Quoting and integrating sources into your paper

In any study of a subject, people engage in a “conversation” of sorts, where they read or listen to others’ ideas, consider them with their own viewpoints, and then develop their own stance. It is important in this “conversation” to acknowledge when we use someone else’s words or ideas. If we didn’t come up with it ourselves, we need to tell our readers who did come up with it.

It is important to draw on the work of experts to formulate your own ideas. Quoting and paraphrasing the work of authors engaged in writing about your topic adds expert support to your argument and thesis statement. You are contributing to a scholarly conversation with scholars who are experts on your topic with your writing. This is the difference between a scholarly research paper and any other paper: you must include your own voice in your analysis and ideas alongside scholars or experts.

All your sources must relate to your thesis, or central argument, whether they are in agreement or not. It is a good idea to address all sides of the argument or thesis to make your stance stronger. There are two main ways to incorporate sources into your research paper.

Quoting is when you use the exact words from a source. You will need to put quotation marks around the words that are not your own and cite where they came from. For example:

“It wasn’t really a tune, but from the first note the beast’s eyes began to droop . . . Slowly the dog’s growls ceased – it tottered on its paws and fell to its knees, then it slumped to the ground, fast asleep” (Rowling 275).

Follow these guidelines when opting to cite a passage:

  • Choose to quote passages that seem especially well phrased or are unique to the author or subject matter.
  • Be selective in your quotations. Avoid over-quoting. You also don’t have to quote an entire passage. Use ellipses (. . .) to indicate omitted words. Check with your professor for their ideal length of quotations – some professors place word limits on how much of a sentence or paragraph you should quote.
  • Before or after quoting a passage, include an explanation in which you interpret the significance of the quote for the reader. Avoid “hanging quotes” that have no context or introduction. It is better to err on the side of your reader not understanding your point until you spell it out for them, rather than assume readers will follow your thought process exactly.
  • If you are having trouble paraphrasing (putting something into your own words), that may be a sign that you should quote it.
  • Shorter quotes are generally incorporated into the flow of a sentence while longer quotes may be set off in “blocks.” Check your citation handbook for quoting guidelines.

Paraphrasing is when you state the ideas from another source in your own words . Even when you use your own words, if the ideas or facts came from another source, you need to cite where they came from. Quotation marks are not used. For example:

With the simple music of the flute, Harry lulled the dog to sleep (Rowling 275).

Follow these guidelines when opting to paraphrase a passage:

  • Don’t take a passage and change a word here or there. You must write out the idea in your own words. Simply changing a few words from the original source or restating the information exactly using different words is considered plagiarism .
  • Read the passage, reflect upon it, and restate it in a way that is meaningful to you within the context of your paper . You are using this to back up a point you are making, so your paraphrased content should be tailored to that point specifically.
  • After reading the passage that you want to paraphrase, look away from it, and imagine explaining the main point to another person.
  • After paraphrasing the passage, go back and compare it to the original. Are there any phrases that have come directly from the original source? If so, you should rephrase it or put the original in quotation marks. If you cannot state an idea in your own words, you should use the direct quotation.

A summary is similar to paraphrasing, but used in cases where you are trying to give an overview of many ideas. As in paraphrasing, quotation marks are not used, but a citation is still necessary. For example:

Through a combination of skill and their invisibility cloak, Harry, Ron, and Hermione slipped through Hogwarts to the dog’s room and down through the trapdoor within (Rowling 271-77).

Important guidelines

When integrating a source into your paper, remember to use these three important components:

  • Introductory phrase to the source material : mention the author, date, or any other relevant information when introducing a quote or paraphrase.
  • Source material : a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary with proper citation.
  • Analysis of source material : your response, interpretations, or arguments regarding the source material should introduce or follow it. When incorporating source material into your paper, relate your source and analysis back to your original thesis.

Ideally, papers will contain a good balance of direct quotations, paraphrasing and your own thoughts. Too much reliance on quotations and paraphrasing can make it seem like you are only using the work of others and have no original thoughts on the topic.

Always properly cite an author’s original idea, whether you have directly quoted or paraphrased it. If you have questions about how to cite properly in your chosen citation style, browse these citation guides . You can also review our guide to understanding plagiarism .

University Writing Center

The University of Nevada, Reno Writing Center provides helpful guidance on quoting and paraphrasing and explains how to make sure your paraphrasing does not veer into plagiarism. If you have any questions about quoting or paraphrasing, or need help at any point in the writing process, schedule an appointment with the Writing Center.

Works Cited

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.  A.A. Levine Books, 1998.

  • How it works

researchprospect post subheader

How to Quote Sources – Comprehensive Guide With Examples

Published by Olive Robin at October 17th, 2023 , Revised On October 17, 2023

In academia, research, journalism, and writing, the skill of quoting sources is fundamental. Accurate and proper quoting adds credibility to your work and demonstrates respect for the original authors and their ideas. Whether you’re working on a research paper , an essay , or any other form of written communication, understanding how to quote sources is crucial. This comprehensive guide will take you through the ins and outs of quoting, with examples and tips to help you become proficient in citation.

Understanding the Basics of Quoting

Proficiency in the fundamentals of quoting is integral to scholarly writing . This proficiency encompasses the ability to distinguish between primary and secondary sources and the skill of sourcing quotations.

Primary Source Vs. Secondary Source

Before discussing our journey of quoting sources, it’s crucial to distinguish between primary and secondary sources.

Primary Source 

A primary source is direct, firsthand information or an original work. Examples include original research papers, letters, diaries, speeches, and interviews.

Secondary Source 

On the other hand, a secondary source interprets, analyses, or summarises primary sources. It provides commentary or analysis based on primary sources. Examples include books, articles, documentaries, or reviews.

In most cases, it’s preferable to quote from primary sources as they offer the most direct and credible information.

How to Find a Quote Source

Finding the right source to quote is the first step in the quoting process. Here are some tips on how to locate suitable sources:

Online Databases and Libraries

Utilise online databases and library resources like PubMed, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and your university library’s website. These platforms provide access to a vast collection of scholarly materials.

Credible Websites

When searching online, focus on credible websites, such as government agencies, academic institutions, and well-established news outlets. Check for the author’s credentials and the publication date to ensure reliability.

Books and Journals

Physical and digital books and academic journals are excellent sources for quotes. Libraries and digital libraries like Project Gutenberg and the Library of Congress offer extensive collections.

Interviews and Personal Communications

If quoting from an interview or personal communication, ensure you have proper consent from the source. Use these quotes sparingly and only when they add unique value to your work.

How to Quote Sources in a Research Paper

Now that we have laid the foundation, let us explore the specifics of quoting within a research paper.

Inline Quotations

Inline quotations are short snippets of text integrated into your writing. 

Here’s how to format them correctly:

  • Use Quotation Marks: Enclose the quoted text in double quotation marks.
  • Include Page Numbers: If available, add the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
  • Credit the Source: Mention the author’s name and the publication date within or after the quotation.

According to Smith (2020), “Quoting sources properly enhances the credibility of your research” (p. 45).

Block Quoting

When a quote exceeds 40 words or more, it should be formatted as a block quote.  

Follow these guidelines:

  • Indentation: Indent the entire quote from the left margin, typically by 0.5 inches.
  • Omit Quotation Marks: Block quotes do not require double quotation marks.
  • Maintain Spacing: Keep the spacing consistent with the original text.
  • Cite Source: Include the author’s name and publication date either before or after the block quote .

Example: Markdown

Smith (2020) highlighted the importance of proper quoting:

    Quoting sources properly enhances the credibility of your research. It shows that you have conducted thorough research and are building upon established knowledge. (p. 45)

Verifying Quotes

In quotes, especially when dealing with secondary sources that include quotes, it’s wise to verify the accuracy of the quoted material. Take the extra step to go back to the original source to ensure that the quote is complete, accurate, and not taken out of context. This diligence is essential for maintaining the integrity of your work.

Using Ellipses and Square Brackets

Quoting often involves adapting source material to fit within your narrative. When omitting words or phrases from a quote, use ellipses (…) to indicate the omission. When adding clarifications or explanations within a quote, enclose them in square brackets [].

These tools allow you to maintain the integrity of the original quote while ensuring it fits smoothly into your text.

Quoting a Source in An Essay

Quoting within an essay follows similar principles to research papers, with minor differences.

Signal Phrases

Signal phrases are used to introduce quotes in your essay. They provide context and indicate that you are incorporating someone else’s ideas. Examples of signal phrases include:

  • According to…
  • Smith argues that…
  • In the words of…

Using signal phrases helps smoothly integrate quotes into your essay’s narrative.

Paraphrasing

While quoting is a valuable skill, it’s worth noting that paraphrasing—expressing someone else’s ideas in your own words—is another essential technique in writing. Paraphrasing allows you to integrate source material smoothly into your text while giving proper credit. When quoting is not necessary, consider paraphrasing as a viable alternative.

How to Cite a Quote: Harvard Style

Citing quotes correctly is crucial to avoiding plagiarism and giving credit to the original source. The Harvard referencing style is one commonly used for citing sources. Here’s how to cite a quote in Harvard style:

In-Text Citation

In-text citations should include the author’s last name, the publication year, and the page number (if applicable) within parentheses. Place this citation immediately after the quote or paraphrased content.

Example: (Smith, 2020, p. 45)

Reference List

In your reference list or bibliography, provide a full citation for each source you’ve quoted or referenced. The Harvard format typically includes the author’s name, publication year, title of the work, publisher, and other relevant information.

Example: scss

Smith, J. (2020). The Art of Quoting. Academic Press.

The research done by our experts have:

  • Precision and Clarity
  • Zero Plagiarism
  • Authentic Sources

how to quote sources research paper

Common Mistakes to Avoid when Quoting Sources

Even knowing how to quote sources effectively, it’s easy to make mistakes. Being aware of common pitfalls can help you avoid them. Here are some mistakes to watch out for:

1. Over-Quoting

Quoting should enhance your work, not dominate it. Avoid the temptation to fill your paper with lengthy quotes. Instead, use quotes selectively to support your arguments or provide evidence.

2. Improper Citation

Only accurate or consistent citations can lead to clarity and allegations of plagiarism. Make sure your in-text citations and reference list entries match the citation style required (e.g., Harvard, APA, MLA) and follow the prescribed format.

3. Lack of Context

Quotes should never stand alone; they should fit seamlessly into your narrative. Provide context by introducing the quote, explaining its relevance, and connecting it to your main argument.

4. Not Verifying Quotes

Refrain from relying on secondary sources that misquote or take original quotes out of context can lead to inaccuracies. Always verify quotes fromprimary sources w henever possible.

5. Overlooking Proofreading

Typos, missing punctuation, or formatting errors can detract from the professionalism of your work. Proofread your quotes, citations, and the surrounding text carefully.

Best Practices for Quoting

To ensure your quoting is impeccable, consider these best practices:

  • Always attribute quotes to their respective authors.
  • Ensure that the quotes you select are relevant and enhance your work’s context.
  • Use quotes sparingly, with your voice and analysis dominating the text.
  • Double-check the formatting style required by your institution or publication for consistency.
  • Proofread to ensure accuracy in quotation marks, citations, and source details.

Online Tools and Resources For Quoting

Consider using online tools and resources to simplify the quoting process and ensure accuracy. Here are a few valuable options:

1. Citation Management Tools

  • Zotero: A free, open-source tool that helps you collect, organise, cite, and share research materials.
  • EndNote: A reference management program that offers advanced features for organising and citing sources..

2. Online Style Guides

  • Purdue OWL: An online writing lab by Purdue University that provides extensive style guides for APA, MLA, Chicago, and more.
  • CiteULike: A free service that helps you create and manage citations in various styles.
  • Citation Machine: An easy-to-use tool for generating citations in APA, MLA, Chicago, and other styles.

3. Plagiarism Checkers

  • Turnitin: A widely used plagiarism detection tool that helps you ensure the originality of your work.
  • Grammarly: Besides grammar and spelling checks, Grammarly also offers a plagiarism checker for academic writing.

Integrating these tools and resources into your quoting process allows you to streamline your work and reduce the risk of errors in citations and quotations.

In conclusion, quoting sources is an integral part of academic and professional writing. Understanding the nuances of quoting, finding credible sources, and citing them correctly will elevate the quality of your work. Always prioritise accuracy, attribution, and context when incorporating quotes into your writing.

By following the guidelines and examples provided in this comprehensive guide, you’ll master quoting and enhancing the credibility of your research, essays, and papers. Remember that quoting is not just about using someone else’s words; it’s about building upon the knowledge of others while giving credit where it’s due.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to quote sources in a research paper.

To quote sources in a research paper, use double quotation marks, include an in-text citation with the author’s name and publication year, and integrate the quote smoothly into your text.

