2017) surmises that six key distinctions are universal to qualitative criminological inquiry and separate it from its quantitative or theoretical forms:

  • 1. Qualitative approaches explore the social construction of reality.
  • 2. Qualitative approaches seek to understand the subject’s point of view.
  • 3. Qualitative researchers emphasise the need for reflexivity.
  • 4. Qualitative approaches emphasise the importance of depth of understanding.
  • 5. Qualitative research values context and aims to collect data in “natural” settings.
  • 6. Flexibility is integral to qualitative approaches

In the mid-20th century (particularly in the United States), criminology took a decidedly quantitative turn with advanced analytical technology and increased federal funding for survey research. As criminology has fully embraced positivism, qualitative research has generally been more marginalised and regarded as a niche pursuit.

This entry charts significant developments in the history of qualitative criminology chronologically and examines how qualitative methods have often been at the forefront of criminological understanding, and now form much of the legacy work that remains significant and influential (see also Tewksbury, Dabney, & Copes, 2010). In doing so, it considers the significant role qualitative research plays in expanding and refining current understandings of crime and justice processes, while considering important issues such as methodological rigour in qualitative research; movement between method, theory building, theoretical refinement, and expansion; the diversity of qualitative methodologies and techniques (from classic field research to contemporary innovation); and considers both the development and the future application of qualitative criminological research.

The Development of Qualitative Criminology

The development of knowledge is important for criminology and criminal justice. Predominantly, two types of methods are available for criminological researchers to draw upon in undertaking social research, both with different ontological and epistemological framings—quantitative and qualitative methods. A debate has long existed about the necessary value of these approaches, which are often held as diametrically opposed and set as rivals, not least by researchers themselves who can show a zealous adherence for their own preferred approach. There has long been debate in the criminological literature as to which of these methods is the proper method to provide knowledge in criminology and criminal justice. Criminology, like most academic subjects, necessarily has its own orthodox history that is learned and then retold, and least in part this is perhaps defined as much by methodological disagreement as any other factor.

The earliest criminological research was, by most consensus, philosophical, and, hence, figures such as Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham often feature prominent in the early written histories in the prominent textbooks, before coverage moves to the emergence of European positivism the likes of Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, and Raffaele Garofalo (Italian biological positivists) rather than Alexandre Lacassagne and Gabriel Tarde (French positivists). Criminology as a subject is often marked by intellectual and (occasionally) personal battles for status. In order to understand the role qualitative methods play in criminological research, it is useful to sum up how qualitative methods came into recent empirical criminology. Orthodox histories normally note that the challenge to positivism emerged with classical sociological studies on deviance, which pointed the way to the future of a specific social science perspective on crime and deviance and had a qualitative research design, particularly via Chicagoan sociology. But it is also worth noting that the distinctions between qualitative and quantitative methods were largely not familiar in the first third of the 20th century, and a clear distinction between the approaches did not exist. It is also worth mentioning that some of the well-known qualitative techniques (most of them belonging to the Chicago School of Sociology) were employed alongside quantitative analysis. What perhaps was more important was the inception of criminology as a subject with official recognition and status.

In the United States, this was perhaps typified by a struggle between Edwin Sutherland and Sheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck about the causes of crime and the proper focus of social science research (Laub & Sampson, 1991) and in the United Kingdom, a struggle for positioning with status with government between Leon Radzinowicz and Hermann Mannheim, before the former’s challenge by a group of radical young scholars broke away to form the National Deviancy Symposium (Radzinowicz, 1998). Influenced by second wave Chicagoan sociology, symbolic interactionism, and a more critical stance towards crime and the state with the rise of the National Deviancy Symposium, from the late 1960s onwards, British criminology took a more critical and sociological turn. Drawing their inspiration from developments within sociological theory, Chicago School researchers initially pursued innovative qualitative work making use of participant observation, life histories, and documents. This work began to influence British criminologists in the 1960s and the likes of Maureen Cain, Stan Cohen, and Jock Young. Of course, such a history is selective, and orthodox histories leave out as much as they highlight.

