China passes law to cut homework pressure on students

Children leave a school in Shekou area of Shenzhen, China

The Reuters Daily Briefing newsletter provides all the news you need to start your day. Sign up here.

Reporting by Steven Bian and Engen Tham in Shanghai; Editing by William Mallard

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles. , opens new tab

People walk past a shop of Swatch in Bern

Wellington Phoenix coach Giancarlo Italiano saw his team hit their pre-season target to open up a six-point gap over nearest rivals Central Coast Mariners on Sunday, less than a week before the A-League's top two meet in a season-defining clash.

Kobayashi Pharmaceutical Co. President Akihiro Kobayashi attends a press conference in Osaka

India rescuing citizens forced into cyber fraud schemes in Cambodia

The Indian government said it was rescuing its citizens who were lured into employment in Cambodia and were being forced to participate in cyber fraud schemes.

Russian President Putin chairs a meeting via video link at a residence outside Moscow

homework cake china

  • China Edition

xi's moments

  • China Daily PDF
  • China Daily E-paper

'Homework outsourcing' booms in China as handicrafts take over schoolwork

By Quan Zhanfu | | Updated: 2024-02-07 22:33

homework cake china

In the wake of an increased focus on quality education and the implementation of the "double reduction" policy, the nature and complexity of homework in preschools, primary, and secondary schools in China have evolved.

Notably, there has been a rise in handicraft assignments, with a new trend emerging — the outsourcing of unfinished assignments by children to their parents. This phenomenon, fueled by limited time and resources, has given rise to a burgeoning industry of "homework outsourcing" on various e-commerce platforms, as reported by Tide News, a news portal based in Zhejiang province, on Tuesday.

A simple search on secondhand trading platforms using the keyword "handicraft homework" reveals numerous products advertised as "handicraft homework outsourcing," covering assignments from preschool to university levels. Pricing for these services is determined by factors such as the time required, material costs, and assignment difficulty, with individual merchants setting their own prices.

Merchants, such as Dou Dou, noted a surge in demand for outsourced handicraft assignments during the winter holiday. Parents are turning to these services to ensure their children submit exceptional work for evaluation and awards. Interestingly, pricing discrepancies for similar tasks on the same e-commerce platform have been observed.

For instance, Dou Dou priced a handicraft dragon made from disposable paper cups at 50 yuan ($7), while another merchant charged 90 yuan for a similar product. Another merchant, Chu Chu, a part-time artisan with a decade of experience in preschool education, has seen a significant influx of orders, particularly for handmade tabloids from elementary school students.

On e-commerce platforms, services offering "outsourced handmade tabloids" have recorded monthly sales ranging from 100 to over 10,000, with prices averaging around 100 yuan per piece.

Xiong Bingqi, a director of the 21st Century Education Research Institute, highlighted two reasons for students outsourcing their homework to parents. First, tasks often exceed students' capabilities and are challenging to complete without parental assistance. Second, the educational significance of the homework becomes blurred.

Xiong emphasized that teachers should clarify the purpose of handicraft homework, emphasizing the importance of the learning process rather than the pursuit of a perfect finished product.

homework cake china

  • International edition
  • Australia edition
  • Europe edition

China has passed a law to spare school students the pressures of homework.

China passes law to reduce ‘twin pressures’ of homework and tutoring on children

Law makes local authorities and parents responsible for ensuring children are spared stress of overwork

China has passed a law to reduce the “twin pressures” of homework and off-site tutoring on children.

The official Xinhua news agency said on Saturday the new law, which has not been published in full, makes local governments responsible for ensuring that the twin pressures are reduced and asks parents to arrange their children’s time to account for reasonable rest and exercise, thereby reducing pressure and avoiding internet overuse.

The law will come into force on January 1 next year. China’s education system requires students to take exams from an early age and culminates in the feared university entrance exam at age 18 known as the “gaokao”, where a single score can determine a child’s life trajectory.

Many parents spend a fortune to enrol their children in the best schools or private lessons, which takes a toll on both their finances and the health of the youngsters.

Reducing the pressure on parents is also seen as a way to encourage Chinese people to have more children as the country’s population ages.

Beijing has exercised a more assertive paternal hand this year, from tacking the addiction of youngsters to online games, deemed a form of “spiritual opium”, to clamping down on “blind” worship of internet celebrities .

China’s parliament said on Monday it would consider legislation to punish parents if their young children exhibit “very bad behaviour” or commit crimes.

In recent months, the education ministry has limited gaming hours for minors, allowing them to play online for one hour on Friday, Saturday and Sunday only.

It has also cut back on homework and banned after-school tutoring for major subjects during the weekend and holidays, concerned about the heavy academic burden on overwhelmed children.

At the same time, China is urging young Chinese men to be less “feminine” and more “manly”.

In its “proposal to prevent the feminisation of male adolescents” issued in December, the education ministry urged schools to promote on-campus sports such as football.

Last year, Si Zefu , a member of a top advisory board called the Chinese people’s political consultative conference national committee, won headlines in China by telling delegates that the “feminization” trend among teenagers, if not checked, would harm the development of China.

The backdrop to Beijing’s drive for what could be called more traditional family values is the country’s growing demographic crisis. The latest census data released in May showed that China’s population growth has plunged to its lowest for almost 60 years despite the scrapping of the decades-long one-child policy several years ago.

The number of people of working and child-rearing age is going into decline. There are fewer young adults than there were 10 years ago, for example, something shown by a 31% drop in marriages from 2013 to 2019.

  • Asia Pacific

Most viewed

homework cake china

  • China Daily PDF
  • China Daily E-paper
  • Cross-Strait
  • Cover Story
  • Environment

Homework burden eases for Chinese students

homework cake china

The amount of time primary and middle school students in China spent on homework fell from 3.03 hours a day in 2016 to 2.87 hours in 2017, but it is still far higher than in other countries, according to a research report.

Experts and parents have called for reasonable amounts of homework and an evaluation system for students based on more than just examinations, while teachers advise parents not to focus on competition.

The report by, a Chinese online education service provider, is based on a survey of 446,836 students in 31 provincial areas, with 56.7 percent from primary schools, 38.6 percent from middle schools, and 8.7 percent from high schools.

The research indicated that it took primary and middle school students less time to finish their homework in 2017 than in 2016. The average time per day decreased to 2.87 hours-2.64 hours for primary school students and 2.94 hours for high school students.

Although the average time fell, it was still more than other countries-twice the global average, in fact.

At the end of 2017, the Ministry of Education introduced a standard for managing schools under the compulsory education period. It demanded that families and schools should cooperate to guarantee 10 hours of sleep for primary students and nine hours of sleep for middle school students.

However, the online education platform's report showed that more than 80 percent of students go to bed later than 10 pm every day.

In 2013, the Ministry of Education also issued a regulation on primary school pupils' homework, saying that there should be no written homework for Grade 1 and 2 students, and less than an hour of written homework for other grades. But the ministry is yet to introduce any rules on homework for middle school students.

Liu Xuchen, 13, is studying at Hefei Shouchun Middle School, Anhui province, and will take the high school entrance examination this summer. Liu said most of her classmates spend nearly four hours on homework every day.

"I feel tired every evening and my homework is for seven subjects, all of which will be tested in the exam," Liu said.

Those seven subjects are Chinese, math, English, physics, chemistry, political education and history. But not all the subjects carry the same weight in the examination. Chinese, math and English have the highest scores of 150 points while the others range from 60 to 90.

Another problem Liu faces is the difficulty of her homework. She said a hard math question could take her nearly 30 minutes.

According to the report, 85 percent of students experience negative emotions when doing their homework, including getting upset and losing their temper. And 76 percent of parents argue with their children when helping them with their homework.

"I think teachers should create a balance between the number of hard and easy questions," Liu said.

Unlike Liu's school in Anhui, schools in other areas assign less homework.

Yuan Hairong is a teacher with almost 20 years of experience at the Experimental High School Attached to Beijing Normal University."Most of our students who will take the high school entrance exam this year spend two and a half hours at most on homework every day," he said.