How to Cite a Quote?

To cite a quote, provide an in-text citation with the author’s name, publication year, and page number (if applicable), and include a full citation in your reference list following the required citation style.

What Are the Key Differences Between Primary and Secondary Sources in Quoting?

In the context of quoting, primary sources are firsthand accounts or original works, while secondary sources interpret or analyze primary sources. Explain the significance of these distinctions and their impact on effective quoting practices.

You May Also Like

A secondary source refers to any material that interprets, analyses, or reviews information originally presented elsewhere. Unlike primary sources, which offer direct evidence or first-hand testimony, secondary sources work on those original materials, offering commentary, critiques, and perspectives.

Primary sources refer to original, unmediated documents or records that have not been altered or transformed by interpretation or commentary. They provide first-hand accounts, evidence, or direct testimony concerning a subject or event under investigation.

In a world bombarded with vast amounts of information, condensing and presenting data in a digestible format becomes invaluable. Enter summaries. 

USEFUL LINKS

LEARNING RESOURCES

researchprospect-reviews-trust-site

COMPANY DETAILS

Research-Prospect-Writing-Service

  • How It Works

Have a thesis expert improve your writing

Check your thesis for plagiarism in 10 minutes, generate your apa citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Working with sources
  • How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA

How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA

Published on 15 April 2022 by Shona McCombes and Jack Caulfield. Revised on 3 September 2022.

Quoting means copying a passage of someone else’s words and crediting the source. To quote a source, you must ensure:

  • The quoted text is enclosed in quotation marks (usually single quotation marks in UK English, though double is acceptable as long as you’re consistent) or formatted as a block quote
  • The original author is correctly cited
  • The text is identical to the original

The exact format of a quote depends on its length and on which citation style you are using. Quoting and citing correctly is essential to avoid plagiarism , which is easy to detect with a good plagiarism checker .

How to Quote

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

How to cite a quote in harvard and apa style, introducing quotes, quotes within quotes, shortening or altering a quote, block quotes, when should i use quotes, frequently asked questions about quoting sources.

Every time you quote, you must cite the source correctly . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style you’re using.

Citing a quote in Harvard style

When you include a quote in Harvard style, you must add a Harvard in-text citation giving the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number if available. Any full stop or comma appears after the citation, not within the quotation marks.

Citations can be parenthetical or narrative. In a parenthetical citation , you place all the information in brackets after the quote. In a narrative citation , you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote.

  • Evolution is a gradual process that ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (Darwin, 1859, p. 510) . Darwin (1859) explains that evolution ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (p. 510) .

Complete guide to Harvard style

Citing a quote in APA Style

To cite a direct quote in APA , you must include the author’s last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use ‘p.’; if it spans a page range, use ‘pp.’

An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative. In a parenthetical citation , you place all the information in parentheses after the quote. In a narrative citation , you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote.

Punctuation marks such as full stops and commas are placed after the citation, not within the quotation marks.

  • Evolution is a gradual process that ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (Darwin, 1859, p. 510) .
  • Darwin (1859) explains that evolution ‘can act only by very short and slow steps’ (p. 510) .

Complete guide to APA

The only proofreading tool specialized in correcting academic writing.

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.

how to quote sources research paper

Correct my document today

Make sure you integrate quotes properly into your text by introducing them in your own words, showing the reader why you’re including the quote and providing any context necessary to understand it.  Don’t  present quotations as stand-alone sentences.

There are three main strategies you can use to introduce quotes in a grammatically correct way:

  • Add an introductory sentence
  • Use an introductory signal phrase
  • Integrate the quote into your own sentence

The following examples use APA Style citations, but these strategies can be used in all styles.

Introductory sentence

Introduce the quote with a full sentence ending in a colon . Don’t use a colon if the text before the quote isn’t a full sentence.

If you name the author in your sentence, you may use present-tense verbs, such as “states’, ‘argues’, ‘explains’, ‘writes’, or ‘reports’, to describe the content of the quote.

  • In Denmark, a recent poll shows that: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • In Denmark, a recent poll shows that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • Levring (2018) reports that support for the EU has grown since the Brexit vote: ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (p. 3).

Introductory signal phrase

You can also use a signal phrase that mentions the author or source but doesn’t form a full sentence. In this case, you follow the phrase with a comma instead of a colon.

  • According to a recent poll, ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • As Levring (2018) explains, ‘A membership referendum held today would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ (p. 3).

Integrated into your own sentence

To quote a phrase that doesn’t form a full sentence, you can also integrate it as part of your sentence, without any extra punctuation.

  • A recent poll suggests that EU membership ‘would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ in a referendum (Levring, 2018, p. 3).
  • Levring (2018) reports that EU membership ‘would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters’ in a referendum (p. 3).

When you quote text that itself contains another quote, this is called a nested quotation or a quote within a quote. It may occur, for example, when quoting dialogue from a novel.

To distinguish this quote from the surrounding quote, you enclose it in double (instead of single) quotation marks (even if this involves changing the punctuation from the original text). Make sure to close both sets of quotation marks at the appropriate moments.

Note that if you only quote the nested quotation itself, and not the surrounding text, you can just use single quotation marks.

  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘ ‘ Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, ‘ he told me, ‘ just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had ‘ ‘ (Fitzgerald 1).
  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘”Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,” he told me, “just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had “  (Fitzgerald 1).
  • Carraway introduces his narrative by quoting his father: ‘“Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone,” he told me, “just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had”’ (Fitzgerald 1).
  • Carraway begins by quoting his father’s invocation to ‘remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had’ (Fitzgerald 1).

Note:  When the quoted text in the source comes from another source, it’s best to just find that original source in order to quote it directly. If you can’t find the original source, you can instead cite it indirectly .

Often, incorporating a quote smoothly into your text requires you to make some changes to the original text. It’s fine to do this, as long as you clearly mark the changes you’ve made to the quote.

Shortening a quote

If some parts of a passage are redundant or irrelevant, you can shorten the quote by removing words, phrases, or sentences and replacing them with an ellipsis (…). Put a space before and after the ellipsis.

Be careful that removing the words doesn’t change the meaning. The ellipsis indicates that some text has been removed, but the shortened quote should still accurately represent the author’s point.

Altering a quote

You can add or replace words in a quote when necessary. This might be because the original text doesn’t fit grammatically with your sentence (e.g., it’s in a different tense), or because extra information is needed to clarify the quote’s meaning.

Use brackets to distinguish words that you have added from words that were present in the original text.

The Latin term ‘ sic ‘ is used to indicate a (factual or grammatical) mistake in a quotation. It shows the reader that the mistake is from the quoted material, not a typo of your own.

In some cases, it can be useful to italicise part of a quotation to add emphasis, showing the reader that this is the key part to pay attention to. Use the phrase ’emphasis added’ to show that the italics were not part of the original text.

You usually don’t need to use brackets to indicate minor changes to punctuation or capitalisation made to ensure the quote fits the style of your text.

If you quote more than a few lines from a source, you must format it as a block quote . Instead of using quotation marks, you set the quote on a new line and indent it so that it forms a separate block of text.

Block quotes are cited just like regular quotes, except that if the quote ends with a full stop, the citation appears after the full stop.

To the end of his days Bilbo could never remember how he found himself outside, without a hat, a walking-stick or any money, or anything that he usually took when he went out; leaving his second breakfast half-finished and quite unwashed-up, pushing his keys into Gandalf’s hands, and running as fast as his furry feet could carry him down the lane, past the great Mill, across The Water, and then on for a mile or more. (16)

Avoid relying too heavily on quotes in academic writing . To integrate a source , it’s often best to paraphrase , which means putting the passage into your own words. This helps you integrate information smoothly and keeps your own voice dominant.

However, there are some situations in which quotes are more appropriate.

When focusing on language

If you want to comment on how the author uses language (for example, in literary analysis ), it’s necessary to quote so that the reader can see the exact passage you are referring to.

When giving evidence

To convince the reader of your argument, interpretation or position on a topic, it’s often helpful to include quotes that support your point. Quotes from primary sources (for example, interview transcripts or historical documents) are especially credible as evidence.

When presenting an author’s position or definition

When you’re referring to secondary sources such as scholarly books and journal articles, try to put others’ ideas in your own words when possible.

But if a passage does a great job at expressing, explaining, or defining something, and it would be very difficult to paraphrase without changing the meaning or losing the weakening the idea’s impact, it’s worth quoting directly.

A quote is an exact copy of someone else’s words, usually enclosed in quotation marks and credited to the original author or speaker.

To present information from other sources in academic writing , it’s best to paraphrase in most cases. This shows that you’ve understood the ideas you’re discussing and incorporates them into your text smoothly.

It’s appropriate to quote when:

  • Changing the phrasing would distort the meaning of the original text
  • You want to discuss the author’s language choices (e.g., in literary analysis )
  • You’re presenting a precise definition
  • You’re looking in depth at a specific claim

Every time you quote a source , you must include a correctly formatted in-text citation . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style .

For example, a direct quote in APA is cited like this: ‘This is a quote’ (Streefkerk, 2020, p. 5).

Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.

In scientific subjects, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so quoting should generally be kept to a minimum. In the arts and humanities, however, well-chosen quotes are often essential to a good paper.

In social sciences, it varies. If your research is mainly quantitative , you won’t include many quotes, but if it’s more qualitative , you may need to quote from the data you collected .

As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper. If in doubt, check with your instructor or supervisor how much quoting is appropriate in your field.

If you’re quoting from a text that paraphrases or summarises other sources and cites them in parentheses , APA  recommends retaining the citations as part of the quote:

  • Smith states that ‘the literature on this topic (Jones, 2015; Sill, 2019; Paulson, 2020) shows no clear consensus’ (Smith, 2019, p. 4).

Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted.

If you want to cite an indirect source (one you’ve only seen quoted in another source), either locate the original source or use the phrase ‘as cited in’ in your citation.

A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate ‘block’ of text. Instead of using quotation marks , you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.

APA uses block quotes for quotes that are 40 words or longer.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. & Caulfield, J. (2022, September 03). How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA. Scribbr. Retrieved 4 July 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/working-sources/quoting/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, how to paraphrase | step-by-step guide & examples, how to avoid plagiarism | tips on citing sources, the 5 types of plagiarism | explanations & examples.

MERRIMACK COLLEGE MCQUADE LIBRARY

How to cite sources.

  • CMS (Chicago)
  • CSE (formally CBE)
  • Academic Integrity
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Direct Quotes, Summaries & Paraphrases (adapted from Butler University Libraries)

  • Zotero This link opens in a new window
  • MC Writing Center This link opens in a new window
  • Direct Quotes
  • Common Knowledge

YOU SHOULD CITE WHEN:

  • Referring to a source and stating someone else's opinions, thoughts, ideas, or research
  • Using an image or media file that you did not create

When in doubt, cite it

WHEN REFERRING TO A SOURCE, YOU HAVE THREE OPTIONS FOR USING IT:

  • Directly Quoting 
  • Summarizing 
  • Paraphrase 

"Which option you should choose depends on how much of a source you are using, how you are using it, and what kind of paper you are writing, since different fields use sources in different ways." Grounds for Argument.  When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize a Source . Used under CC BY NC SA

Image:   Random quote  by  Gabriel Jones . Used under  CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

YOU DO NOT NEED TO CITE:

  • Your thoughts and your interpretations
  • Common knowledge​

WHAT IS A DIRECT QUOTATION:  

"Must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author."   Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).  Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

  • If summarizing or paraphrasing cannot capture the essence or meaning of the text 
  • To retain a specific or unique phrasing used by the source's author
  • If you are analyzing the text itself (often in English or language classes)

BE ADVISED:

Most of the time when you cite a source, you want to summarize or paraphrase. Direct quotations should be used sparingly when the situation meets the criteria above. When you do use direct quotations:

  • Do not take the quote out of context. The author's meaning should not change.
  • Be sure to integrate multiple sources within your text. You don't want to have a paper or a passage that seems to have come only from one source, with little original text from you.
  • Use transitions to make sure your quote adds to your paper without interrupting its flow.

HOW TO CITE A DIRECT QUOTATION:   

  • Place  quotation marks  around the entire word-for-word passage, whether it's a phrase or a sentence.
  • Attribute with an  in-text citation ; most citation styles request that you provide a  page or paragraph number  when directly citing.  
  • If your quotation is longer, check with your citation style guide to see if additional formatting is necessary (block quotations, for example).
  • When and How Much to Quote (Harvard Guide to Using Sources)

WHAT IS A SUMMARY:  

"Involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).... Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material."   Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).  Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

"Similar to paraphrasing, summarizing involves using your own words and writing style to express another author's ideas. Unlike the paraphrase, which presents important details, the summary presents only the most important ideas of the passage." University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.).  Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.