Qualitative research is not simply equivalent to the fieldwork tradition in anthropology and symbolic interactionism, as such a view fails to appreciate the value of discourse analysis as a means of collecting a different type of qualitative data, or the distinctive nature of different theoretical traditions or the significant influence of feminist methodologies and debates to qualitative approaches. So too, the extent to which qualitative methods have truly begun to influence the state and policy is perhaps questionable, as the Home Office (and British Crime Policy) has largely remained more favourably disposed towards research findings based on quantitative approaches and large numerical data sets for several decades.

Quantitative Versus Qualitative Criminology

What is more certain is that traditionally and typically, quantitative and qualitative criminology have been positioned to be oppositional in what has become something of a status battle. However, it is also problematic to push too far the qualitative/quantitative distinction. The qualitative/quantitative research dichotomy is acceptable as a pedagogical device to aid understanding of a complex topic, but such dichotomies tend to locate researchers in oppositional groups in a manner that does not reflect reality. Certainly, there have been many in criminology who are happy to live with such oppositional delineation. However, more recently, appeals to find rapprochement between quantitative and qualitative traditions have become more common, leading to a decline in a narrow and quite zealous adherence to one approach or the other. Yet perhaps we also ought to be careful of the tendency to present either qualitative or quantitative methods in one-dimensional terms; we ought to recognise that this might be understood at least in part that while there is a growing approval of regarding qualitative and quantitative research as complementary (and using them together in mixed methods approaches), it may be difficult to combine or employ mixed methods since qualitative and quantitative researchers, when pursuing social scientific objectives, both will ask different questions and follow distinctive and separate logics of explanation.

Qualitative research methods, while often viewed by novices as simpler and easier than qualitative methods, are in fact often much more demanding, time-consuming, require a greater emphasis on researchers themselves clarifying and defining what things mean, and rely on the intellectual abilities of researchers to organise, manage, effectively gather, analyse, and interpret data. There is no single correct way to work with qualitative data. Rather, qualitative researchers are challenged to find meaningful ways to gather and analyse their data. While there are certainly general guidelines (often based on the successful experiences of previous qualitative researchers) and ethical norms for guiding how to work with qualitative data, the actual tasks and actions of data collection, analysis, and interpretation require a huge degree of creativity and innovation not to mention well-honed interpersonal and transferable skills. The product is rich insight into the realities of crime and criminality, be it in bars amongst bouncers (Winlow, 2001) or ghettos amongst crack dealers (Bourgois, 1995), but running a continuum that stretches an array of forms of crime, harm, victimisation, and regulation.

For that reason, then, it might be prudent to consider the criminological theories or perspectives that are primarily associated with qualitative research. Early Chicagoan social disorganisation theory and the ecological model of the development of cities and patterns largely gave way to symbolic interactionism, social constructionism, then critical criminologist and concerns with gender, race, and class, on both sides of the Atlantic. In truth, it is perhaps fair to say that qualitative criminology has largely been affiliated with a more “critical” tradition.

From the late 1960s, feminists began to draw attention to the tendency for female offenders to be ignored; whilst criminology arguably made females visible as offenders, victims, and criminal justice professionals; and whilst feminist criminologists have also posed epistemological and methodological questions, questioning the nature of criminological knowledge and the most appropriate ways of gathering it. By the mid-1960s, positivist researchers began to be challenged by a range of radical discourses that questioned the assumptions on which positivist criminology was founded. These new discourses focused criminological attention away from the search for causal relationships between unproblematized social phenomena and towards an interrogation of the social constructions of deviance. A newer generation of criminologists, influenced by a rapidly changing social world (civil rights and feminism foremost amongst them), denounced what they had come to view as the mainstream criminological ideology of uncritical positivism and close ties to the statutory criminal justice process. It is here that the story of critical criminology begins, but it is also here that most of the innovation in qualitative social research method emanates.

However, for the most part, the concerns and focus of that qualitative criminological research today remains largely focused on

  • study of offenders, lives backgrounds, motivations for crime, and desistence;
  • studies of victims and victim experiences;
  • “policing” studies and law enforcement;
  • prisons, carceral spaces, punishment, and sanction;
  • qualitative evaluation research of criminal justice processes “interventions” and worker experiences; and
  • studies of public attitudes, policymaking, and mediated representations of crime.