Unlike Anhui, Beijing's exam only tests five subjects-political education and history are not included.

"But many parents send their children to tutorial classes for those five subjects, which also occupies a lot of time," Yuan added. "Many parents don't want to see their children left behind, so they arrange extra classes and homework."

Chu Zhaohui, a researcher at the National Institute of Education Sciences, said it's the single evaluation system for students that leads to the homework burden. "The schools only assess students' development using scores and ranks.

"The government and society must try to enrich the assessment system, which would help students find advantages in different ways rather than focusing only on passing examinations."

Zhang Haoqiang, principal of the Hangzhou Shengli Experimental School in Zhejiang province, said: "We should focus on reducing redundant homework. After all, homework is a key method to consolidate knowledge.

"We cannot ease students' homework burden by simply reducing the quantity, but by improving the homework quality so that they can achieve more through doing less homework."

  • Coastal cities in Shandong blanketed in deep snowfall
  • Revision to Charity Law emphasizes need for transparency
  • 180 officials held accountable in China's latest environmental inspections
  • Chinese police shut down 34,000 online accounts for spreading rumors
  • Minister vows differentiated measures to meet housing demand, stabilize market
  • 'Tent school' established to support students in earthquake-relocation site in Gansu

homework cake china

  • Account details
  • Newsletters
  • Group subscription

China passes law to cut homework pressure on students

Local governments will be responsible for reducing burden on children

SHANGHAI (Reuters) -- China has passed an education law that seeks to cut the "twin pressures" of homework and off-site tutoring in core subjects, the official Xinhua news agency said on Saturday.

Beijing has exercised a more assertive paternal hand this year, from tacking the addiction of youngsters to online games, deemed a form of "spiritual opium", to clamping down on "blind" worship of internet celebrities.

Leave them kids alone: Parents tire of China's world-beating education system

China limits online gaming to 3 hours a week for schoolchildren, china cities push 3-child policy with cash and leave, china to set prices for after-school tutoring, china's cram schools scramble out of tutoring as crackdown looms, china education stocks plunge as analysts slash forecasts, latest on politics, malaysia arrests three suspected of supplying israeli man with firearms, japan plans 2-week shelters on islands near taiwan, japan's kishida calls it appropriate for boj to keep easy policy, sponsored content, about sponsored content this content was commissioned by nikkei's global business bureau..

Nikkei Asian Review, now known as Nikkei Asia, will be the voice of the Asian Century.

Celebrate our next chapter Free access for everyone - Sep. 30

  • Today's news
  • Reviews and deals
  • Climate change
  • 2024 election
  • Fall allergies
  • Health news
  • Mental health
  • Sexual health
  • Family health
  • So mini ways
  • Unapologetically
  • Buying guides


  • How to Watch
  • My watchlist
  • Stock market
  • Biden economy
  • Personal finance
  • Stocks: most active
  • Stocks: gainers
  • Stocks: losers
  • Trending tickers
  • World indices
  • US Treasury bonds
  • Top mutual funds
  • Highest open interest
  • Highest implied volatility
  • Currency converter
  • Basic materials
  • Communication services
  • Consumer cyclical
  • Consumer defensive
  • Financial services
  • Industrials
  • Real estate
  • Mutual funds
  • Credit cards
  • Credit card rates
  • Balance transfer credit cards
  • Business credit cards
  • Cash back credit cards
  • Rewards credit cards
  • Travel credit cards
  • Checking accounts
  • Online checking accounts
  • High-yield savings accounts
  • Money market accounts
  • Personal loans
  • Student loans
  • Car insurance
  • Home buying
  • Options pit
  • Investment ideas
  • Research reports
  • Fantasy football
  • Pro Pick 'Em
  • College Pick 'Em
  • Fantasy baseball
  • Fantasy hockey
  • Fantasy basketball
  • Download the app
  • Daily fantasy
  • Scores and schedules
  • GameChannel
  • World Baseball Classic
  • Premier League
  • CONCACAF League
  • Champions League
  • Motorsports
  • Horse racing
  • Newsletters

New on Yahoo

  • Privacy Dashboard

Video of 11-year-old Pikachu fan heartbroken by mom's math homework-themed cake surprise goes viral

  • Oops! Something went wrong. Please try again later. More content below

An 11-year-old boy from China burst into tears after receiving a textbook-themed cake on his birthday. The boy’s mother, Ms. Zhang from Jiangsu Province, China, had reportedly promised her son a Pikachu birthday cake; however, she decided to change its design at the last minute as a surprise on Jan. 8. The birthday cake featured small print-outs of a set of textbooks in Mathematics, Science, Chinese and English. According to Asia One , the icing on the cake also read: "As long as the world does not end, you have to do your homework."

"The original cake that I ordered was Pikachu, he knows that, but I changed it at the last minute," Zhang said . "His examinations are approaching, but he's still playing games every day. I want him to revise his schoolwork and do well in his examinations.” According to his mother, the 11-year-old’s primary school examinations are set to take place from Jan. 22 to Jan. 26. In the video, the birthday boy can be seen slumping into his chair and crying in disappointment. The video went viral on the Chinese microblogging website, Sina Weibo, with many users also expressing disappointment at the mother’s choice of surprise. “A distasteful move by adults, why can't you let the child enjoy for one day? Why do you need to stress him out on his birthday?” one user wrote, according to Asia One. Featured Images via D视频

Enjoy this content? Read more from NextShark!

Baby Elephant Caught Eating Sugarcane Tries to Hide Behind Pole in Thailand

‘Live life cheerfully’: World’s oldest living person celebrates her 119th birthday in Japan

Man in China sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling his 5 children for $28,000

Visitors flock to 'penis park' in Thailand for selfies and to make wishes for well-endowed partners

Recommended Stories

Nfl mock draft: trades galore as one of the best qb prospects slides outside the top 10.

Charles McDonald and Nate Tice's latest mock draft has five quarterbacks off the board in the top 13, a big-time weapon for Aaron Rodgers and some steals in the second half of the first round.

Longtime ESPN anchor John Anderson says he's retiring from 'SportsCenter:' 'The operation has changed'

Anderson has been hosting "SportsCenter" since 1999.

The 'extreme' Social Security move that actually makes sense

The election year battle over cherished retirement programs is a microcosm explaining why Washington doesn't solve solvable problems.

Mets pitcher ejected for throwing behind Brewers' Rhys Hoskins a day after heated exchange

Rhys Hoskins had a big day for the Milwaukee Brewers on Saturday, continuing his grudge match against the New York Mets.

Stocks just had their best first quarter in 5 years — here's where strategists think the market is headed

With stocks off to their best start in five years, many strategists on Wall Street still make a case for the S&P 500 to keep chugging higher.

One fateful decision summed up North Carolina's Sweet 16 demise

Jae’Lyn Withers shot UNC's most important 3-pointer of the game when he had no business firing away. And now the No. 1 Tar Heels are going home.

Kenny Brooks leaves Virginia Tech for Kentucky job in stunning end of era

Within a couple of weeks, Virginia Tech's Final Four hopes dropped because of Elizabeth Kitley's injury and Brooks exited for the SEC.

2024 New York International Auto Show Editors' Top 5 Picks

Though not the biggest New York International Auto Show, there were still some exciting reveals and even a surprise or two. We pick the best of show.

Andy Reid brings Lombardi Trophy for Royals 1st pitch, throws a strike to George Brett

The Chiefs' coach had a pretty good toss to start the Royals' season.

Ex-Jaguars employee who once hacked team's Jumbotron sentenced to 220 years in prison for child molestation

The FBI searched Samuel Arthur Thompson's home after figuring out he hacked the Jaguars' jumbotron. What they found next was awful.

76ers' Kelly Oubre Jr. confronts officials after missed call on final play in loss to Clippers

"You're a b*tch. You’re a b*tch. You’re a b*tch," Oubre told each official after the defeat.