  • To provide necessary background information for your audience
  • When broad, concise information will suffice 

HOW TO CITE A SUMMARY:  

  • Attribute with an in-text citation; some citation styles request that you provide a page or paragraph number whenever available.
  • You should not be using any word-for-word quotations or language unique to the source, so you do NOT need quotation marks around your summary.

WHAT IS A PARAPHRASE:  

"A paraphrase is a detailed restatement in your own words of a written or sometimes spoken source material. Apart from the changes in organization, wording, and sentence structure, the paraphrase should be nearly identical in meaning to the original passage. It should also be near the same length as the original passage and present the details of the original." University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.).  Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.

Paraphrasing is "your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form."  Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).   Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When paraphrasing, you must change both the sentence structure and the language of the original text

  • "When the wording is less important than the meaning of the source" University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.).  Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.
  • If a summary would not provide enough specific details

HOW TO CITE A PARAPHRASE:  

  • When paraphrasing, you must change both the sentence structure and language of the original text.  Therefore, since you will be changing the text, you do NOT need quotation marks around your paraphrase.

Includes 6 steps to effective paraphrasing and examples.

From the Harvard Guide to Using Sources

It doesn't necessarily mean that most people would know it offhand. And sometimes it's a judgment call because what seems like common knowledge to one person isn't to another. Here are good guidelines: 

  • If you can find the same information in multiple places, stated in relatively the same way, it's common knowledge  (Generally, it is said that you should find the information three to five sources)
  • If most people are aware of this fact, or if it's general reference, it's common knowledge

CAUTION:  Opinions and unique terminology/phrasing do not qualify as common knowledge.

When in doubt, cite

  • << Previous: Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Next: Zotero >>
  • Last Updated: Jun 18, 2024 12:28 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.merrimack.edu/citing_sources
  • Utility Menu

University Logo

fa3d988da6f218669ec27d6b6019a0cd

A publication of the harvard college writing program.

Harvard Guide to Using Sources 

  • The Honor Code
  • In-Text Citations

In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in APA style includes the author's last name as well as the year in which the work was published, with a comma between them. If you are referring directly to a specific page in the source, you should also include the page number in your parenthetical citation. APA requires you to cite page numbers when you are quoting directly from the source. If you are paraphrasing, which is more common in the social sciences, you generally do not need to include a page number. If you have questions about whether you should include page numbers when citing in APA, you should consult your instructor.

If you mention the author's name and/or the year of publication in the sentence preceding the citation, you do not need to include them in the parenthetical citation. When you name the author in the sentence, you should include the publication year in parentheses right after the author’s name—do not wait until the end of the sentence to provide that information.

When you include a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence, the punctuation for your sentence appears after the citation.

Citing author and date in a parenthetical citation

When you don’t mention either the author or the date of publication in your sentence, you should include both the author and the year, separated by a comma, in the parenthetical citation. 

Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack, 2019).         

Citing when author’s name is mentioned in body of paper

When you mention the author’s name in your sentence, the year of publication should immediately follow the author’s name.

Anthony Jack’s (2019) study of low-income students on an elite college campus revealed that these schools are often unprepared to support the students they admit.

Jack (2019) studied the ways low-income students experience elite college campuses.

Citing page numbers

When you cite a direct quote from the source or paraphrase a specific point from the source, you should include the page number in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. When you refer to a specific page or pages of the text, first list the year of publication and then list "p." followed by the page number or "pp." followed by the range of pages. If you refer to a specific chapter, indicate that chapter after the year.              

The author contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (Jack, 2019, p. 4).

Jack (2019) contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (p. 4).

Citing sources with more than one author

When you cite a source that has two authors, you should separate their names with an ampersand in the parenthetical citation.

The authors designed a study to determine if social belonging can be encouraged among college students (Walton & Cohen, 2011). 

If a work has three or more authors , you should only include the first author's name followed by et al. ( Et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others.”)

The implementation of postpartum contraceptive programs is both costly and time consuming (Ling et al., 2020).

Attributing a point to more than one source  

To attribute a point or idea to multiple sources, list them in one parenthetical citation, ordered alphabetically by author and separated by semicolons. Works by the same author should be ordered chronologically, from oldest to most recent, with the publication dates separated by commas.

Students who possess cultural capital, measured by proxies like involvement in literature, art, and classical music, tend to perform better in school (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Dumais, 2002; Orr, 2003).

Citing multiple works by the same author 

If your reference list includes multiple works by the same author in the same year, identify them in your parenthetical citations and in your reference list by a lowercase letter after the year, assigning each letter in alphabetical order by the title of the work. When establishing the alphabetical order of works in your reference list, do not count the words "A" or "The" when they appear as the first word in a title.

One union-endorsed candidate publicly disagreed with the teachers' union on a number of issues (Borsuk, 1999a).

Citing multiple authors with the same last name        

If your reference list includes sources by multiple authors with the same last name, list each author's initials before their last name, even when the works were published in different years.

The question of whether a computer can be considered an author has been asked for longer than we might expect (B. Sobel, 2017).

Citing when no author is listed           

To refer to a work that is listed in your reference list by title rather than by author, cite the title or the first few words of the title.

The New York Times painted a bleak picture of the climate crisis (“Climate Change Is Not Negotiable,” 2022).

Citing when no date is listed

If the work you are citing has no date listed, you should put “n.d.” for “no date” in the parenthetical citation.

Writing research papers is challenging (Lam, n.d.). 

Citing a specific part of a source that is not a page number

To refer to a specific part of a source other than page number, add that after the author-date part of your citation. If it is not clear whether you are referring to a chapter, a paragraph, a time stamp, or a slide number, or other labeled part of a source, you should indicate the part you are referring to (chapter, para., etc.).

In the Stranger Things official trailer, the audience knows that something unusual is going to happen from the moment the boys get on their bicycles to ride off into the night (Duffer & Duffer, 0:16).

  • Citation Management Tools
  • Reference List Format
  • Examples of Commonly Cited Sources
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Cite Sources in APA Format
  • Sample Reference List

PDFs for This Section

  • Citing Sources
  • Online Library and Citation Tools

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the  MLA Handbook  and in chapter 7 of the  MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.

Basic in-text citation rules

In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.

General Guidelines

  • The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
  • Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.

In-text citations: Author-page style

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.

In-text citations for print sources with known author

For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.

In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author

When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.

In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems

If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:

The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).

Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.

In-text citations for print sources with no known author

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.

Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.

Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .

If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:

"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.

If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.

Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's  The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection

When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the  internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in  Nature  in 1921, you might write something like this:

See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .

Citing authors with same last names

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:

Citing a work by multiple authors

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

Corresponding Works Cited entry:

Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1

For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.

Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.

Citing multiple works by the same author

If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Citing two articles by the same author :

Citing two books by the same author :

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):

Citing multivolume works

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)

Citing the Bible

In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:

If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:

John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).

Citing indirect sources

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:

Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays

Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.

Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.

Here is an example from O'Neill's  The Iceman Cometh.

WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.

ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.

WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet

With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's  Evaluating Sources of Information  resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like  CNN.com  or  Forbes.com,  as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.

Miscellaneous non-print sources

Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:

In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:

Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.

Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.

Electronic sources

Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:

In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).

In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:

Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009. 

"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.

Multiple citations

To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:

Time-based media sources

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).

When a citation is not needed

Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.

Other Sources

The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.

In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.

You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers⁠ —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

  • Volume and Issue Numbers
  • Page Numbers
  • Undated Sources
  • Citing a Source Within a Source

Citing a Source within a Source

  • In-Text Citations
  • Academic Journals
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
  • Online Classroom Materials
  • Conference Papers
  • Technical + Research Reports
  • Court Decisions
  • Treaties and Other International Agreements
  • Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
  • Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
  • Executive Orders
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Federal Statutes
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
  • Social Media
  • Business Sources
  • PowerPoints
  • AI: ChatGPT, etc.

Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Klein. You want to cite Klein's article, but you have not read Klein's article itself.

Reference list citation

Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science , 31 (6), 989-1007. https://doi.org/10.1080/03640210701703725

Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Klein's article.

In-text citation

Klein's study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Klein and shows the source in which you found Klein's ideas.

See  Publication Manual , p. 258.

  • << Previous: Undated Sources
  • Next: In-Text Citations >>
  • Last Updated: Mar 18, 2024 12:55 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/apa-examples
  • PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • College University and Postgraduate
  • Academic Writing

How to Cite a Quote

Last Updated: June 27, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was reviewed by Gerald Posner . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. There are 18 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,268,365 times.

According to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, the word "plagiarize" can mean trying to pass off someone else's ideas, work or words as your own, or using those ideas, work or words without giving due credit to the source. You can avoid either misdeed by simply giving credit where credit is due. The three primary citation styles are APA, MLA, and CMS.

Sample Citations

how to quote sources research paper

Cite a Quote in APA Style

Step 1 Use in-text citations for quotes.

Example: Smith (2013) states that citing quotes can be challenging.

Step 2 Cite a publication with one author.

The author remarks on the "difficulty of citing quotes," (Smith, 2002, p. 32) but does not go into depth. or Smith (2002) mentions the "difficulty of citing quotes" (p. 32) but does not go into depth.

Step 3 Cite a book with multiple authors.

These scholars agree that "quotes are useful" (Hu, Koller, and Shier, 2013, p. 75). or Hu, Koller, and Shier agree that "quotes are useful" (p. 75).

Step 4 Cite a publication with no known author.

In a study, it was determined that “the sky is in fact blue” (“Obvious Observations,” 2013).

Step 5 Cite a web page.

Another study showed that “clouds are white” (“More Obvious Observations,” n.d., para. 7).

Step 6 Cite personal communications or interviews.

The message affirmed that “the sky is in fact blue” (John Smith, email, August 23, 2013).

Step 7 Create a reference list.

Book with one or more authors: Lastname, First Initials (year published). Title of Book . Location: Publisher. Book with no author: [7] X Trustworthy Source APA Style Definitive source for current APA style writing and citation guidelines Go to source Title of Book. (Year). Location: Publisher. Web page: Lastname, First Initials (date of publication). Title of document. URL. If there is no date, write n.d. If there is no author, start with "Title. (date)." [8] X Research source

Cite a Quote in MLA Style

Step 1 Place a parenthetical, in-text citation as soon as possible after the quote.

The meat factory workers of Chicago “were tied to the great packing-machine, and tied to it for life” (Sinclair, 99). or Upton Sinclair described the workers as "tied to the great packing-machine, and tied to it for life” (99).

Step 3 Create an in-text citation of a work with multiple authors.

Two or three authors The authors state, “citing quotes can be annoying” (Hu, Koller, and Shier 45). More than three authors: The authors state, “citing different sources can be confusing” (Perhamus et al. 63). [11] X Research source

Step 4 Create an in-text citation of a work with no known author.

Citing How to Cite Like a Champion and Be Better Than Other Writers : Citing sources can get annoying because “it can take a while” (Cite like a Champion 72).

Step 5 Create an in-text citation for a web page.

The sky is blue but “clouds are white” (Obvious Observations Online).

Step 6 Create an in-text citation for an interview or personal communication.

An email message confirmed that “the sky is indeed blue” (Smith).

Step 7 Create a Works Cited page.

Book with one author: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book . City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Note: The Medium of Publication is "Print" for paper books. Other media include Web and Radio. Book with multiple authors: Lastname, Firstname of first alphabetical author, then Firstname Lastname for other authors. Title of Book . City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Book with no known author: Title of publication . City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Web page: [16] X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source “Name of Article.” Name of Website. Name of website owner, date of publication. Web. Date of access. Note: Write n.d. if no publishing date is listed. Personal interview: Lastname, Firstname of interviewee. Personal interview. Date. Published interview: Lastname, Firstname of interviewee. Interview with (Name of Interviewer). Publication or program (year): page numbers if applicable. Medium of publication. Personal message: Lastname, Firstname of sender. “Title of Message.” Medium. Date.

Cite a Quote in CMS

Step 1 Use CMS if you prefer footnotes or endnotes to in-text citation.

The people who worked in the meat factories of Chicago at the turn of the century “were tied to the great packing-machine, and tied to it for life.” 1

Step 4 Create a footnote or endnote.

1 Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (Doubleday, Page & Company: 1906), 99.

Step 6 Create a footnote/endnote for a web page from the internet.

With an author: John Doe, “Citing Sources,” Organization of Writing Fanatics, last modified August 23, 2013, www.blahcitingblahblah.com Page without an author: “Citing Sources,” Organization of Writing Fanatics, last modified August 23, 2013, www.blahcitingblahblah.com

Step 7 Create a footnote/endnote for an interview or personal communication.