Of course, such areas are not wholly exclusive, and there are necessarily overlaps. For example, policing and forms of social control, such as law enforcement, are much broader than simply being restricted to the police alone, just as the distinction between offender and victim is often an artificial binary.

Data that are used in qualitative criminological research come from a range of collection methods and techniques but frequently include interviews with individuals; observations of people, places, and actions/interactions; immersion in settings to understand the what, where, when, and how of social structure and action/interaction (ethnography); the analysis of media (e.g., written, spoken, image based); content and guided conversations with groups of individuals (focus groups); and action research, coproduction, autobiography, and reflexive writing. Each of these approaches to data collection differ in the sources of information and what the researchers do to collect information, their proximity and relationship with subjects, and the degree to which they are overt and inform and incorporate participants into the process (e.g., it is in covert qualitative research that some of the greatest ethical complexities are often highlighted; see Calvey, 2017).

Immersion in a crime or crime control field, for purposes of gaining an understanding of how that setting operates, is the stuff of criminological ethnography (Rice & Maltz, 2018; Treadwell, 2019). Originally advanced by anthropologists, ethnographic methods combine observational skills with interpersonal skills and emic (the study or description of a particular language or culture in terms of its internal elements and their functioning understanding) that the ethnographer needs to document experiences, and what he or she sees and hears that serve to inform the ethnographer of both what is happening and why it is happening as it is. The criminological ethnographer typically spends protracted periods of time in the research setting, which itself can introduce serious risks, stresses, and challenges. In the end, the ethnographer seeks to provide an analytic description of the setting under study that allows readers to not only understand how the setting is structured and operates but also why it is the way that it is (Treadwell, 2019).

Collecting qualitative data differs significant from collecting quantitative data (or simply downloading a data set) in that the process requires a high level of interpersonal skills and creativity. Additionally, the opportunities for accessing data may come with psychological/emotional stresses, dangers, and limitations on researchers’ opportunities. Qualitative researchers collect data directly from people, whether by observing them, interacting with them, or talking with them. In this regard, qualitative researchers need to be able to establish rapport with people and must present themselves as someone who is, at a minimum, nonthreatening, and ideally as someone with whom those being studied wish to spend time.

Why Qualitative Criminology Matters

In addition to the general problems and messy realities associated with researching crime, which is by no means a clean process, the use of a qualitative approach presents the researcher with more acute ethical dilemmas due to the level of immersion and the reduction in social distance between the researcher and the researched which they afford. Often qualitative researchers enter the natural setting of their topic, and as a result are exposed to the realities of respondents’ lives. As a result, qualitative researchers are faced with a wide range of ethical dilemmas and potential moral controversy, and get up close and personal with their participants. However, in doing so, they offer much of the data that make up criminology—the interviews, life histories, participant observations, reflections, and stories that cannot be captured in numbers and statistics alone.

For some academics, because crime is a matter of judgement, it is necessary that analysis is concerned with the interpretations and definitions of situations and actions. This analysis is not possible with quantitative methods. Hence, for a number of criminologists wed to notions of social construction, the study of crime is inseparably tied to the analysis of social control through (mainly) criminal law and its institutionalised practices (e.g., police, public prosecution, court, prison) of segmentation, typifying, classification, and judgement. Additionally, crime representations in the mass media underline the relevance of cultural patterns of interpretation for everyday and institutional constructions.

Hence, crime is constituted through the definitions of situations that are negotiated between different parties (e.g., offender, victim, witness, policeman, judge) in processes of social interaction. These definitions determine if an incident is highlighted and classified as “criminal” on its way through the criminal justice institutions. Files, data, and statistics of officially registered offenses do not represent the “reality of crime.” Instead, they are specific constructions of crime and documents or records of the judgemental and classification work done by the institutions of the criminal justice system. These aspects of crime are, therefore, adequately inquired only with the implementation of qualitative methods (see Ferrell, Hayward, & Young, 2015). Yet, while such a social constructionist stance holds sway, for some more critical and “realist” scholars, qualitative data are the way to make sense of crimes’ realities, and perhaps the deeper drivers of it that are not mere social constructions (Hall & Winlow, 2015). However, what is certain is qualitative research—be it in the form of case studies, personal experiences, introspectives, life stories, interviews, ethnographies, or observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals’ lives—will remain central to criminology as qualitative criminological researchers deploy a wide range of interconnected methods, hoping always to get a better fix on the subject matter at hand, the experiences of crime, its regulation, its impacts, and its representation.