Massive changes coming to Google Chrome threaten to reshape the modern internet

Google is ending third-party cookies in Chrome. Here’s what that means for publishers trying to stay afloat in a brutal market.

USWNT's Korbin Albert apologizes after Megan Rapinoe calls out anti-LGBTQ social media content

Albert took over Rapinoe's No. 15 jersey number this year.

J.J. McCarthy second overall? + QB class red flags, Dak Prescott on the open market | Inside Coverage

Jason Fitz is joined by Senior NFL Reporters Charles Robinson and Jori Epstein to go behind the scenes on the latest rumors and news around the NFL. The trio start with takeaways from the NFL owner's meetings as Jori was on the ground in Orlando. The hosts discuss the fallout of the new kickoff rule (are rosters going to change because of it?), the two Christmas Day games and what the heck Jerry Jones was doodling in his notebook. Next, it's time to pull out the crystal ball as the hosts attempt to look into the future for some key quarterbacks, starting with Michigan QB J.J. McCarthy. McCarthy's draft stock has been skyrocketing lately as some rumors emerged that he could go as high as second overall. Charles gives his thoughts and what he's hearing from GMs around the league before moving onto Brock Purdy and whether San Francisco will be willing to pay him when the time comes. Charles dives deeper into the 2024 quarterback class and why every prospect has a massive red flag, and Jori gives us the latest on the Dak Prescott contract negotiations, which seem to be heading in the wrong direction. All signs are pointing towards Dak hitting free agency next offseason. Finally, Fitz wraps things up by asking about Deion Sanders' comments about choosing where his sons get drafted and whether or not player empowerment could be ascending to a new level with the emergence of NIL.

The 5 most surprising NFL win totals for the season include Jim Harbaugh's Chargers

There were some curious season win totals among NFL teams.

2025 Ram 1500's 'Hurricane' I6 tops V8 in fuel economy

2025 Ram 1500 full-size pickup truck now has fuel economy numbers, and the Hurricane inline-six delivers better numbers than the V8 it replaces.

After Jayden Daniels and Drake Maye’s pro days, the Commanders may hold the keys to the NFL Draft

The No. 1 pick seems to be a foregone conclusion, which means all eyes are on the Commanders and their decision that likely boils down to two QBs.

Bad NFLPA grades push Patriots' Robert Kraft, Chiefs' Clark Hunt to make upgrades

In two NFL markets, the players' complaints were heard.

MLB Opening Day 2024: Initial fantasy baseball thoughts

With Opening Day 2024 in the rearview mirror, fantasy analyst Scott Pianowski delivers his early observations.

Bold fantasy baseball predictions for the 2024 MLB season

The Yahoo Fantasy baseball and MLB crews come together to reveal their hottest takes with the 2024 season kicking off.

  • Entertainment

Where's Pikachu? Chinese woman's last-minute birthday cake choice leaves son in tears

Where's Pikachu? Chinese woman's last-minute birthday cake choice leaves son in tears

A boy who turned 11 on Jan 8 was sorely disappointed after receiving a birthday cake that looked very different from what he was promised. 

Instead of the adorable Pikachu, textbook print-outs of  different subjects including English, mathematics and science  adorned his cake, reported Chinese media.

And the icing on the cake? A message that read: "As long as the world does not end, you have to do your homework". 

Talk about spoiling the fun.

The boy, who lives in Jiangsu, China, got so upset that he broke down and cried. 


"The original cake that I ordered was Pikachu, he knows that, but I changed it at the last minute," his mum told reporters. 

"His examinations are approaching, but he's still playing games every day. I want him to revise his schoolwork and do well in his examinations," she added. 

Final examinations for primary schools in Jiangsu are expected to take place from Jan 22 to 26 . 

Photos of the unusual cake did not sit well with netizens, who did not agree with the woman's 'reminder'. 

homework cake china

Unfortunately, the boy wasn't the only one who was let down on his special day.

homework cake china

Last September, a boy in Hebei also received a birthday cake that was decorated with textbooks .

Photos of the boy holding his cake with a resigned expression tickled netizens, although some cautioned that such a move might leave a psychological impact on him. 

[email protected]


Affiliated Institutions

Press Releases

Media Highlights

Laws and Policies

Learning Chinese

Study in China



China issues guidelines to ease burden of young students

BEIJING, July 24 (Xinhua) -- Chinese authorities have introduced a set of guidelines to ease the burden of excessive homework and off-campus tutoring for students undergoing compulsory education.

China's nine-year free compulsory education system covers primary school and junior middle school.

Jointly issued by the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council, the document specifies guiding principles and targets of the initiative.

It details requirements in areas including reducing homework and improving quality of education and after-class services provided by schools.

It also pledges to adopt a strict approval and supervision system for off-campus tutoring programs featuring curriculum subjects such as math and physics.

The following are some highlights of the document:

-- Students who can't finish their written homework after hard work shall go to bed on time.

-- Education authorities shall improve free online learning services.

-- Local governments shall stop approving establishment of new off-campus curriculum subject-tutoring institutions for students in compulsory education, and existing institutions shall be registered as non-profit institutions.

-- Curriculum subject-tutoring institutions are not allowed to go public for financing; listed companies should not invest in the institutions, and foreign capital is barred from such institutions.

-- Off-campus tutoring shall include no overseas education courses and their courses shall not be taught on national festivals and holidays.

-- Online tutoring should pay attention to protecting students' eyesight. Each class hour should not exceed 30 minutes, the course interval should not be less than 10 minutes, and the tutoring shall end no later than 9:00 p.m.

-- Mainstream media, new media, billboards in public places and residential areas and online platforms shall not publish or broadcast off-campus tutoring advertisements.

-- Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Zhengzhou, Changzhi, Weihai and Nantong are selected as national pilot cities to implement the guidelines.

ICP Registration Number: 10028400

© 2018 Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. All Rights Reserved.


Best vpn for china

Top 10 Traditional Chinese Cakes You Must Eat

Chinese cake refers to desert made with traditional Chinese craftsmanship. Due to the variety of natural resources and customs of different regions, Chinese cake gradually formed different styles and flavors such as Beijing-style, Cantonese-style, Su-style, Fujian style and Yang-style . Chinese cake has a long history and many categories. Now let us take a look at China’s top ten cakes you must eat.

1. Osmanthus Jelly (桂花糕)

Osmanthus Jelly

2. Mung Bean Cake (绿豆糕)

Mung Bean Cake

3. Bean Paste Cake (Liang Gao) (凉糕)

Bean Paste Cake

4. Red Bean Cake (红豆糕)

Red Bean Cake

5. Rice Cake (米糕)

Rice Cake

6. Water Chestnut Cake (马蹄糕)

Water Chestnut Cake

7. Thousand-layer Cake (千层糕)

Thousand-layer Cake

Related: Top 10 Most Popular Chinese Snacks

8. Fa Gao (发糕)

Fa Gao

10. Wan Dou Huang (Pea Flour Cake) (豌豆黄)

wan dou huang

Do you know other Chinese cakes and pastries or have you ever tasted any in and out of China. Share your experience in our comments section.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

  • Top 10 Online English Shopping Websites From China
  • Best VPN for China in 2022
  • Best Chinese Dating Sites

homework cake china

Extending a model of homework: a multilevel analysis with Chinese middle school students

  • Published: 22 March 2022
  • Volume 17 , pages 531–563, ( 2022 )

Cite this article

  • Jianzhong Xu   ORCID: 1 , 2 &
  • Lyn Corno 3  

1293 Accesses

16 Citations

Explore all metrics

Informed by two theoretical models of homework effects, we extended a model of homework on mathematics achievement in a large sample of Chinese eighth graders. Our model incorporated six clusters of homework variables – student background factors, homework characteristics, teacher variables, parent variables, student motivation, and homework behavior. Results indicated that mathematics achievement was related to at least one variable for each of the six clusters at the individual level. At the class level, mathematics achievement was associated positively with homework time, frequency, and interest, but negatively with teacher control. Finally, the combination of prior grades in mathematics and homework completion together influenced mathematics achievement. The study highlights the utility of our extended theoretical model for understanding predictive effects on achievement in a non-Western sample. The different norms and practices around homework in China are discussed, as are implications for future research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price includes VAT (Russian Federation)

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Rent this article via DeepDyve

Institutional subscriptions

homework cake china

Similar content being viewed by others

Homework and primary-school students’ academic achievement in latin america.