Unpublished interview: John Doe, (musician) in discussion with the author, Aug 23, 2013. Published interview: John Doe, interviewed by Jane Doe, Music Lovers, Aug 23, 2013. Personal communication: John Doe, email to the author, Aug 23, 2013.

Step 8 Create a Works Cited or Bibliography.

' Book with one author: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Book with two authors: Lastname, Firstname and Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Book with no known author: Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Web page with author: Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL. Web page without an author: “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL. Published Interview: Lastname, Firstname of interviewee, place where interview was held, by Interviewer's Firstname Lastname, date.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

You Might Also Like

Quote a Book

  • ↑ https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide/intext
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_author_authors.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_electronic_sources.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_basic_rules.html
  • ↑ http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-book-no-author.aspx
  • ↑ https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa/reference-list
  • ↑ https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/mlacitation/intext
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_in_text_citations_the_basics.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_electronic_sources.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_other_common_sources.html
  • ↑ https://research.wou.edu/c.php?g=551307&p=3785495
  • ↑ https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/books.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/web_sources.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/interviews_personal_communication.html
  • ↑ https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.html

About This Article

Gerald Posner

To cite a quote using APA, put parentheses with the citation directly after the quoted material. For a citation with one or more authors, include their last names, the year of publication, and page number preceded by a "p.” If you're citing something but don't know the author, put the title of the publication and its date in parentheses. You can follow the same author-date format to cite web pages, but if you don't know the author or the date, use a shortened version of the web page title and write "n.d." after for "no date." To learn how to cite a quote using MLA or CMS, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Anonymous

Apr 26, 2018

Did this article help you?

Anonymous

Ritchel Noay

Feb 14, 2019

Ava S.

Dec 16, 2018

Bahadr Trker

Bahadr Trker

Mar 10, 2017

Siege Martenes

Siege Martenes

Sep 13, 2016

Am I Smart Quiz

Featured Articles

Reduce Acne Scars with Home Remedies

Trending Articles

How to Do Fourth of July Nails: 40+ Nail Art Ideas

Watch Articles

Make Stamped Metal Jewelry

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

Get all the best how-tos!

Sign up for wikiHow's weekly email newsletter

Table of Contents

Collaboration, information literacy, writing process, quotation – when & how to use quotes in your writing.

  • © 2023 by Joseph M. Moxley

What is a Quotation?

A quotation refers to the precise replication of words or phrases from another source, embedded within one’s own writing or speech. To distinguish these directly borrowed elements from original content, writers use quotation marks. Additionally, they provide citations or footnotes to trace back to the original source, maintaining the integrity of the content.

Related Concepts: Copyright ; Information Has Value ; Inserting or Altering Words in a Direct Quotation ; Intellectual Property ; Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation ; Plagiarism ; Scholarship as a Conversation

Why Does Quotation Matter?

When writers incorporate quotations, they aren’t merely borrowing words. They’re strategically weaving the collective wisdom of past thinkers into their narrative, bolstering their arguments, and enhancing their credibility .

  • Recognition of Scholarly Foundations: Quotations enable writers to highlight and pay respect to the foundational works, insights, and contributions of past scholars, researchers, and theorists. By doing so, they acknowledge the deep roots of knowledge and ideas that have paved the way for present-day discussions and discoveries.
  • Authentic Representation in Discourse: Quotations preserve the precise wording of an author, grounding the reader directly in the original discourse. Unlike paraphrases or summaries , which reinterpret or condense an author’s message, quotations maintain the unaltered essence, subtleties, and nuances of the original statement.
  • Validation: Quotations may function as compelling evidence , fortifying the claims a writer has made in their argument
  • Building upon Established Knowledge: Quotations illuminate existing ideas, paving the way for writers to elaborate on, challenge, or pivot them toward new directions.
  • Preservation of Nuance: Quotations capture the intricate subtleties of unique expressions and poetic language, ensuring that their inherent meaning remains unaltered.
  • Positioning within a Discourse: Through quotations, writers can align or differentiate themselves within specific intellectual landscapes, debates, or traditions.
  • Credibility: Meticulous citation and thoughtful quotation are hallmarks of a diligent writer, revealing their commitment to professional and ethical codes of conduct.

What Do Writers Quote in Academic and Professional Writing

In both academic and professional writing , quotation serves multiple functions:

  • Authenticity and Credibility : Quoting directly from a source provides evidence that the information is based on established research or authoritative accounts . It adds weight to arguments, showcasing that they aren’t merely opinions but are backed by recognized studies or experts in the field.
  • Respect for Copyright & Intellectual Property : Academic and workplace writers, trained in critical literacy skills , follow citation conventions meticulously. This diligence stems from their respect for copyright laws and the broader principles of intellectual property . Properly citing and quoting indicates an acknowledgment of the original creator’s contribution and ensures that their work is not appropriated without due credit.
  • Preserving Original Meaning: Paraphrasing or summarizing can sometimes inadvertently alter the original meaning or nuance of a text. Quoting ensures that the exact words and context provided by the original author are retained.
  • Engaging the Reader: Quotations can be used strategically to capture the reader’s attention. A well-chosen quote can make an article or essay more engaging, invoking curiosity or emphasizing a point.
  • Paying Homage: Quoting acknowledges the original creators of content. It’s a form of respect, indicating that their words have made an impact and are deemed worthy of repetition and recognition.
  • Avoiding Plagiarism : In academic and professional contexts, using someone else’s words or ideas without proper citation is considered unethical and can have serious repercussions. Quoting, accompanied by appropriate citation, ensures that credit is given where it’s due.
  • Enriching Content: Quotations can introduce diverse voices and perspectives into a piece of writing. They can be used to support or counter arguments, provide alternative viewpoints, or illustrate a point more vividly.
  • Encouraging Deeper Engagement: When readers encounter a quotation, especially one from a recognized authority or a profound piece of literature, it prompts them to reflect on its meaning, perhaps encouraging them to seek out the original source and engage more deeply with the topic .
  • Clarifying Complex Ideas: At times, original texts may communicate complex ideas in a way that’s particularly clear or compelling. Quoting such passages can assist the writer in conveying these complexities without the risk of oversimplification.

When Should You Use Quotations in Your Writing?

There are five major reasons for using quotations:

  • Evidential Support: To back up claims or arguments with concrete evidence .
  • Illustrative Purposes: To give specific examples or to illuminate a point .
  • Eloquence and Impact: Sometimes, the original phrasing is so poignant or well-expressed that paraphrasing might dilute its power or clarity.
  • Appeal to Authority: Quoting renowned figures or experts can bolster the credibility of an argument .
  • Attribution : To give credit to the original source or author and avoid plagiarism .

When Should I Quote as Opposed to Paraphrasing or Summarizing?

Quoting, paraphrasing , and summarizing are all essential techniques in writing , allowing writers to incorporate the ideas of others into their work.

In general, however, because readers do not want to read miscellaneous quotations that are thrown together one after another, you are generally better off paraphrasing and summarizing material and using direct quotations sparingly. Students—from middle school, college, through graduate school—sometimes believe loads of quotations bring a great deal of credibility , ethos , to the text . Yet, if too many quotes are provided, the text loses clarity .

Like everything else in life, balance is the key. The problem with texts that use extensive direct quotations is that they tend to take attention away from the writer’s voice , purpose , thesis . If you offer quotations every few lines, your ideas become subordinate to other people’s ideas and voices, which often contradicts your instructor’s reasons for assigning research papers—that is, to learn what you think about a subject.

Below are some general strategies you might consider when determine it’s best to quote, paraphrase, or summarize:

  • Heart of the Argument: When a passage directly encapsulates the essence of the discussion, quoting ensures the original message isn’t diluted.
  • Eloquence & Precision: Some texts are so beautifully articulated or precisely worded that rephrasing would diminish their impact or clarity .
  • Eyewitness Accounts: Dramatic firsthand accounts of events can lose their emotional potency if not presented verbatim.
  • Influential Authorities: Quoting recognized experts or influential figures can lend credibility to an argument .
  • Pertinent Data: Specific statistics or data points, when exactness is crucial, should be quoted directly.
  • Challenging to Rephrase: Some complex ideas or specialized terminologies can be hard to rephrase without altering the original meaning.

Paraphrasing

  • Clarification: When the original text is dense or hard to understand, a paraphrase can clarify the message for the reader.
  • Integration: To weave source material more seamlessly into one’s writing, a paraphrase can be more fluid than a direct quote.
  • Modification: If a writer wishes to emphasize a particular aspect of the source material or adapt it for a different audience , paraphrasing allows for this flexibility.

Summarizing

  • Overview: Summaries are excellent for providing readers with a snapshot of a larger work or body of research.
  • Brevity: When the main gist of a longer text is relevant, but details aren’t necessary, summarizing captures the essence in fewer words.

In all cases, whether quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing, proper attribution is vital to respect the original author’s intellectual property and to provide readers with a clear path to the primary source.

Is It Okay to Edit Quotations for Brevity and Clarity ?

Yes, editing quotations for clarity and brevity is often necessary, especially when you want to emphasize your own voice and perspective in your writing . Utilizing direct quotations from reliable sources enhances your credibility , but extensive quotations can overshadow your voice and detract from your main argument . Responsible writers prioritize both the quality and the quantity of their quotations, selecting only the most pertinent words or phrases to articulate their points effectively.

How Can I Effectively Shorten a Quote?

  • Opt for integrating the part of a quotation that is most impactful, concise, and uniquely expressive.
  • Extract only the key segments of the quote that align with your argument , employing ellipses where you omit sections.
  • Aim for quotations that span no more than two lines.
  • Adhere to the 10% rule: quotations shouldn’t exceed 10% of your paper’s total word count.
  • Always respect guidelines given by instructors or publishers regarding quotation length.

Example: Trimming a Quote for Brevity

Original quote:.

“Hand-washing is especially important for children in child care settings. Young children cared for in groups outside the home are at greater risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, which can easily spread to family members and other contacts. Be sure your child care provider promotes frequent hand-washing or use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Ask whether the children are required to wash their hands several times a day — not just before meals.” (“Hand-washing: Do’s and Don’ts” 2)

Revised Quote with Context :

Parents should be concerned about their child’s hand-washing habits—not only under supervision at home, but when the child is being cared for by others. Experts from the Mayo Clinic staff advise that “[h]and-washing is especially important for children in child care settings. . . . Be sure your child care provider promotes frequent hand-washing” (“Hand-washing: Do’s and Don’ts” 2).

What is the Purpose of Ellipses in Quotations?

Ellipses, represented by three dots ( . . . ), indicate that a portion of the original text has been removed for brevity , relevance, or clarity.

How Should Ellipses Be Formatted Within a Quotation?

  • Spacing : There should be a space before, between, and after each of the dots. Example :“Original thought . . . remains crucial.”

When Is It Appropriate to Use Ellipses in a Quotation?

  • To remove non-essential information that doesn’t alter the quote’s original meaning.
  • To make the quotation fit seamlessly into the writer’s sentence or argument.

Are There Any Cautions to Consider When Using Ellipses?

  • Avoid altering the original intent or meaning of the quotation.
  • Refrain from overusing ellipses; excessive omissions can make the quote unclear or misleading.
  • Do not start or end a quotation with ellipses, unless it’s essential to convey that the quote is part of a larger context.

How Do I Use Ellipses After a Complete Sentence?

If you’re omitting content following a complete sentence, the ellipsis points should come after the sentence’s ending punctuation.

Correct : “He enjoyed the evening. . . . They discussed various topics.”

Incorrect : “He enjoyed the evening. . . They discussed various topics.”

Remember, while ellipses help in streamlining quotations, they should be used judiciously to ensure the integrity of the original text remains intact.

Can I Make Changes to Quotations? If So, How to Do I Alert My Readers to Those Changes?

  • Purpose of Brackets in Quotations : Brackets [ ] are used to insert or alter words in a direct quotation for clarity, explanation, or integration.
  • Example: “It [driving] imposes a heavy procedural workload on cognition…”
  • Reminder: The word ‘driving’ clarifies the pronoun ‘it’.
  • Example: “[D]riving imposes a heavy procedural workload [visual and motor demands] on cognition…”
  • Point: Brackets offer deeper insights on the “procedural workload”.
  • Example: Salvucci and Taatgen propose that “[t]he heavy cognitive workload of driving suggests…”
  • Note: The change from uppercase ‘T’ to lowercase ‘t’ is indicated with brackets.
  • Example: “Drivers [are] increasingly engaging in secondary tasks while driving.”
  • Note: The verb changes from past to present tense, and this change is enclosed in brackets.
  • Incorrect: “It (driving) imposes a heavy procedural workload…”
  • Correct: “It [driving] imposes a heavy procedural workload…”
  • A Key Caution : Don’t misuse brackets to alter the original text’s intent or meaning. Always represent the author’s intent accurately.
  • Do use brackets to enclose inserted words for clarity or brief explanation.
  • Do use brackets to indicate changes in letter case or verb tense.
  • Don’t use parentheses in these scenarios.
  • Never use bracketed material to twist the author’s original meaning.