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day free trial, more like this, sage recommends.

We found other relevant content for you on other Sage platforms.

Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can save clips, playlists and searches

  • Sign in/register

Navigating away from this page will delete your results

Please save your results to "My Self-Assessments" in your profile before navigating away from this page.

Sign in to my profile

Sign up for a free trial and experience all Sage Learning Resources have to offer.

You must have a valid academic email address to sign up.

Get off-campus access

  • View or download all content my institution has access to.

Sign up for a free trial and experience all Sage Research Methods has to offer.

  • view my profile
  • view my lists

IMAGES

  1. Qualitative Research in Criminology: Advances in Criminological Theory

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

  2. The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (7th

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

  3. List of Best Criminology Research Topics [PhD MBA Masters]

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

  4. (PDF) A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

  5. Criminological Research: Understanding Qualitative Methods (Introducing

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

  6. Guide- Thesis

    qualitative research in criminology pdf

VIDEO

  1. CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH PART 1 DELIZO

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

  3. Intro to criminology

  4. Criminology: Trends and Perspectives

  5. CSS: Criminology Lecture- 6 ll Psychological theories of Criminology ll Learing and Labelling Theory

  6. Download NOA Criminology Book PDF Free || CSS PMS PDF Books Free Download

COMMENTS

  1. (PDF) Introduction: Qualitative Research in Criminology

    This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitative methods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology). In...

  2. PDF Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, Vol 1 (1) 2009

    the core, qualitative research focuses on the meanings, traits and defining characteristics of events, people, interactions, settings/cultures and experience. As one leading proponent of qualitative methods has explained, "Quality refers to the what, how, when, and where of a thing - its essence and ambience.

  3. PDF Online Methods in Qualitative Criminology

    This chapter focuses on how criminologists and qualitative researchers, in general, can take advantage of new research techniques while also recognising their limitations. Phenomenon and Method As I mentioned earlier, it is a mistake to think that qualitative methods and tech-niques are directly transferable to the digital world.

  4. Qualitative Research in Criminology

    Qualitative Research in Criminology Cutting-Edge Methods Home Book Editors: Rita Faria, Mary Dodge Includes voices of researchers implementing edge-work on crime, deviance, social control and victimization Provides a broad and up-to-date overview of qualitative research methods in Criminology

  5. New Qualitative Methods and Critical Research Directions in Crime, Law

    View PDF View EPUB The Past: A Return to Qualitative Inquiry This Special Issue of the Journal of Criminal Justice Education ( JCJE) provides a platform for those interested in understanding, implementing, and developing new qualitative research designs from critical perspectives.

  6. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for

    Tewksbury R., Dabney D. A., Copes H. (2010). The prominence of qualitative research in criminology and criminal justice scholarship. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 21, 391-411. Crossref. Google Scholar. Thomas K. J., McGloin J. M. (2013). A dual-systems approach for understanding differential susceptibility to processes of peer ...

  7. Qualitative Methods in Criminology

    Qualitative research formed the basis of much of the early American criminological canon. In the mid-20th century, however, criminology took a decidedly quantitative turn with advanced analytical technology and increased federal funding for survey research. As criminology has fully embraced positivism, qualitative research has been generally ...

  8. Criminological Research: Understanding Qualitative Methods

    Chapter 1: Qualitative Approaches to Criminological Research Chapter 2: The Politics of Researching Crime and Justice Chapter 3: Ethics in Criminological Research Part II: THE RESEARCH PROCESS Chapter 4: Negotiating and Sustaining Access Chapter 5: Using Existing Qualitative Data Chapter 6: Interviews and Focus Groups Chapter 7: Ethnography

  9. The quantitative-qualitative divide in criminology: A theory of ideas

    Qualitative research is published in criminology journals at a frequency far smaller than that of quantitative research. ... Dabney DD, Copes H (2010) The prominence of qualitative research in criminology and criminal justice scholarship. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 21: ... PDF/ePub View PDF/ePub Full Text View Full Text. Related ...