F. Javier Murillo & Cynthia Martinez-Garrido

homework cake china

Homework: Facts and Fiction

homework cake china

Anicama, C., Zhou, Q., & Ly, J. (2018). Parent involvement in school and Chinese American children’s academic skills. Journal of Educational Research, 111 (5), 574–583. .

Article   Google Scholar  

Barron, K. E., & Hulleman, C. S. (2015). The expectancy-value-cost model of motivation. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 503–509). Elsevier.

Brophy, J. (2005). Goal theorists should move on from performance goals. Educational Psychologist, 40 (3), 167–176. .

Cai, J. (2003). Investigating parental roles in students’ learning of mathematics from a cross-national perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15 (2), 87–106. .

Carifio, L., & Perla, R. (2008). Resolving the 50 year debate around using and misusing Likert scales. Medical Education, 42 (12), 1150–1152. .

Cellar, D. F., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Young, S. K., Fisher, D. M., Adair, C. K., Haynes, S., Twichell, E., Arnold, K. A., Royer, K., Denning, B. L., & Riester, D. (2011). Trait goal orientation, self-regulation, and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26 (4), 467–483. .

Chen, S. Y., & Chang, H. Y. (2015). Out-of-school time-use portfolios and Taiwanese children’s reading achievement.  US-China Education Review ,  5 (5), 336–348. .

Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: A cross-cultural examination. Child Development, 60 (3), 551–561. .

Cheung, C. S. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2011). Parents’ involvement in children’s learning in the United States and China: Implications for children’s academic and emotional adjustment. Child Development, 82 (3), 932–950. .

Conley, A. M. (2012). Patterns of motivation beliefs: Combining achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (1), 32–47. .

Cooper, H. (1989). Homework . Longman.

Book   Google Scholar  

Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents (3rd ed.). Corwin.

Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (1), 70–83. .

Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76 (1), 1–62. .

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16 (3), 297–334. .

Corno, L. (1996). Homework is a complicated thing. Educational Researcher, 25 (8), 27–30. .

Corno, L., & Xu, J. (2004). Doing homework as the job of childhood. Theory into Practice, 43 (3), 227–233. .

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-determination research . University of Rochester Press.

De Jong, R., Westerhof, K. J., & Creemers, B. P. (2000). Homework and student mathematics achievement in junior high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 6 (2), 130–157.;1-E;F130 .

Dekker, S., & Fischer, R. (2008). Cultural differences in academic motivation goals: A meta-analysis across 13 societies. Journal of Educational Research, 102 (2), 99–110. .

Denissen, J. J., Zarrett, N. R., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). I like to do it, I’mable, and I know I am: Longitudinal couplings between domain specific achievement, self-concept, and interest. Child Development, 78 (2), 430–447. .

Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., & Pekrun, R. (2011). Students’ emotions during homework in mathematics: Testing a theoretical model of antecedents and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36 (1), 25–35. .

Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., Kunter, M., & Baumert, J. (2010). Homework works if homework quality is high: Using multilevel modeling to predict the development of achievement in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102 (2), 467–482. .

Du, J., Xu, J., & Fan, X. (2016). Investigating factors that influence students’ help seeking in math homework: A multilevel analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 48 , 29–35. .

Duncan, T. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The making of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40 (2), 117–128. .

Eccles, J. S. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives: Psychological and sociological approaches (pp. 75–146). W. H. Freeman.

Google Scholar  

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53 (1), 109–132. .

Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Hejmadi, A. (2008). Mother and child emotions during mathematics homework. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 10 (1), 5–35. .

Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing homework. Educational Psychologist, 36 (3), 181–193. .

Fan, H., Xu, J., Cai, Z., He, J., & Fan, X. (2017). Homework and students’ achievement in math and science: A 30-year meta-analysis, 1986–2015. Educational Research Review, 20 , 35–54. .

Fernández-Alonso, R., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2015). Adolescents’ homework performance in mathematics and science: Personal factors and teaching practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107 (4), 1075–1085. .

Fernández-Alonso, R., Suárez-Alvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2016). Homework and performance in mathematics: The role of the teacher, the family and the student’s Background. Revista De Psicodidáctica, 21 (1), 5–23. .

Fernández-Alonso, R., Álvarez-Díaz, M., Woitschach, P., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Cuesta, M. (2017). Parental involvement and academic performance: Less control and more communication. Psicothema, 29 (4), 453–461. .

Fernández-Alonso, R., Woitschach, P., Álvarez-Díaz, M., González-López, A. M., Cuesta, M., & Muñiz, J. (2019). Homework and academic achievement in Latin America: A multilevel approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 , 95. .

Flunger, B., Trautwein, U., Nagengast, B., Lüdtke, O., Niggli, A., & Schnyder, I. (2017). A person-centered approach to homework behavior: Students’ characteristics predict their homework learning type. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48 , 1–15. .

Fries, S., & Dietz, F. (2007). Learning in the face of temptation: The case of motivational interference. Journal of Experimental Education, 76 , 93–112. .

Fuligni, A. J., & Tseng, V. (1999). Family obligation and the academic motivation of adolescents from immigrant and American-born families. In T. Urdan (Ed.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 11, pp. 159–183). JAI.

Garson, D. G. (2012). Hierarchical linear modeling: Guide and applications . Sage.

Graupensperger, S., Benson, A. J., Bray, B. C., & Evans, M. B. (2019). Social cohesion and peer acceptance predict student-athletes’ attitudes toward health-risk behaviors: A within-and between-group investigation. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22 (12), 1280–1286. .

Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Erlbaum.

Guo, J., Marsh, H. W., Parker, P. D., Morin, A. J., & Yeung, A. S. (2015). Expectancy-value in mathematics, gender and socioeconomic background as predictors of achievement and aspirations: A multi-cohort study. Learning and Individual Differences, 37 , 161–168. .

Gustafsson, J. E., Nilsen, T., & Hansen, K. Y. (2018). School characteristics moderating the relation between student socio-economic status and mathematics achievement in grade 8. Evidence from 50 countries in TIMSS 2011. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 57 , 16–30. .

Hagger, M. S., Sultan, S., Hardcastle, S. J., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2015). Perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in educational and out-of-school contexts is related to mathematics homework behavior and attainment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41 , 111–123. .

Hau, K. T., & Salili, F. (1996). Achievement goals and causal attributions of Chinese students. In S. Lau (Ed.), Growing up the Chinese way: Chinese child and adolescent development (pp. 121–145). The Chinese University Press.

He, Y., Zhang, Y., Ma, X., & Wang, L. (2021). Does private supplementary tutoring matter? The effect of private supplementary tutoring on mathematics achievement. International Journal of Educational Development, 84 , 102402. .

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M., & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36 (3), 195–209. .

Karbach, J., Gottschling, J., Spengler, M., Hegewald, K., & Spinath, F. M. (2013). Parental involvement and general cognitive ability as predictors of domain-specific academic achievement in early adolescence. Learning and Instruction, 23 , 43–51. .

Kasim, R., & Raudenbush, S. (1998). Application of Gibbs sampling to nested variance componentsmodels with heterogeneous withingroup variance. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 23 (2), 93–116. .

Katz, I., Kaplan, A., & Gueta, G. (2009). Students’ needs, teachers’ support, and motivation for doing homework: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Experimental Education, 78 (2), 246–267. .

Kreft, I., & de Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling . Sage.

Kremer-Sadlik, T., & Fatigante, M. (2015). Investing in children’s future: Cross-cultural perspectives and ideologies on parental involvement in education. Childhood, 22 (1), 67–84. .