Remember, the aim is to ensure clarity and respect the original author’s intent while making the quotation fit seamlessly into your writing.

For More Information on Shortening Quotations, See Also:

  • Inserting or Altering Words in a Direct Quotation
  • Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (MLA)
  • Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation (APA)

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2021, December 10). Hand-washing: Do’s and don’ts. Mayo Clinic .

Related Articles:

Block quotations, recommended.

Student engrossed in reading on her laptop, surrounded by a stack of books

Academic Writing – How to Write for the Academic Community

You cannot climb a mountain without a plan / John Read

Structured Revision – How to Revise Your Work

how to quote sources research paper

Professional Writing – How to Write for the Professional World

how to quote sources research paper

Credibility & Authority – How to Be Credible & Authoritative in Research, Speech & Writing

How to Cite Sources in Academic and Professional Writing

Citation Guide – Learn How to Cite Sources in Academic and Professional Writing

Image of a colorful page with a big question in the center, "What is Page Design?"

Page Design – How to Design Messages for Maximum Impact

Suggested edits.

  • Please select the purpose of your message. * - Corrections, Typos, or Edits Technical Support/Problems using the site Advertising with Writing Commons Copyright Issues I am contacting you about something else
  • Your full name
  • Your email address *
  • Page URL needing edits *
  • Phone This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
  • Jennifer Janechek

Featured Articles

Student engrossed in reading on her laptop, surrounded by a stack of books

BibGuru Blog

Be more productive in school

  • Citation Styles

7 Tips for integrating quotes into a research paper [Updated 2023]

Tips for integrating quotes into a research paper

What are the best strategies for integrating quotes into your research paper? This post offers 7 tips for using evidence effectively.

1. Decide on the best quotes

As you're reading through the research that you've gathered for your paper, take note of the quotes that you might like to integrate into your work.

From there, you'll want to decide which are the best and most useful, since you'll likely have more material than you ultimately need. Some information can be paraphrased or left out entirely.

The best quotes express an idea or point in a way that perfectly captures the situation, concept, or thought. Keep this in mind as you decide which quotes to integrate into your paper.

2. Create quote sandwiches

How do you integrate a quote? You need to "sandwich" your quote within your own words. Never simply plop a quote into your work and assume that your reader will understand its significance. Instead, lead into the quote with your own words and then close it by providing analysis.

Here's an example of a quote sandwich:

In their 2016 study on transportation planning and quality of life, Lee and Sener argue that "efforts to incorporate health [into transportation planning] have primarily been framed from a physical health perspective rather than considering broader QOL [quality of life] impacts." Although planners have consistently addressed physical health and well-being in transportation plans, they have not necessarily factored in how mental and social health contributes to quality of life. Put differently, transportation planning has traditionally utilized a limited definition of quality of life and this has necessarily impacted data on the relationship between public transit and quality of life.

4. Use block quotes sparingly

Unless you're writing a literary analysis in which you need to closely read large sections of texts, you should use block quotes sparingly.

Typically, for every quote that you use, you need to supply analysis that is at least as long as the quote itself. So, if you use a block quote, you'll need to provide enough substantive analysis to justify the use of a longer quote.

3. Segment longer quotes

To avoid using too many block quotes, you can segment longer quotes into shorter snippets or sentences. Excise the key words or phrases from the quote and then sandwich those within your own words.

Alternately, you can skip parts of longer quotes by removing material and substituting an ellipsis [...]. Here's an example of both quote segments and ellipsis:

“The blank spaces of Renaissance books,” Sherman explains, “were used to record not just comments on the text but penmanship exercises, prayers, recipes, popular poetry, [...] and other glimpses of the world in which they circulated” (15).

5. Provide adequate analysis

Every quote that you use needs to be accompanied by thorough analysis. If you're writing a literature paper , you'll need to provide a close reading of the quotes that you've included from literary texts.

For other types of papers, you might provide an analysis of what the quote said, but you'll also want to consider how that quote fits into your broader argument.

6. Make your quotes talk to each other

The point of utilizing quotes in your research is not simply to provide evidence in support of your main points. Quotes also represent significant instances of an ongoing scholarly conversation. As a result, you should make your quotes talk to each other.

You might do this in a formal way through a literature review or state-of-the-field, but you can also consider throughout your paper how different pieces of evidence reflect patterns, points of comparison, or divergences in the research landscape. Here's an example:

Elizabeth Patton, in her research on Catholic women’s “bookscapes,” contends that the staunchest Catholic families maintained textual networks in which they circulated books that were banned in Protestant England, including copies of medieval devotional manuscripts. Likewise, Jenna Lay claims that “Catholic women resisted any easy demarcation between a Catholic medieval past and a Protestant, reformed present in both their religious practices and their print and manuscript books,” an argument that can be extended to include entire Catholic families, as I will explore below (16). However, despite the fact that scholars such as Patton, Lay, and Jennifer Summit have argued that “we stand to learn much when we determine […] whether the early modern collector of a medieval devotional book was a Catholic or Protestant,” few studies have explored in any depth how Catholics used their books in the post-Reformation period.

7. Include correct in-text citations

If you are integrating direct quotes into your research paper, you'll need to include in-text citations that give proper credit for the borrowed material.

You can use BibGuru's citation generator to create your in-text citations and copy them to your document. Be sure to consult your assignment guidelines , or your instructor, to find out what citation style is required.

The bottom line

Integrating quotes into your paper can be overwhelming, especially if you are writing a longer paper. However, if you plan ahead and follow the above tips, you'll be able to incorporate evidence effectively.

Frequently Asked Questions about class presentations

To integrate quotes into your essay, create a quote sandwich. That is, always lead into a quote with your own words and then provide analysis after the quote.

You can integrate a long quote into your paper in one of two ways: through block quotes or by breaking quotes up into smaller segments.

To skip part of a quote, simply remove the unwanted text and substitute an ellipsis like this: [...]. Be sure that the statement retains its meaning and logic.

If you want to end a quote before its formal punctuation, you can simply provide a full stop or other ending punctuation where you would like to quote to end. However, make sure that the statement still makes sense in relation to the sentences and/or phrases that occur before and after it.

All borrowed quotes need accompanying in-text citations. You should consult your assignment guidelines, class syllabus, or instructor to find out which citation style is required. Use BibGuru's citation generator to create in-text citations and copy them to your document.

How to write a research paper

Make your life easier with our productivity and writing resources.

For students and teachers.

American Psychological Association

Quotations From Research Participants

Because quotations from research participants are part of your original research, do not include a reference list entry for them in the reference list and do not treat them as personal communications.

For the formatting, follow the same guidelines as for other quotations :

  • Present a quotation of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks within the text.
  • Present a quotation of 40 words or more in a block quotation indented below the text.

State in the text that the quotations are from participants, as in this example:

In focus group discussions, participants described their postretirement experiences, including the emotions associated with leaving work and its affective and practical implications. “Rafael” (64 years old, retired pilot) mentioned several difficulties associated with retirement, including feeling like he was “in a void without purpose . . . it took several months to develop new interests that motivated [him] each day.” Several other participants agreed, describing the entrance into retirement as “confusing,” “lonely,” “purposeless,” and “boring.” In contrast, others described the sense of “balance” and “relaxation” retirement brought to their lives.

Quotations from research participants are covered in the seventh edition APA Style Publication Manual Section 8.36

how to quote sources research paper

Ethical considerations when quoting participants

When quoting research participants, abide by any ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity agreed to between you and your participants during the consent or assent process. Take care to obtain and respect participants’ consent to have their information included in your report. To disguise participant information, you may need to

  • assign pseudonyms to participants,
  • obscure identifying information, and/or
  • present aggregate information.

Agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity may also extend to other sources related to your methodology (e.g., quoting a school policy document when conducting a case study at a school). In that case, you might need to employ similar strategies (e.g., rather than referring to a school by name, refer to “an elementary school in Atlanta, Georgia”).

For detailed discussion of ethical considerations for sharing data and protecting confidentiality in your research, see Sections 1.14, 1.15, and 1.19 of the Publication Manual .

'ZDNET Recommends': What exactly does it mean?

ZDNET's recommendations are based on many hours of testing, research, and comparison shopping. We gather data from the best available sources, including vendor and retailer listings as well as other relevant and independent reviews sites. And we pore over customer reviews to find out what matters to real people who already own and use the products and services we’re assessing.

When you click through from our site to a retailer and buy a product or service, we may earn affiliate commissions. This helps support our work, but does not affect what we cover or how, and it does not affect the price you pay. Neither ZDNET nor the author are compensated for these independent reviews. Indeed, we follow strict guidelines that ensure our editorial content is never influenced by advertisers.

ZDNET's editorial team writes on behalf of you, our reader. Our goal is to deliver the most accurate information and the most knowledgeable advice possible in order to help you make smarter buying decisions on tech gear and a wide array of products and services. Our editors thoroughly review and fact-check every article to ensure that our content meets the highest standards. If we have made an error or published misleading information, we will correct or clarify the article. If you see inaccuracies in our content, please report the mistake via this form .

How to make ChatGPT provide sources and citations

david-gewirtz

One of the biggest complaints about ChatGPT is that it provides information that is difficult to check for accuracy. Those complaints exist because ChatGPT doesn't provide the sources, footnotes, or links from which it derived the information in its answers.

While that is true for the GPT-3.5 model, GPT-4 and GPT-4o  provide more citation resources. While GPT-4 is only for paid subscribers, GPT-4o is available to both free and paid subscribers, although free users get fewer citations and less detail than users with a ChatGPT Plus subscription .

Also:  4 things Claude AI can do that ChatGPT can't  

Here's how ChatGPT describes the approach: "GPT-4o in free mode provides basic and essential citations, focusing on quick and concise references to ensure information is traceable. In contrast, GPT-4o in paid mode offers enhanced, detailed, and frequent citations, including multiple sources and contextual annotations to provide comprehensive verification and understanding of the information. This ensures a robust and reliable experience, especially beneficial for users requiring in-depth information and thorough source verification."

Even with the provided citations in GPT-4o, there are ways to improve your results.

1. Write a query and ask ChatGPT

To start, you need to ask ChatGPT something that needs sources or citations. I've found it's better to ask a question with a longer answer, so there's more "meat" for ChatGPT to chew on. 

Also: The best AI chatbots: ChatGPT and other interesting alternatives to try

Keep in mind that ChatGPT can't provide any information after January 2022 for GPT-3.5, April 2023 for GPT-4, and October 2023 for GPT-4o, and requests for information pre-internet (say, for a paper on Ronald Reagan's presidency) will have far fewer available sources.

Here's an example of a prompt I wrote on a topic that I worked on a lot when I was in grad school:

Describe the learning theories of cognitivism, behaviorism, and constructivism

2. Ask ChatGPT to provide sources

This is where a bit of prompt engineering comes in. A good starting point is with this query:

Please provide sources for the previous answer

I've found that this prompt often provides offline sources, books, papers, etc. The problem with offline sources is you can't check their veracity. Still, it's a starting point. A better query is this:

Please provide URL sources

This prompt specifically tells ChatGPT that you want clickable links to sources. You can also tweak this prompt by asking for a specific quantity of sources, although your mileage might vary in terms of how many you get back:

Please provide 10 URL sources

3. Push ChatGPT to give you higher-quality sources

Most large language models  respond well to detail and specificity . So if you're asking for sources, you can push for higher-quality sources. You'll need to specify that you need reliable and accurate sources. While this approach won't necessarily work, it may remind the AI chatbot to give you more useful responses. For example:

Please provide me with reputable sources to support my argument on... (whatever the topic is you're looking at)

You can also tell ChatGPT the kinds of sources you want. If you're looking for scholarly articles, peer-reviewed journals, books, or authoritative websites, mention these preferences explicitly. For example:

Please recommend peer-reviewed journals that discuss... (and here, repeat what you discussed earlier in your conversation)

When dealing with abstract concepts or theories, request that ChatGPT provide a conceptual framework and real-world examples. Here's an example:

Can you describe the principles of Vygotsky's Social Development Theory and provide real-world examples where these principles were applied, including sources for these examples?

This approach gives you a theoretical explanation and practical instances to trace the original sources or case studies.

Also: Two ways you can build custom AI assistants with GPT-4o

Another idea is to use sources that don't have link rot (that is, they're no longer online at the URL that ChatGPT might know). Be careful with this idea, though, because ChatGPT doesn't know about things after January 2022 for GPT-3.5, April 2023 for GPT-4, and October 2023 for GPT-4o. So, while you might be tempted to use a prompt like this:

Please provide me with sources published within the past five years.