  10. PDF A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top Criminology

    A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top Criminology and Criminal Justice Journals from 2010 to 2019 ... Woodward et al. 2016). The percent of qualitative research published in criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) journals since 2000 has ranged from 3.7% (Copes et al. 2011)to9.8%(Buckler2008), depending on how https://doi ...

  11. Qualitative Research in Criminology

    The Future of Qualitative Research in American Criminology. By Richard Wright, Scott Jacques, Michael Stein. Abstract. "This volume investigates the significant role qualitative research plays in expanding and refining our understandings of crime and justice. It features.

  12. Qualitative Research in Criminology

    Law, Sociology. 2019. 6. This volume investigates the significant role qualitative research plays in expanding and refining our understandings of crime and justice. It features seventeen original essays that discuss the relationship between methodology and theory. The result is a theoretically engaged volume that explores the approaches of ...

  13. The Prominence of Qualitative Research in Criminology and Criminal

    The Prominence of Qualitative Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice Scholarship Richard Tewksbury Dean A. Dabney Heith Copes Published online: 15 Oct 2010 Cite this article https://doi.org/10.1080/10511253.2010.516557 Full Article Figures & data References Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions

  14. The Quantitative-Qualitative Divide in Criminology: A Theory of Ideas

    Qualitative research is published in criminology journals at a frequency far smaller than that of quantitative research. The question is 'Why?' After reviewing existing theories of the discrepancy, this article draws on the paradigm of Blackian sociology, Jacques and ... by Scott Jacques Cite Social Download Contents last released 1 year ago

  15. Publishing Qualitative Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice

    The methodological orientation of criminology and criminal justice journals is overwhelmingly quantitative. In fact, only between 5 and 10% of articles published in CCJ journals rely on qualitative methods. Fortunately, this trend seems to be changing within the discipline, which will encourage more scholars to seek to publish qualitative research.

  16. [PDF] The quantitative-qualitative divide in criminology: A theory of

    Qualitative research is published in criminology journals at a frequency far smaller than that of quantitative research. The question is 'Why?' After reviewing existing theories of the discrepancy, this article draws on the paradigm of Blackian sociology, Jacques and colleagues' theory of method, and Black's theory of ideas to propose a new theory: compared to quantitative research ...

  17. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research Published in Top Criminology

    The percent of qualitative research published in criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) journals since 2000 has ranged from 3.7% (Copes et al. 2011) to 9.8% (Buckler 2008 ), depending on how qualitative methods is defined, time frames for publishing, and the range of journals examined.

  18. Criminological Research: Understanding Qualitative Methods

    Criminological Research offers a comprehensive guide to both the theory and practice of qualitative criminological research. Through a detailed yet concise explanation, the reader is shown how a variety of methods and approaches work and how their outcomes may be interpreted. Practically focused throughout, the book also offers constructive advice for students analysing and writing their ...

  19. PDF Qualitative Research Methods in Criminology

    The Course. Crim 321 will begin with consideration of elements that characterize Qualitative approaches to research and the inferential logic they share with more Quantitative approaches. This will be followed by discussion of some of the types of research questions, objectives and relationships that tend to prevail in qualitative research; the ...

  20. Sage Research Methods Foundations

    Qualitative Research in Criminology By: James Treadwell | Edited by: Paul Atkinson, Sara Delamont, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug & Richard A.Williams Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd Publication year: 2019 Online pub date: September 17, 2019 Discipline: Sociology, Criminology and Criminal Justice

  21. PDF Qualitative Criminal Justice & Criminology Interviewing cybercrime o enders

    The authors interviewed six experienced researchers who conducted qualitative examinations of active or incar-cerated cybercriminals to understand their common experiences with re-cruitment, ways in which they interviewed research participants, ethical issues, and publishing their research.