Lee, J. (2007). Two worlds of private tutoring: The prevalence and causes of after-school mathematics tutoring in Korea and the United States. Teachers College Record, 109 (5), 1207–1234.

Lee, J. (2009). Universals and specifics of math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 participating countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 19 (3), 355–365. .

Levpuscek, M. P., & Zupancic, L. (2009). Mathematics achievement in early adolescence: The role of parental involvement, teacher’s behavior and student’s motivational beliefs about math. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29 (4), 541–570. .

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98 (2), 224–253. .

Martin, A. J., Yu, K., & Hau, K. T. (2014). Motivation and engagement in the ‘Asian Century’: A comparison of Chinese students in Australia, Hong Kong, and Mainland China. Educational Psychology, 34 (4), 417–439. .

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment . Lawrence Erlbaum.

Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57 , 487–503. .

Miller, A. D., & Murdock, T. B. (2007). Modeling latent true scores to determine the utility of aggregate student perceptions as classroom indicators in HLM: The case of classroom goal structures. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32 (1), 83–104. .

Moroni, S., Dumont, H., Trautwein, U., Niggli, A., & Baeriswyl, F. (2015). The need to distinguish between quantity and quality in research on parental involvement: The example of parental help with homework. Journal of Educational Research, 108 (5), 417–431. .

Ni, Y., Li, Q., Li, X., & Zhang, Z. H. (2011). Influence of curriculum reform: An analysis of student mathematics achievement in Mainland China. International Journal of Educational Research, 50 , 100–116. .

Niehaus, E., Campbell, C. M., & Inkelas, K. K. (2014). HLM behind the curtain: Unveiling decisions behind the use and interpretation of HLM in higher education research. Research in Higher Education, 55 (1), 101–122. .

Nielsen, N. M., Smink, W. A., & Fox, J. P. (2021). Small and negative correlations among clustered observations: Limitations of the linear mixed effects model. Behaviormetrika, 48 (1), 51–77. .

Norman, G. (2010). Likert scales, levels of measurement and the “laws” of statistics. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15 (5), 625–632. .

Núñez, J. C., Suárez, N., Rosário, P., Vallejo, G., Cerezo, R., & Valle, A. (2015). Teachers’ feedback on homework, homework-related behaviors, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 108 (3), 204–216. .

Núñez, J. C., Epstein, J. L., Suárez, N., Rosário, P., Vallejo, G., & Valle, A. (2017). How do student prior achievement and homework behaviors relate to perceived parental involvement in homework? Frontiers in Psychology, 8 , 1–13. .

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2013). PISA 2012 results: What makes schools successful?: Resources, policies and practices (volume IV) . OECD.

Payne, S. C., Youngcourt, S. S., & Beaubien, J. M. (2007). A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (1), 128–150. .

Pezdek, K., Berry, T., & Renno, P. A. (2002). Children’s mathematics achievement: The role of parents’ perceptions and their involvement in homework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (4), 771–777. .

Piñeiro, I., Estévez, I., Freire, C., de Caso, A., Souto, A., & González-Sanmamed, M. (2019). The role of prior achievement as an antecedent to student homework engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 , 140. .

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92 (3), 544–555. .

Plante, I., O’Keefe, P. A., & Théorêt, M. (2013). The relation between achievement goal and expectancy-value theories in predicting achievement-related outcomes: A test of four theoretical conceptions. Motivation and Emotion, 37 (1), 65–78. .

Rao, N., Moely, B. E., & Sachs, J. (2000). Motivational beliefs, study strategies, and mathematics attainment in high- and low-achieving Chinese secondary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25 (1), 287–316. .

Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis (2nd ed.). Sage.

Roberts, J. K., & Monaco, J. P. (2006). Effect size measures for the two-level linear multilevel model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

Rodríguez, S., Núñez, J. C., Valle, A., Freire, C., Ferradás, M. D. M., & Rodríguez-Llorente, C. (2019). Relationship between students’ prior academic achievement and homework behavioral engagement: The mediating/moderating role of learning motivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 , 1047. .

Rodríguez, S., Piñeiro, I., Regueiro, B., & Estévez, I. (2020). Intrinsic motivation and perceived utility as predictors of student homework engagement. Revista De Psicodidáctica, 25 (2), 93–99. .

Rosário, P., Núñez, J. C., Vallejo, G., Nunes, T., Cunha, J., Fuentes, S., & Valle, A. (2018). Homework purposes, homework behaviors, and academic achievement. Examining the mediating role of students’ perceived homework quality. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 53 , 168–180. .

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 68–78. .

Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2013). Looking East: Shanghai, PISA 2009 and the reconstitution of reference societies in the global education policy field. Comparative Education, 49 (4), 464–485. .

Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46 (1), 26–47. .

Stevenson, H., & Stigler, J. (1992). Learning gap: Why our schools are failing and what we can learn from Japanese and Chinese education . Summit Books.

Sun, M., Du, J., Xu, J., & Liu, F. (2019). Homework Goal Orientation Scale: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender and grade level. Psychology in the Schools, 56 (3), 465–477. .

Tam, V. C., & Chan, R. M. (2009). Parental involvement in primary children’s homework in Hong Kong. School Community Journal, 19 (2), 81–100.

Teng, L. S., & Zhang, L. J. (2018). Effects of motivational regulation strategies on writing performance: A mediation model of self-regulated learning of writing in English as a second/foreign language. Metacognition and Learning, 13 (2), 213–240. .

Thompson, C. G., Kim, R. S., Aloe, A. M., & Becker, B. J. (2017). Extracting the variance inflation factor and other multicollinearity diagnostics from typical regression results. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 39 (2), 81–90. .

Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework–achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17 (3), 372–388. .

Trautwein, U., & Köller, O. (2003). The relationship between homework and achievement—Still much of a mystery. Educational Psychology Review, 15 (2), 115–145. .

Trautwein, U., & Lüdtke, O. (2009). Predicting homework motivation and homework effort in six school subjects: The role of person and family characteristics, classroom factors, and school track. Learning and Instruction, 19 (3), 243–258. .

Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Schnyder, I., & Niggli, A. (2006). Predicting homework effort: Support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98 (2), 438–456. .

Trautwein, U., Marsh, H. W., Nagengast, B., Ludtke, O., Nagy, G., & Jonkmann, K. (2012). Probing for the multiplicative term in modern expectancy-value theory: A latent interaction modeling study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (3), 763–777. .

Trautwein, U., Schnyder, I., Niggli, A., Neumann, M., & Lüdtke, O. (2009). Chameleon effects in homework research: The homework–achievement association depends on the measures used and the level of analysis chosen. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34 (1), 77–88. .

Vasquez, A. C., Patall, E. A., Fong, C. J., Corrigan, A. S., & Pine, L. (2016). Parent autonomy support, academic achievement, and psychosocial functioning: A meta-analysis of research. Educational Psychology Review, 28 (3), 605–644. .

Wang, D. B. (2004). Family background factors and mathematics success: A comparison of Chinese students. International Journal of Educational Research, 41 (1), 40–54. .

Warton, P. M. (2001). The forgotten voices in homework: Views of students. Educational Psychologist, 36 , 155–165. .

Wei, Y., & Low, A. (2017). Monitoring score change patterns to support TOEIC® Listening and Reading test quality. ETS Research Report Series, 2017 (1), 1–20. .

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Fredricks, J. A., Simpkins, S., Roeser, R.W., & Schiefele, U. (2015). Development of achievement motivation and engagement. In M. E. Lamb & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, Vol. 3. Socioemotional processes (7th ed., pp. 657–700). Wiley.

Wolters, C. A. (2011). Regulation of motivation: Contextual and social aspects. Teachers College Record, 113 (2), 265–283.

Wolters, C. A., & Benzon, M. B. (2013). Assessing and predicting college students’ use of strategies for the self-regulation of motivation. Journal of Experimental Education, 81 (2), 199–221. .

Woodcock, S., & Jiang, H. (2018). A cross-national comparison of attributional patterns toward students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 51 (1), 3–17. .