Instead, consider using a prompt like this:

Please provide sources published from 2019 through April 2023.

And, as always, don't assume that whatever output ChatGPT gives you is accurate. It's still quite possible the AI will completely fabricate answers, even to the point of making up the names of what seem like academic journals. It's a sometimes helpful tool, but it's also  a fibber .

4. Attempt to verify/validate the provided sources

Keep this golden rule in mind about ChatGPT-provided sources: ChatGPT is more often wrong than right .

Across the many times I've asked ChatGPT for URL sources, roughly half were just plain bad links. Another 25% or more of the links went to topics completely or somewhat unrelated to the one I was trying to source. GPT-4 and GPT-4o are slightly more reliable, but not by much.

Also: How to use ChatGPT: Everything you need to know

For example, I asked for sources on a backgrounder for the phrase "trust but verify,"  generally popularized by US President Ronald Reagan. I got a lot of sources back, but most didn't exist. I got some back that correctly took me to active pages on the Reagan Presidential Library site, but the page topic had nothing to do with the phrase.

I had better luck with my learning theory question from step 1. There, I got back offline texts from people I knew from my studies who had worked on those theories. I also got back URLs. Once again, only about two in 10 worked or were accurate.

Also:  What does GPT stand for? Understanding GPT-3.5, GPT-4, GPT-4o, and more

Don't despair. The idea isn't to expect ChatGPT to provide sources that you can immediately use. If you instead think of ChatGPT as a research assistant, it will give you some great starting places. Use the names of the articles (which may be completely fake or just not accessible) and drop them into Google. That process will give you some interesting search queries that probably lead to interesting material that can legitimately go into your research.

Also, keep in mind that you're not limited to using ChatGPT. Don't forget all the tools available to researchers and students. Do your own web searches. Check with primary sources and subject-matter experts if they're available. If you're in school, you can even ask your friendly neighborhood librarian for help.

Also:  How to use ChatGPT to create an app

Don't forget that there are many excellent traditional sources. For example, Google Scholar and JSTOR  provide access to a wide range of academically acceptable resources you can cite with reasonable confidence.

One final point: if you merely cut and paste ChatGPT sources into your research, you're likely to get stung. Use the AI for clues, not as a way to avoid the real work of research.

How do you put sources in APA format? 

APA style is a citation style that's often required in academic programs. APA stands for American Psychological Association. I've often thought they invented these style rules to get more customers. The definitive starting point for APA style is the Purdue OWL , which provides a wide range of style guidelines.

Also:   GPT-3.5 vs GPT-4: Is ChatGPT Plus worth its subscription fee?

Be careful: online style formatters might not do a complete job, and you may get your work returned by your professor. It pays to do the work yourself -- and be careful doing it.

How can I make ChatGPT provide more reliable sources for its responses?

This is a good question. I have found that sometimes -- sometimes -- if you ask ChatGPT to give you more sources or re-ask for sources, it will give you new listings. If you tell ChatGPT the sources it provided were erroneous, it will sometimes give you better ones. The bot may also apologize and give excuses. Another approach is to re-ask your original question with a different focus or direction, and then ask for sources for the new answer.

Also: How to access, install, and use AI ChatGPT-4 plugins

Once again, my best advice is to avoid treating ChatGPT as a tool that writes for you and more as a writing assistant. Asking for sources to cut and paste a ChatGPT response is pretty much plagiarism. That said, using ChatGPT's responses, and any sources you can tease out, as clues for further research and writing is a legitimate way to use this tool.

Why are ChatGPT sources often so wrong? 

For some links, it's just link rot. Some links may have changed, since many sources are more than three years old. Other sources are of indeterminate age. Since we don't have a full listing of ChatGPT's sources, it's impossible to tell how valid they are or were. 

Also:   How does ChatGPT actually work?  

Since ChatGPT was trained mostly without human supervision , we know that most of its sources weren't vetted and could be wrong, made up, or completely non-existent.

Trust, but verify.

You can follow my day-to-day project updates on social media. Be sure to subscribe to my weekly update newsletter , and follow me on Twitter/X at @DavidGewirtz , on Facebook at Facebook.com/DavidGewirtz , on Instagram at Instagram.com/DavidGewirtz , and on YouTube at YouTube.com/DavidGewirtzTV .

More on AI tools

If you want a career in ai, start with these 5 steps, 5 ways amazon can make an ai-powered alexa subscription worth the cost, how to watch the 2024 summer olympics: all your streaming options.

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Citing sources
  • How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples

Published on March 5, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on January 17, 2024.

To cite a page from a website, you need a short in-text citation and a corresponding reference stating the author’s name, the date of publication, the title of the page, the website name, and the URL.

This information is presented differently in different citation styles. APA , MLA , and Chicago are the most commonly used styles.

Use the interactive example generator below to explore APA and MLA website citations.

Note that the format is slightly different for citing YouTube and other online video platforms, or for citing an image .

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

Citing a website in mla style, citing a website in apa style, citing a website in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.

An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL.

The in-text citation usually just lists the author’s name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to locate the specific passage. Don’t use paragraph numbers unless they’re specifically numbered on the page.

MLA format Author last name, First name. “Page Title.” , Day Month Year, URL.
Brice, Makini. “U.S. Senate Expected to Begin Debating Coronavirus Package on Thursday.” , 4 March 2021, www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-congress/u-s-senate-expected-to-begin-debating-coronavirus-package-on-thursday-idUSKBN2AW18U.
(Brice)

The same format is used for blog posts and online articles from newspapers and magazines.

You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to generate your website citations.

Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr

Citing a whole website.

When you cite an entire website rather than a specific page, include the author if one can be identified for the whole site (e.g. for a single-authored blog). Otherwise, just start with the site name.

List the copyright date displayed on the site; if there isn’t one, provide an access date after the URL.

MLA format Author last name, First name. . Year or Year range, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.
. www.scribbr.com. Accessed 4 March 2021.
( )

Webpages with no author or date

When no author is listed, cite the organization as author only if it differs from the website name.

If the organization name is also the website name, start the Works Cited entry with the title instead, and use a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation.

When no publication date is listed, leave it out and include an access date at the end instead.

MLA format Organization Name. “Page Title.” , URL. Accessed Day Month Year.
“Citing Sources in Academic Writing.” . www.scribbr.com/category/citing-sources/. Accessed 4 March 2021.
(“Citing Sources”)

Don't submit your assignments before you do this

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students. Free citation check included.

how to quote sources research paper

Try for free

An APA reference for a webpage lists the author’s last name and initials, the full date of publication, the title of the page (in italics), the website name (in plain text), and the URL.

The in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the year. If it’s a long page, you may include a locator to identify the quote or paraphrase (e.g. a paragraph number and/or section title).

APA format Author last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). . Website Name. URL
Brice, M. (2021, March 4). . Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-congress/u-s-senate-expected-to-begin-debating-coronavirus-package-on-thursday-idUSKBN2AW18U
(Brice, 2021, para. 6)

Note that a general reference to an entire website doesn’t require a citation in APA Style; just include the URL in parentheses after you mention the site.

You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to create your webpage citations. Search for a URL to retrieve the details.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Blog posts and online articles.

Blog posts follow a slightly different format: the title of the post is not italicized, and the name of the blog is.

The same format is used for online newspaper and magazine articles—but not for articles from news sites like Reuters and BBC News (see the previous example).

APA format Author last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. . URL
McKenna, J. (2021, March 3). Assisted reproduction science could be a lifeline for koalas. . https://jmckenna.scienceblog.com/2021/03/03/assisted-reproduction-science-could-be-a-lifeline-for-koalas/
(McKenna, 2021)

When a page has no author specified, list the name of the organization that created it instead (and omit it later if it’s the same as the website name).

When it doesn’t list a date of publication, use “n.d.” in place of the date. You can also include an access date if the page seems likely to change over time.

APA format Organization Name. (n.d.). . Website Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Scribbr. (n.d.). . Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://www.scribbr.com/category/citing-sources/
(Scribbr, n.d.)

In Chicago notes and bibliography style, footnotes are used to cite sources. They refer to a bibliography at the end that lists all your sources in full.

A Chicago bibliography entry for a website lists the author’s name, the page title (in quotation marks), the website name, the publication date, and the URL.

Chicago format Author last name, First name. “Page Title.” Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.
Brice, Makini. “U.S. Senate Expected to Begin Debating Coronavirus Package on Thursday.” Reuters. March 4, 2021. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-congress/u-s-senate-expected-to-begin-debating-coronavirus-package-on-thursday-idUSKBN2AW18U.
1. Makini Brice, “U.S. Senate Expected to Begin Debating Coronavirus Package on Thursday,” Reuters, March 4, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-congress/u-s-senate-expected-to-begin-debating-coronavirus-package-on-thursday-idUSKBN2AW18U.

2. Brice, “Coronavirus Package.”

Chicago also has an alternative author-date citation style . Examples of website citations in this style can be found here .

For blog posts and online articles from newspapers, the name of the publication is italicized. For a blog post, you should also add the word “blog” in parentheses, unless it’s already part of the blog’s name.

Chicago format Author last name, First name. “Page Title.” (blog). Month Day, Year. URL.
McKenna, Jarrod. “Assisted Reproduction Science Could Be a Lifeline for Koalas.” . March 3, 2021. https://jmckenna.scienceblog.com/2021/03/03/assisted-reproduction-science-could-be-a-lifeline-for-koalas/.
1. Jarrod McKenna, “Assisted Reproduction Science Could Be a Lifeline for Koalas,”  , March 3, 2021, https://jmckenna.scienceblog.com/2021/03/03/assisted-reproduction-science-could-be-a-lifeline-for-koalas/.

2. McKenna, “Assisted Reproduction.”

When a web source doesn’t list an author , you can usually begin your bibliography entry and short note with the name of the organization responsible. Don’t repeat it later if it’s also the name of the website. A full note should begin with the title instead.

When no publication or revision date is shown, include an access date instead in your bibliography entry.

Chicago format Organization Name. “Page Title.” Website Name. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.
Scribbr. “Citing Sources in Academic Writing.” Accessed March 4, 2021. https://www.scribbr.com/category/citing-sources/.
1. “Citing Sources in Academic Writing,” Scribbr, accessed March 4, 2021, https://www.scribbr.com/category/citing-sources/.

2. Scribbr, “Citing Sources.”

The main elements included in website citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the date of publication, the page title, the website name, and the URL. The information is presented differently in each style.

In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.

If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:

  • In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
  • In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.

If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.

When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)

In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.

For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2024, January 17). How to Cite a Website | MLA, APA & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved July 4, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-website/

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, how to cite an image | photographs, figures, diagrams, how to cite a lecture | apa, mla & chicago examples, how to cite a youtube video | mla, apa & chicago, scribbr apa citation checker.

An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!

how to quote sources research paper

Suggestions or feedback?

MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • Machine learning
  • Social justice
  • Black holes
  • Classes and programs

Departments

  • Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • Brain and Cognitive Sciences
  • Architecture
  • Political Science
  • Mechanical Engineering

Centers, Labs, & Programs

  • Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL)
  • Picower Institute for Learning and Memory
  • Lincoln Laboratory
  • School of Architecture + Planning
  • School of Engineering
  • School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences
  • Sloan School of Management
  • School of Science
  • MIT Schwarzman College of Computing

Study reveals why AI models that analyze medical images can be biased

Press contact :.

X-ray images

Previous image Next image

Artificial intelligence models often play a role in medical diagnoses, especially when it comes to analyzing images such as X-rays. However, studies have found that these models don’t always perform well across all demographic groups, usually faring worse on women and people of color.

These models have also been shown to develop some surprising abilities. In 2022, MIT researchers reported that AI models can make accurate predictions about a patient’s race from their chest X-rays — something that the most skilled radiologists can’t do.

That research team has now found that the models that are most accurate at making demographic predictions also show the biggest “fairness gaps” — that is, discrepancies in their ability to accurately diagnose images of people of different races or genders. The findings suggest that these models may be using “demographic shortcuts” when making their diagnostic evaluations, which lead to incorrect results for women, Black people, and other groups, the researchers say.

“It’s well-established that high-capacity machine-learning models are good predictors of human demographics such as self-reported race or sex or age. This paper re-demonstrates that capacity, and then links that capacity to the lack of performance across different groups, which has never been done,” says Marzyeh Ghassemi, an MIT associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science, a member of MIT’s Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, and the senior author of the study.

The researchers also found that they could retrain the models in a way that improves their fairness. However, their approached to “debiasing” worked best when the models were tested on the same types of patients they were trained on, such as patients from the same hospital. When these models were applied to patients from different hospitals, the fairness gaps reappeared.