Xu, J. (2004). Family help and homework management in urban and rural secondary schools. Teachers College Record, 106 (9), 1786–1803. .

Xu, J. (2008). Models of secondary students’ interest in homework: A multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 1180–1205. .

Xu, J. (2011). Homework completion at the secondary school level: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Educational Research, 104 (3), 171–182. .

Xu, J. (2014). Regulation of motivation: Predicting homework motivation management at the secondary school level. Research Papers in Education, 29 , 457–478. .

Xu, J. (2016). A study of the validity and reliability of the Teacher Homework Involvement Scale: A psychometric evaluation. Measurement, 93 , 102–107. .

Xu, J. (2017). Homework Expectancy Value Scale for high school students: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender and grade level. Learning and Individual Differences, 60 , 10–17. .

Xu, J. (2018). Reciprocal effects of homework self-concept, interest, effort, and mathematics achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 55 , 42–52. .

Xu, J. (2020). Homework and academic achievement. In J. Hattie & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), Visible learning guide to student achievement (Schools, pp. 121–125). Routledge.

Xu, J. (2021). Homework goal orientation, interest, and achievement: Testing models of reciprocal effects. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 36 (2), 359–378. .

Xu, J., & Corno, L. (1998). Case studies of families doing third grade homework. Teachers College Record, 100 , 402–436.

Xu, J., & Corno, L. (2003). Family help and homework management reported by middle school students. Elementary School Journal, 103 (5), 503–518. .

Xu, J., Yuan, R., Xu, B., & Xu, M. (2014). Modeling students’ time management in math homework. Learning and Individual Differences, 34 , 33–42. .

Xu, J., Fan, X., & Du, J. (2015). Homework Management Scale: Confirming the factor structure with middle school students in China. Psychology in the Schools, 52 , 419–429. .

Xu, J., Yuan, R., Xu, B., & Xu, M. (2016). Modeling students’ interest in math homework. Journal of Educational Research, 109 (2), 148–158. .

Xu, J., Fan, X., Du, J., & He, M. (2017). A study of the validity and reliability of the Parental Homework Support Scale. Measurement, 95 , 93–98. .

Xu, J., Du, J., Wu, S., Ripple, H., & Cosgriff, A. (2018). Reciprocal effects among parental homework support, effort, and achievement? An Empirical Investigation. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 , 2334. .

Xu, J., Du, J., Wang, C., Liu, F., Huang, B., Zhang, M., & Xie, J. (2020). Intrinsic motivation, favorability, time management, and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Learning and Motivation, 72 , 101677. .

Xu, J., Du, J., Cunha, J., & Rosário, P. (2021). Student perceptions of homework quality, autonomy support, effort, and math achievement: Testing models of reciprocal effects. Teaching and Teacher Education, 108 , 103508. .

Yang, F., & Tu, M. (2020). Self-regulation of homework behaviour: Relating grade, gender, and achievement to homework management. Educational Psychology, 40 (4), 392–408. .

Yang, F., & Xu, J. (2015). Examining the psychometric properties of the Homework Management Scale for high school students in China. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33 (3), 268–277. .

Yang, F., & Xu, J. (2018). Homework Expectancy Value Scale: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 36 (8), 863–868. .

Yang, F., & Xu, J. (2019). A psychometric evaluation of Teacher Homework Involvement Scale in online learning environments. Current Psychology, 38 (6), 1713–1720. .

Yang, F., Xu, J., Tan, H., & Liang, N. (2016). What keeps Chinese students motivated in doing math homework? An Empirical Investigation. Teachers College Record, 118 (8), 1–26.

Yu, R., & Singh, K. (2018). Teacher support, instructional practices, student motivation, and mathematics achievement in high school. Journal of Educational Research, 111 (1), 81–94. .

Zhang, W. (2020). Shadow education in the service of tiger parenting: Strategies used by middle-class families in China. European Journal of Education, 55 (3), 388–404. .

Zhang, Y., Dang, Y., He, Y., Ma, X., & Wang, L. (2021). Is private supplementary tutoring effective? A longitudinally detailed analysis of private tutoring quality in China. Asia Pacific Education Review, 22 , 239–259. .

Zheng, X., Wang, C., Shen, Z., & Fang, X. (2020). Associations of private tutoring with Chinese students’ academic achievement, emotional well-being, and parent-child relationship. Children and Youth Services Review, 112 , 104934. .

Zhu, N., & Chang, L. (2019). Education and Parenting in China. In E. Sorbing & J. E. Lansford (Eds.), School Systems, Parental Behavior, and Academic Achievement: An International Perspective (pp. 15–28). Springer Nature. .

Chapter   Google Scholar  

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166–183. .

Zimmerman, B. J., & Moylan, A. R. (2009). Self-regulation: Where metacognition and motivation intersect. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 299–315). Routledge.

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Foundations, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 9727, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA

Jianzhong Xu

Faculty of Education, University of Macau, Macau, China

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jianzhong Xu .

Ethics declarations

Permission to undertake this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, University of Macau. Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in this study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Xu, J., Corno, L. Extending a model of homework: a multilevel analysis with Chinese middle school students. Metacognition Learning 17 , 531–563 (2022).

Download citation

Received : 04 October 2021

Accepted : 02 March 2022

Published : 22 March 2022

Issue Date : August 2022


Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Middle school mathematics
  • Motivation theory
  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research
  • Learn Chinese

Let's Chinese

22 Most Important Festivals In China You Must Know


1. Chinese New Year’s Eve

2. chinese new year, 3. china’s lantern festival, 4. qingming festival, 5. dragon boat festival, 6. double seventh day, 7. chinese mid-autumn festival, 8. summer solstice, 9. winter solstice festival, 10. the double ninth festival, 11. hungry ghost festival, 12. labor day, 13. the national day of china, 14. la ba festival, 15. guanyin’s birthday, 16. youth day, 17. cold food festival, 18. third month fair, 19. buddha’s birthday, 20. double sixth festival, 21. army day, 22. anniversary of the founding of the communist party of china.

homework cake china

Chinese New Year’s Eve is a joyous occasion filled with anticipation, celebration, and heartfelt traditions. Chinese New Year’s Eve, also known as Lunar New Year’s Eve or Chuxi, marks the final day of the lunar calendar and the eve of the grand festivities that herald the arrival of the Chinese New Year. Join us as we delve into the common traditions that make this auspicious evening a time of reunion, abundance, and cultural significance.

Common Traditions

Chinese New Year’s Eve holds a special place in Chinese culture, emphasizing family reunions, elaborate feasts, and age-old customs that bring good luck and prosperity. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this vibrant and meaningful celebration:

  • Reunion Dinner : The highlight of Chinese New Year’s Eve is the Reunion Dinner, also known as “Nianyefan.” Families come together to enjoy a lavish feast, filled with symbolic dishes that carry auspicious meanings. The dinner is a time for family members to gather, express gratitude, and reinforce familial bonds. It signifies unity, abundance, and the anticipation of a prosperous year ahead.
  • Spring Festival Couplets and Decorations : Prior to Chinese New Year’s Eve, homes and businesses are adorned with colorful decorations. The most prominent among these are red couplets, known as “Chunlian,” which are poetic phrases written on long strips of red paper. The couplets are hung on doorways to bring good fortune and ward off evil spirits. Red lanterns, paper cuttings, and other festive decorations also add a joyful and vibrant touch to the surroundings.
  • Offering Sacrifices to Ancestors : It is customary for families to pay respects to their ancestors on Chinese New Year’s Eve. Offerings such as fruits, incense, and other symbolic items are placed on ancestral altars as a way to honor and remember the departed loved ones. The act of offering sacrifices is believed to bring blessings, protect the family, and ensure the continuation of ancestral prosperity.
  • Setting off Fireworks and Firecrackers : Fireworks and firecrackers have long been an integral part of Chinese New Year’s Eve celebrations. The loud noises and vibrant displays are believed to scare away evil spirits and bring good luck for the coming year. The breathtaking spectacle of fireworks lighting up the night sky creates an atmosphere of jubilation and excitement.
  • Red Envelopes (Hongbao) : Red envelopes, known as “Hongbao” or “Lai See,” are a popular tradition during Chinese New Year’s Eve. These envelopes are filled with money and given to children, family members, friends, and employees as a symbol of good wishes, blessings, and good fortune for the year ahead. The act of giving and receiving red envelopes promotes generosity, happiness, and prosperity.
  • Staying Up Late and Welcoming the New Year : Chinese families often stay up late on New Year’s Eve to welcome the arrival of the new year. At the stroke of midnight, it is customary to set off firecrackers and make joyful noise to bid farewell to the old year and welcome the new one. The celebrations continue with family members exchanging greetings, well-wishes, and toasting to a prosperous year.