“I think the main takeaways are, first, you should thoroughly evaluate any external models on your own data because any fairness guarantees that model developers provide on their training data may not transfer to your population. Second, whenever sufficient data is available, you should train models on your own data,” says Haoran Zhang, an MIT graduate student and one of the lead authors of the new paper. MIT graduate student Yuzhe Yang is also a lead author of the paper, which appears today in Nature Medicine . Judy Gichoya, an associate professor of radiology and imaging sciences at Emory University School of Medicine, and Dina Katabi, the Thuan and Nicole Pham Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, are also authors of the paper.

Removing bias

As of May 2024, the FDA has approved 882 AI-enabled medical devices, with 671 of them designed to be used in radiology. Since 2022, when Ghassemi and her colleagues showed that these diagnostic models can accurately predict race, they and other researchers have shown that such models are also very good at predicting gender and age, even though the models are not trained on those tasks.

“Many popular machine learning models have superhuman demographic prediction capacity — radiologists cannot detect self-reported race from a chest X-ray,” Ghassemi says. “These are models that are good at predicting disease, but during training are learning to predict other things that may not be desirable.”

In this study, the researchers set out to explore why these models don’t work as well for certain groups. In particular, they wanted to see if the models were using demographic shortcuts to make predictions that ended up being less accurate for some groups. These shortcuts can arise in AI models when they use demographic attributes to determine whether a medical condition is present, instead of relying on other features of the images.

Using publicly available chest X-ray datasets from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, the researchers trained models to predict whether patients had one of three different medical conditions: fluid buildup in the lungs, collapsed lung, or enlargement of the heart. Then, they tested the models on X-rays that were held out from the training data.

Overall, the models performed well, but most of them displayed “fairness gaps” — that is, discrepancies between accuracy rates for men and women, and for white and Black patients.

The models were also able to predict the gender, race, and age of the X-ray subjects. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between each model’s accuracy in making demographic predictions and the size of its fairness gap. This suggests that the models may be using demographic categorizations as a shortcut to make their disease predictions.

The researchers then tried to reduce the fairness gaps using two types of strategies. For one set of models, they trained them to optimize “subgroup robustness,” meaning that the models are rewarded for having better performance on the subgroup for which they have the worst performance, and penalized if their error rate for one group is higher than the others.

In another set of models, the researchers forced them to remove any demographic information from the images, using “group adversarial” approaches. Both strategies worked fairly well, the researchers found.

“For in-distribution data, you can use existing state-of-the-art methods to reduce fairness gaps without making significant trade-offs in overall performance,” Ghassemi says. “Subgroup robustness methods force models to be sensitive to mispredicting a specific group, and group adversarial methods try to remove group information completely.”

Not always fairer

However, those approaches only worked when the models were tested on data from the same types of patients that they were trained on — for example, only patients from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center dataset.

When the researchers tested the models that had been “debiased” using the BIDMC data to analyze patients from five other hospital datasets, they found that the models’ overall accuracy remained high, but some of them exhibited large fairness gaps.

“If you debias the model in one set of patients, that fairness does not necessarily hold as you move to a new set of patients from a different hospital in a different location,” Zhang says.

This is worrisome because in many cases, hospitals use models that have been developed on data from other hospitals, especially in cases where an off-the-shelf model is purchased, the researchers say.

“We found that even state-of-the-art models which are optimally performant in data similar to their training sets are not optimal — that is, they do not make the best trade-off between overall and subgroup performance — in novel settings,” Ghassemi says. “Unfortunately, this is actually how a model is likely to be deployed. Most models are trained and validated with data from one hospital, or one source, and then deployed widely.”

The researchers found that the models that were debiased using group adversarial approaches showed slightly more fairness when tested on new patient groups than those debiased with subgroup robustness methods. They now plan to try to develop and test additional methods to see if they can create models that do a better job of making fair predictions on new datasets.

The findings suggest that hospitals that use these types of AI models should evaluate them on their own patient population before beginning to use them, to make sure they aren’t giving inaccurate results for certain groups.

The research was funded by a Google Research Scholar Award, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, RSNA Health Disparities, the Lacuna Fund, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Share this news article on:

Related links.

  • Marzyeh Ghassemi
  • Institute for Medical Engineering and Science
  • Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems
  • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

Related Topics

  • Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES)
  • Electrical engineering and computer science (EECS)
  • Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS)
  • Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL)

Related Articles

Eight multicolor verticle stripes, each containing an illustration of a partial face of varying ethnicities.

How machine-learning models can amplify inequities in medical diagnosis and treatment

A black box with question marks coming out of it

In bias we trust?

Photo of three desktop monitors displaying brain scans, with people in the background examining more scans on a wall-mounted monitor

Artificial intelligence predicts patients’ race from their medical images

human dataset graphic

Injecting fairness into machine-learning models

Previous item Next item

More MIT News

Illustrated silhouettes of people's heads, with thought and speech bubbles above

What is language for?

Read full story →

Thomas Varnish poses in the middle of PUFFIN, a large, stainless steel experimental facility.

Studying astrophysically relevant plasma physics

Al Oppenheim

Signal processing: How did we get to where we’re going?

Books on a shelf spelling out MIT for MIT’s Summer Reading 2024 list

Summer 2024 reading from MIT

Plastic bottles crunched into stacked bricks.

How to increase the rate of plastics recycling

Raymond Wang

The rules of the game

  • More news on MIT News homepage →

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA

  • Map (opens in new window)
  • Events (opens in new window)
  • People (opens in new window)
  • Careers (opens in new window)
  • Accessibility
  • Social Media Hub
  • MIT on Facebook
  • MIT on YouTube
  • MIT on Instagram

Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Volume 30, Number 8—August 2024

Research Letter

Persistence of influenza h5n1 and h1n1 viruses in unpasteurized milk on milking unit surfaces.

Suggested citation for this article

Examining the persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) from cattle and human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic viruses in unpasteurized milk revealed that both remain infectious on milking equipment materials for several hours. Those findings highlight the risk for H5N1 virus transmission to humans from contaminated surfaces during the milking process.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus was detected in US domestic dairy cattle in late March 2024, after which it spread to herds across multiple states and resulted in at least 3 confirmed human infections ( 1 ). Assessment of milk from infected dairy cows indicated that unpasteurized milk contained high levels of infectious influenza virus ( 2 ; L.C. Caserta et al., unpub. data, https://doi.org/10.1101/2024.05.22.595317 ). Exposure of dairy farm workers to contaminated unpasteurized milk during the milking process could lead to increased human H5 virus infections. Such infections could enable H5 viruses to adapt through viral evolution within humans and gain the capability for human-to-human transmission.

Illustration of milking unit surfaces tested in a study of persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk. Before attaching the milking unit (claw), a dairy worker disinfects the teat ends, performs forestripping of each teat to detect abnormal milk, and then wipes each teat with a clean dry towel. Workers then attach the milking unit to the cow teats. A pulsation system opens and closes the rubber inflation liner (at left) around the teat to massage it, mimicking a human stripping action. A vacuum pump is controlled by a variable speed drive and adjusts the suction to allow milk to flow down a pipeline away from the cow into a bulk tank or directly onto a truck. Additional sources of exposure to humans include handling of raw unpasteurized milk collected separately from sick cows or during the pasteurization process. Schematic created in BioRender (https://www.biorender.com).

Figure 1 . Illustration of milking unit surfaces tested in a study of persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk. Before attaching the milking unit (claw), a dairy worker disinfects...

The milking process is primarily automated and uses vacuum units, commonly referred to as clusters or claws, which are attached to the dairy cow teats to collect milk ( Figure 1 ) ( 3 ). However, several steps in the milking process require human input, including forestripping, whereby workers manually express the first 3–5 streams of milk from each teat by hand. Forestripping stimulates the teats for optimal milk letdown, improves milk quality by removing bacteria, and provides an opportunity to check for abnormal milk. The forestripping process can result in milk splatter on the floor of the milking parlor and surrounding equipment and production of milk aerosols.

After forestripping, each teat is cleaned and dried by hand before the claw is installed. During milking, a flexible rubber inflation liner housed within the stainless-steel shell of the claw opens to enable the flow of milk and closes to exert pressure on the teat to stop the flow of milk ( Figure 1 ). When the flow of milk decreases to a specific level, the claw automatically releases ( 3 ), at which point residual milk in the inflation liner could spray onto dairy workers, equipment, or the surrounding area. Of note, milking often takes place at human eye level; the human workspace is physically lower than the cows, which increases the potential for infectious milk to contact human workers’ mucus membranes. No eye or respiratory protection is currently required for dairy farm workers, but recommendations have been released ( 4 ).

Influenza virus persistence in unpasteurized milk on surfaces is unclear, but information on virus persistence is critical to understanding viral exposure risk to dairy workers during the milking process. Therefore, we analyzed the persistence of infectious influenza viruses in unpasteurized milk on surfaces commonly found in milking units, such as rubber inflation liners and stainless steel ( Figure 1 ).

For infectious strains, we used influenza A(H5N1) strain A/dairy cattle/TX/8749001/2024 or a surrogate influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza virus strain, A/California/07/2009. We diluted virus 1:10 in raw unpasteurized milk and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control. As described in prior studies ( 5 – 7 ), we pipetted small droplets of diluted virus in milk or PBS onto either stainless steel or rubber inflation liner coupons inside an environmental chamber. We then collected virus samples immediately (time 0) or after 1, 3, or 5 hours to detect infectious virus by endpoint titration using a 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay ( 7 ). To mimic environmental conditions within open-air milking parlors in the Texas panhandle during March–April 2024, when the virus was detected in dairy herds, we conducted persistence studies using 70% relative humidity.

how to quote sources research paper

Figure 2 . Viral titers in a study of persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk on milking unit surfaces. A) Viral titers of bovine A(H5N1) virus diluted 1:10 in...

We observed that the H5N1 cattle virus remained infectious in unpasteurized milk on stainless steel and rubber inflation lining after 1 hour, whereas infectious virus in PBS fell to below the limit of detection after 1 hour ( Figure 2 , panel A). That finding indicates that unpasteurized milk containing H5N1 virus remains infectious on materials within the milking unit. To assess whether a less pathogenic influenza virus could be used as a surrogate to study viral persistence on milking unit materials, we compared viral decay between H5N1 and H1N1 in raw milk over 1 hour on rubber inflation liner and stainless-steel surfaces ( Figure 2 , panel B). The 2 viruses had similar decay rates on both surfaces, suggesting that H1N1 can be used as a surrogate for H5N1 cattle virus in studies of viral persistence in raw milk. Further experiments examining H1N1 infectiousness over longer periods revealed viral persistence in unpasteurized milk on rubber inflation liner for at least 3 hours and on stainless steel for at least 1 hour ( Figure 2 , panel C). Those results indicate that influenza virus is stable in unpasteurized milk and that influenza A virus deposited on milking equipment could remain infectious for >3 hours.

Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that dairy farm workers are at risk for infection with H5N1 virus from surfaces contaminated during the milking process. To reduce H5N1 virus spillover from dairy cows to humans, farms should implement use of personal protective equipment, such as face shields, masks, and eye protection, for workers during milking. In addition, contaminated rubber inflation liners could be responsible for the cattle-to-cattle spread observed on dairy farms. Sanitizing the liners after milking each cow could reduce influenza virus spread between animals on farms and help curb the current outbreak.

Dr. Le Sage is a research assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Her research interests include elucidating the requirements for influenza virus transmission and assessing the pandemic potential of emerging influenza viruses.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Lakdawala lab members, Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response (CEIRR) risk assessment pipeline meeting attendees, Rachel Duron, and Linsey Marr for useful feedback.

This project was funded in part with federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract no. 75N93021C00015 and a National Institutes of Health award (no. UC7AI180311) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supporting the operations of the University of Pittsburgh Regional Biocontainment Laboratory in the Center for Vaccine Research. H5N1 studies were performed in accordance with select agent permit no. 20230320-074008 at the University of Pittsburgh.

This article was preprinted at https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2024.05.22.24307745v1 .

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . H5N1 bird flu: current situation summary [ cited 2024 Jun 13 ]. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-flu-summary.htm
  • Burrough  ER , Magstadt  DR , Petersen  B , Timmermans  SJ , Gauger  PC , Zhang  J , et al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.3.4.4b virus infection in domestic dairy cattle and cats, United States, 2024. Emerg Infect Dis . 2024 ; 30 : 1335 – 43 . DOI PubMed Google Scholar
  • Odorčić  M , Rasmussen  MD , Paulrud  CO , Bruckmaier  RM . Review: Milking machine settings, teat condition and milking efficiency in dairy cows. Animal . 2019 ; 13 ( S1 ): s94 – 9 . DOI PubMed Google Scholar
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Avian influenza (bird flu): reducing risk for people working with or exposed to animals [ cited 2024 Jun 20 ]. https://www.cdc.gov/bird-flu/prevention/worker-protection-ppe.html
  • Qian  Z , Morris  DH , Avery  A , Kormuth  KA , Le Sage  V , Myerburg  MM , et al. Variability in donor lung culture and relative humidity impact the stability of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on nonporous surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol . 2023 ; 89 : e0063323 . DOI PubMed Google Scholar
  • Kormuth  KA , Lin  K , Qian  Z , Myerburg  MM , Marr  LC , Lakdawala  SS . Environmental persistence of influenza viruses is dependent upon virus type and host origin. MSphere . 2019 ; 4 : e00552 – 19 . DOI PubMed Google Scholar
  • Kormuth  KA , Lin  K , Prussin  AJ II , Vejerano  EP , Tiwari  AJ , Cox  SS , et al. Influenza virus infectivity is retained in aerosols and droplets independent of relative humidity. J Infect Dis . 2018 ; 218 : 739 – 47 . DOI PubMed Google Scholar
  • Figure 1 . Illustration of milking unit surfaces tested in a study of persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk. Before attaching the milking unit (claw), a dairy worker...
  • Figure 2 . Viral titers in a study of persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk on milking unit surfaces. A) Viral titers of bovine A(H5N1) virus diluted 1:10...

Suggested citation for this article : Le Sage V, Campbell AJ, Reed DS, Duprex WP, Lakdawala SS. Persistence of influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in unpasteurized milk on milking unit surfaces. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024 Aug [ date cited ]. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3008.240775

DOI: 10.3201/eid3008.240775

Original Publication Date: June 24, 2024

1 These first authors contributed equally to this article.

Table of Contents – Volume 30, Number 8—August 2024

EID Search Options
– Search articles by author and/or keyword.
– Search articles by the topic country.
– Search articles by article type and issue.

Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Seema Lakdawala, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Rd, Rm 3121 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Comment submitted successfully, thank you for your feedback.

There was an unexpected error. Message not sent.

Exit Notification / Disclaimer Policy

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website.

Metric Details

Article views: 1945.

Data is collected weekly and does not include downloads and attachments. View data is from .

What is the Altmetric Attention Score?

The Altmetric Attention Score for a research output provides an indicator of the amount of attention that it has received. The score is derived from an automated algorithm, and represents a weighted count of the amount of attention Altmetric picked up for a research output.

  • Mobile Site
  • Staff Directory
  • Advertise with Ars

Filter by topic

  • Biz & IT
  • Gaming & Culture

Front page layout

automated critic —

Openai’s new “criticgpt” model is trained to criticize gpt-4 outputs, research model catches bugs in ai-generated code, improving human oversight of ai..

Benj Edwards - Jun 27, 2024 7:40 pm UTC

An illustration created by OpenAI.

On Thursday, OpenAI researchers unveiled CriticGPT , a new AI model designed to identify mistakes in code generated by ChatGPT. It aims to enhance the process of making AI systems behave in ways humans want (called "alignment") through Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), which helps human reviewers make large language model (LLM) outputs more accurate.

Further Reading

As outlined in a new research paper called " LLM Critics Help Catch LLM Bugs ," OpenAI created CriticGPT to act as an AI assistant to human trainers who review programming code generated by the ChatGPT AI assistant. CriticGPT—based on the GPT-4 family of LLMS—analyzes the code and points out potential errors, making it easier for humans to spot mistakes that might otherwise go unnoticed. The researchers trained CriticGPT on a dataset of code samples with intentionally inserted bugs, teaching it to recognize and flag various coding errors.

The researchers found that CriticGPT's critiques were preferred by annotators over human critiques in 63 percent of cases involving naturally occurring LLM errors and that human-machine teams using CriticGPT wrote more comprehensive critiques than humans alone while reducing confabulation (hallucination) rates compared to AI-only critiques.

Developing an automated critic

The development of CriticGPT involved training the model on a large number of inputs containing deliberately inserted mistakes. Human trainers were asked to modify code written by ChatGPT, introducing errors and then providing example feedback as if they had discovered these bugs. This process allowed the model to learn how to identify and critique various types of coding errors.

In experiments, CriticGPT demonstrated its ability to catch both inserted bugs and naturally occurring errors in ChatGPT's output. The new model's critiques were preferred by trainers over those generated by ChatGPT itself in 63 percent of cases involving natural bugs (the aforementioned statistic). This preference was partly due to CriticGPT producing fewer unhelpful "nitpicks" and generating fewer false positives, or hallucinated problems.

The researchers also created a new technique they call Force Sampling Beam Search (FSBS). This method helps CriticGPT write more detailed reviews of code. It lets the researchers adjust how thorough CriticGPT is in looking for problems while also controlling how often it might make up issues that don't really exist. They can tweak this balance depending on what they need for different AI training tasks.

Interestingly, the researchers found that CriticGPT's capabilities extend beyond just code review. In their experiments, they applied the model to a subset of ChatGPT training data that had previously been rated as flawless by human annotators. Surprisingly, CriticGPT identified errors in 24 percent of these cases—errors that were subsequently confirmed by human reviewers. OpenAI thinks this demonstrates the model's potential to generalize to non-code tasks and highlights its ability to catch subtle mistakes that even careful human evaluation might miss.

Despite its promising results, like all AI models, CriticGPT has limitations. The model was trained on relatively short ChatGPT answers, which may not fully prepare it for evaluating longer, more complex tasks that future AI systems might tackle. Additionally, while CriticGPT reduces confabulations , it doesn't eliminate them entirely, and human trainers can still make labeling mistakes based on these false outputs.

The research team acknowledges that CriticGPT is most effective at identifying errors that can be pinpointed in one specific location within the code. However, real-world mistakes in AI outputs can often be spread across multiple parts of an answer, presenting a challenge for future model iterations.

OpenAI plans to integrate CriticGPT-like models into its RLHF labeling pipeline, providing its trainers with AI assistance. For OpenAI, it's a step toward developing better tools for evaluating outputs from LLM systems that may be difficult for humans to rate without additional support. However, the researchers caution that even with tools like CriticGPT, extremely complex tasks or responses may still prove challenging for human evaluators—even those assisted by AI.

reader comments

Channel ars technica.

IMAGES

  1. A Guide On Citing Your Sources

    how to quote sources research paper

  2. How to Cite a Research Paper in APA (with Pictures)

    how to quote sources research paper

  3. Research Paper Citing Help

    how to quote sources research paper

  4. How To Cite a Research Paper in 2024: Citation Styles Guide

    how to quote sources research paper

  5. When To Cite Sources In A Research Paper

    how to quote sources research paper

  6. Sample Text Citation Mla

    how to quote sources research paper

VIDEO

  1. How to find Literature Review for Research

  2. "What Is Some Good Advice?" MINDSET Quote

  3. Teacher tells an amazing quote. Your favorite quote in the comments 👇

  4. 33. PROFESSIONAL QUOTES

  5. BEST QUOTE #motivation #mindset #richthoughts #successmotivation #quotes

  6. How to do the quotes on research paper

COMMENTS

  1. How to Quote

    Citing a quote in APA Style. To cite a direct quote in APA, you must include the author's last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use "p."; if it spans a page range, use "pp.". An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative.

  2. Quoting and integrating sources into your paper

    Important guidelines. When integrating a source into your paper, remember to use these three important components: Introductory phrase to the source material: mention the author, date, or any other relevant information when introducing a quote or paraphrase. Source material: a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary with proper citation.

  3. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    APA Citation Basics. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  4. How to Quote Sources

    Maintain Spacing: Keep the spacing consistent with the original text. Cite Source: Include the author's name and publication date either before or after the block quote. Example: Markdown. Smith (2020) highlighted the importance of proper quoting: Quoting sources properly enhances the credibility of your research.

  5. How to Cite Sources

    At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises). Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

  6. How to Quote

    Citing a quote in APA Style. To cite a direct quote in APA, you must include the author's last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use 'p.'; if it spans a page range, use 'pp.'. An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative.

  7. Quotations

    when an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or. when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said). Instructors, programs, editors, and publishers may establish limits on the use of direct quotations. Consult your instructor or editor if you are concerned that you may have too much quoted material in your paper.

  8. MLA Formatting Quotations

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  9. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises). Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

  10. Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: Quotations

    Start the quotation on a new line and indent the entire quotation a half inch from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks. Indicate new paragraphs within the quotation by an additional indent. Follow the final sentence with a parenthetical citation. Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

  11. Quotes, Summaries, & Paraphrases

    Most of the time when you cite a source, you want to summarize or paraphrase. Direct quotations should be used sparingly when the situation meets the criteria above. When you do use direct quotations: Do not take the quote out of context. The author's meaning should not change. Be sure to integrate multiple sources within your text.

  12. How to Cite Sources in APA Citation Format

    3. How to Cite Different Source Types. In-text citation doesn't vary depending on source type, unless the author is unknown. Reference list citations are highly variable depending on the source. How to Cite a Book (Title, not chapter) in APA Format. Book referencing is the most basic style; it matches the template above, minus the URL section.

  13. 5 Ways to Quote in a Research Paper

    1. Know where to place commas and periods. When you're placing a quote inside your essay, you'll likely have to use a comma or period at the end. If you're quoting without giving a citation (because your entire essay is about a single work, for example) commas and periods go inside the quotations marks.

  14. In-Text Citations

    In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any ...

  15. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  16. Citing a Source Within a Source

    Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Klein. You want to cite Klein's article, but you have not read Klein's article itself. Reference list citation. Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007).

  17. 4 Ways to Cite a Quote

    1. Use in-text citations for quotes. Place parentheses with the proper citation inside after directly after quoted material. APA style uses the author-date message.This means that if you write the name of an author you are quoting, you must follow that name with the year of publication in parentheses.

  18. 10.1: When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize

    Choose to summarize instead of paraphrasing when you need to provide a brief overview of a larger text. Summaries let you condense the resource material to draw out particular points, omit unrelated or unimportant points, and simplify how the author conveyed his or her message. The OSU Writing Center has more on paraphrasing and summarizing ...

  19. Quotation

    A quotation refers to the precise replication of words or phrases from another source, embedded within one's own writing or speech. To distinguish these directly borrowed elements from original content, writers use quotation marks. Additionally, they provide citations or footnotes to trace back to the original source, maintaining the ...

  20. PDF Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Sources

    LabSimone A. Fried, TF Spring 2021Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing SourcesThe three most common te. iques for writing with evidence are direct quotes, summarizing, and paraphrasing. Direct qu. tes are probably what most people think of first as a way to use academic evidence. In the U. . we often teach children to support an argument by ...

  21. 7 Tips on integrating quotes into a research paper [Updated 2023

    This post offers 7 tips for using evidence effectively. 1. Decide on the best quotes. As you're reading through the research that you've gathered for your paper, take note of the quotes that you might like to integrate into your work. From there, you'll want to decide which are the best and most useful, since you'll likely have more material ...

  22. Quotations from research participants

    Ethical considerations when quoting participants. When quoting research participants, abide by any ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity agreed to between you and your participants during the consent or assent process. Take care to obtain and respect participants' consent to have their information included in your report.

  23. LibGuides: Using and Evaluating Sources: Introduction

    This is very important. Without naming the source, your friends or parents won't know where you got the information or if that info is worthwhile. Naming a source is also called citing a source, particularly when writing. For more information on citing sources, see our Citing Sources guide.

  24. July 1 Administrative Meeting

    July Administrative Meeting for the Humphreys County Board of Commissioners.

  25. How to make ChatGPT provide sources and citations

    One final point: if you merely cut and paste ChatGPT sources into your research, you're likely to get stung. Use the AI for clues, not as a way to avoid the real work of research. FAQ

  26. Researchers upend AI status quo by eliminating matrix multiplication in

    In the paper, the researchers mention BitNet (the so-called "1-bit" transformer technique that made the rounds as a preprint in October) as an important precursor to their work. According to the ...

  27. How to Cite a Website

    Citing a website in MLA Style. An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL. The in-text citation usually just lists the author's name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to ...

  28. Study reveals why AI models that analyze medical images can be biased

    The research was funded by a Google Research Scholar Award, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, RSNA Health Disparities, the Lacuna Fund, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

  29. Early Release

    The Altmetric Attention Score for a research output provides an indicator of the amount of attention that it has received. The score is derived from an automated algorithm, and represents a weighted count of the amount of attention Altmetric picked up for a research output.

  30. OpenAI's new "CriticGPT" model is trained to criticize GPT-4 outputs

    automated critic — OpenAI's new "CriticGPT" model is trained to criticize GPT-4 outputs Research model catches bugs in AI-generated code, improving human oversight of AI.