Chinese New Year’s Eve is a vibrant and cherished occasion that unites families, fosters cultural traditions, and ushers in a fresh beginning. Whether you’re indulging in a sumptuous feast, setting off fireworks, or sharing joy through red envelopes, this eve is a time to embrace loved ones, express gratitude, and anticipate the blessings of the upcoming year. It represents the resilience of tradition, the power of reunion, and the hope for a prosperous future.

homework cake china

Chinese New Year, also known as the Spring Festival, is an incredibly festive and important celebration in Chinese culture. It’s a time when families come together, streets burst with colors, and the air is filled with excitement and joy. With its rich traditions and customs, Chinese New Year is a cherished occasion that marks the beginning of a new lunar year.

Chinese New Year is a time of vibrant customs and practices that have been passed down through generations. Here are some of the most common traditions observed during this festive season:

  • Reunion and Family Time : Chinese New Year is all about family. It’s a time when people travel from far and wide to be with their loved ones. Families gather for a grand reunion dinner, sharing delicious food and exchanging warm wishes for the year ahead. It’s a beautiful opportunity to strengthen family bonds and create lasting memories.
  • Red Decorations : The color red takes center stage during Chinese New Year. Red is believed to bring good luck, fortune, and prosperity. Homes and streets are adorned with red lanterns, banners, and ornaments. The vibrant red decorations create a lively and festive atmosphere that fills everyone with joy.
  • Fireworks and Firecrackers : One of the most exciting parts of Chinese New Year is the spectacle of fireworks and firecrackers. The loud bangs and colorful bursts of light are believed to scare away evil spirits and bad luck. Communities come alive with the sounds and sights of these celebratory displays, adding to the festive spirit.
  • Lion and Dragon Dances : Lion and dragon dances are traditional performances that captivate both young and old during Chinese New Year. People dress up as lions and dragons, dancing to the beat of drums and cymbals. It’s an awe-inspiring sight that symbolizes good luck and drives away negative energy.
  • Red Envelopes : Giving and receiving red envelopes is a cherished tradition during Chinese New Year. These envelopes, filled with money, are given to children and unmarried individuals as a symbol of good luck and blessings for the year ahead. It’s an exciting time for kids, as they eagerly collect their “lucky money.”
  • Delicious Food : Chinese New Year is a feast for the taste buds. Traditional dishes are prepared with symbolic meanings. For example, fish symbolizes abundance and prosperity, while dumplings represent wealth and good fortune. Families come together to share these special dishes and indulge in the flavors of the season.
  • Spring Cleaning and Decoration : Prior to the New Year, families engage in thorough spring cleaning. It’s a way to bid farewell to the old year and welcome in a fresh start. Homes are adorned with decorations such as couplets, lanterns, and paper cutouts featuring auspicious symbols, bringing in good luck and happiness.

Chinese New Year is an extraordinary time that brings people together, spreads happiness, and embraces cultural traditions. It’s a time of warmth, laughter, and optimism as everyone eagerly ushers in a brand new year filled with hope and prosperity.

homework cake china

Get ready to experience a dazzling spectacle of lights, laughter, and lanterns! China’s Lantern Festival is a magical celebration that takes place on the fifteenth day of the lunar calendar. It’s a night where the sky comes alive with colorful lanterns, and streets are filled with joyous festivities. Let’s dive into the vibrant traditions that make the Lantern Festival so special.

The Lantern Festival is a time of merriment and wonder, featuring customs that have been passed down through the ages. Here are some of the common traditions you can expect to see during this illuminating celebration:

  • Lantern Displays : The Lantern Festival is famous for its spectacular lantern displays. Elaborate lanterns of various shapes, sizes, and colors fill parks, streets, and public spaces. From traditional lantern designs to modern creations, these captivating works of art light up the night and create a truly enchanting atmosphere.
  • Guessing Lantern Riddles : Lantern riddles are an integral part of the festival’s fun. Riddles are written on slips of paper and attached to lanterns. Visitors can try their luck at solving these brain teasers. It’s a delightful challenge that adds an element of excitement to the celebrations. Successfully guessing the riddles brings pride and often a small prize.
  • Eating Yuanxiao (Sweet Rice Balls) : A special treat for the Lantern Festival is yuanxiao, also known as tangyuan or sweet rice balls. These sticky rice dumplings are filled with various sweet fillings like sesame, red bean paste, or peanuts. Eating yuanxiao symbolizes togetherness and unity among family and friends. They’re delicious and bring a burst of sweetness to the festivities.
  • Dragon and Lion Dances : Just like the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival is also known for its lively dragon and lion dances. These dynamic performances are a feast for the eyes and ears. Dancers in colorful dragon and lion costumes move gracefully to the rhythm of drums and cymbals. The dances are believed to bring good luck and ward off evil spirits.
  • Floating Water Lanterns : In some regions, people release water lanterns onto rivers, lakes, or other bodies of water. These delicate lanterns, often made of paper or lotus petals, float serenely, creating a mesmerizing sight. It’s a way for people to make wishes and send their hopes and dreams into the night.
  • Fireworks and Firecrackers : What’s a Chinese celebration without fireworks and firecrackers? The Lantern Festival is no exception! Spectacular firework displays light up the sky, filling it with bursts of color and sparkle. The loud sounds of firecrackers are believed to scare away evil spirits and bring good luck for the year ahead.

The Lantern Festival is a captivating event that brings communities together in a brilliant display of lights, laughter, and traditions. It’s a time to enjoy the company of loved ones, indulge in sweet treats, and revel in the magical atmosphere. So grab your lantern, join in the festivities, and let the wonder of the Lantern Festival ignite your spirit!

homework cake china

Qingming Festival is a time when China honors its past, pays respects to ancestors, and enjoys the beauty of spring. Also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day, this festival is all about remembering loved ones, appreciating nature, and having a good time. Let’s dive into the traditions that make Qingming Festival a unique and meaningful celebration.

During the Qingming Festival, people engage in customs that connect them with their roots and embrace the arrival of spring. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this special time:

  • Tomb-Sweeping : Tomb-Sweeping is the heart and soul of Qingming Festival. Families visit the gravesites of their ancestors, bringing offerings such as food, flowers, and burning incense. They tidy up the tombs, removing weeds and cleaning the area as a sign of respect and remembrance. It’s a solemn yet meaningful tradition that allows people to honor their heritage.
  • Flying Kites : One of the most exciting parts of Qingming Festival is flying kites. The skies come alive with colorful kites of all shapes and sizes. It’s not just about having fun—it’s also believed that the higher the kite soars, the farther away troubles and misfortunes will be. So grab a kite, let it soar, and enjoy the uplifting spirit of the festival.
  • Enjoying the Outdoors : Qingming Festival falls during the spring season when nature bursts with beauty. Many people take advantage of the holiday to venture outdoors and embrace the blossoming scenery. They go for leisurely walks, have picnics, or simply relax in parks and gardens. It’s a time to appreciate the wonders of nature and rejuvenate the spirit.
  • Qingming Foods : Like any celebration, Qingming Festival has its special foods. One popular treat is Qingming cake, also known as green rice cake. This sticky rice delicacy is often topped with colorful patterns or designs and has a sweet and fragrant taste. It’s a yummy way to indulge in the festive spirit and satisfy your sweet tooth.
  • Swinging on Swings : In some regions, swinging on swings is a popular Qingming tradition. People of all ages hop on swings and enjoy the exhilarating sensation of soaring through the air. It’s a symbol of letting go of worries and embracing a carefree spirit. So find a swing, kick off your shoes, and swing away to your heart’s content.

The Qingming Festival is a blend of reflection, appreciation, and joy. It’s a time to honor ancestors, connect with nature, and create cherished memories. So whether you’re paying respects at a tomb, flying a colorful kite, or simply enjoying the outdoors, embrace the spirit of Qingming and celebrate the beauty of life and heritage.

homework cake china

Let’s dive into the thrilling world of Dragon Boat Festival , a celebration that’s all about racing boats, eating delicious dumplings, and warding off evil spirits! Dragon Boat Festival, also known as Duanwu Festival, is a lively and action-packed event that takes place in China and other parts of the world. Get ready to paddle your way into the traditions that make this festival so awesome!

Dragon Boat Festival is a wild ride filled with traditions that will have you on the edge of your seat. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this exhilarating time:

  • Dragon Boat Races : Hold onto your hats because it’s time for the epic Dragon Boat Races! Teams of paddlers hop into long, narrow boats decorated like mighty dragons and compete to see who’s the fastest. The boats slice through the water with incredible speed and agility, while spectators cheer and shout words of encouragement. It’s an adrenaline-pumping spectacle that’ll have you at the edge of your seat!
  • Zongzi Feasting : When it comes to Dragon Boat Festival, you can’t forget about the scrumptious zongzi. These pyramid-shaped sticky rice dumplings are wrapped in bamboo leaves and filled with a variety of mouth-watering ingredients like meat, beans, or nuts. They’re then steamed or boiled to perfection. It’s the perfect excuse to indulge in these savory treats and fill your belly with goodness.
  • Hanging Up Protective Herbs : Dragon Boat Festival is also a time to protect ourselves from evil spirits and bad luck. People hang up bundles of herbs, like mugwort and calamus, on their doors or windows. It’s believed that the fragrant aroma of these herbs can ward off evil and keep the household safe and sound. Plus, it adds a dash of herbal freshness to the air!
  • Wearing Colorful Threads : To keep those pesky spirits at bay, people wear colorful threads during the festival. These threads are often made from red, blue, yellow, or other vibrant colors. They’re tied around wrists, ankles, or even on children’s clothes. It’s like a fashion statement that says, “Hey, evil spirits, you better steer clear!”
  • Drinking Realgar Wine : Brace yourself for a special Dragon Boat Festival drink—realgar wine. It’s made by soaking realgar, a yellow-orange mineral, in rice wine. While it’s not exactly the kind of wine you sip for the taste, it’s believed to have medicinal properties and can ward off evil spirits. So, take a tiny sip, but remember, just a tiny one!

Dragon Boat Festival is a thrilling whirlwind of boat races, mouth-watering treats, and traditions to keep those pesky spirits away. So grab a zongzi, cheer for your favorite dragon boat team, and embrace the excitement and vibrant spirit of this fantastic festival!

homework cake china

Welcome to the enchanting world of Double Seventh Day, a celebration filled with romance, celestial legends, and the weaving of love stories. Double Seventh Day, also known as the Chinese Valentine’s Day or Qixi Festival, is a day dedicated to love and cherished relationships. Get ready to embark on a journey through the customs and traditions that make this day so special.

Double Seventh Day is steeped in beautiful traditions that reflect the longing for love and connection. Here are some common customs you’ll encounter during this heartfelt celebration:

  • Love Stories of the Cowherd and the Weaver Maid : Double Seventh Day originates from an ancient Chinese folk tale of a cowherd and a weaver maid. Legend has it that they were separated by the Milky Way and were only allowed to meet once a year on this day. Their love story symbolizes the longing and devotion of separated lovers. People often read or recount this tale, immersing themselves in its romantic essence.
  • Making Wishes and Prayers : Double Seventh Day is a time for individuals to make wishes and pray for love and happiness. It is believed that on this special day, the cosmic energies are aligned, making it an opportune moment for wishes to come true. Many people write their heartfelt wishes on small slips of paper and hang them on trees or throw them into rivers, hoping that the universe will grant their desires.
  • Handicrafts and Weaving : In homage to the Weaver Maid in the legend, Double Seventh Day is associated with weaving and handicrafts. It is common for people, especially young women, to engage in activities like making colorful paper crafts, weaving bracelets, or creating delicate artwork. These crafts are seen as expressions of creativity and are often gifted to loved ones as tokens of affection.
  • Stargazing and Appreciating the Night Sky : As the legend of the Cowherd and the Weaver Maid centers around the stars and the Milky Way, stargazing is a popular activity during Double Seventh Day. Couples and friends often spend the evening together, admiring the night sky and the twinkling constellations. It’s a moment of awe and wonder, providing a serene backdrop for romantic encounters and heartfelt conversations.
  • Exchanging Gifts : Double Seventh Day is an occasion for expressing love and appreciation through the exchange of gifts. Couples often exchange small presents, flowers, or chocolates as tokens of affection. It’s a time to show gratitude to loved ones and make them feel cherished and special.

Double Seventh Day is a day of romance, hopes, and heartfelt connections. It’s an opportunity to celebrate love in its various forms and embrace the beauty of heartfelt emotions. So, whether you’re sharing a heartfelt wish, gazing at the stars, or exchanging gifts with a loved one, Double Seventh Day offers a moment to bask in the warmth and magic of love.

homework cake china

Get ready to be mesmerized by the enchanting glow of lanterns, indulge in mooncakes, and bask in the warmth of family gatherings. The Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival , also known as the Moon Festival, is a time of joy, reunion, and moonlit enchantment. Join us as we explore the customs and traditions that make this festival so captivating.

The Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival is rich in traditions that celebrate family, harvest, and the beauty of the moon. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this luminous celebration:

  • Mooncakes : Ah, the beloved mooncakes! These delectable pastries are a hallmark of the Mid-Autumn Festival. They come in various flavors, with traditional fillings like lotus seed paste or red bean paste, often containing a salted egg yolk at the center to represent the full moon. Sharing and enjoying mooncakes with family and friends is a cherished tradition that symbolizes unity and completeness.
  • Lanterns : Prepare to be dazzled by the enchanting sight of lanterns during the Mid-Autumn Festival. Colorful lanterns of various shapes and sizes adorn streets, homes, and public spaces, creating a magical atmosphere. Children and adults alike carry lanterns and join lantern parades, adding to the festival’s luminous charm.
  • Moon Gazing : The Mid-Autumn Festival is an opportune time to appreciate the beauty of the moon. Families gather outdoors or on rooftops to gaze at the full moon, sharing heartfelt conversations and enjoying the serene ambiance. It’s a moment of reflection, as the moon is seen as a symbol of reunion and harmony.
  • Family Reunion : Like many Chinese festivals, the Mid-Autumn Festival is a time for family reunions. Loved ones come together for a special dinner, often featuring dishes associated with the harvest season. It’s a time to express gratitude for the abundance of the year and to strengthen family bonds through shared laughter, stories, and traditions.
  • Riddles and Games : To add a touch of fun and intellectual challenge, riddles are often associated with the Mid-Autumn Festival. Riddles written on slips of paper are attached to lanterns or displayed in public spaces. It becomes a delightful activity for friends and family to solve these riddles, sparking lively conversations and friendly competitions.
  • Sharing Pomelos : Pomelos, a type of citrus fruit, have a special significance during the Mid-Autumn Festival. They are exchanged and shared among loved ones as a symbol of good luck, abundance, and a sweet life. Giving and receiving pomelos is a gesture of well-wishes and blessings for a prosperous future.

The Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival is a time to celebrate the beauty of the moon, cherish family ties, and indulge in delightful treats. With lanterns illuminating the night sky and mooncakes tantalizing taste buds, this festival invites us to embrace togetherness, reflect on the bounties of life, and create lasting memories with loved ones under the gentle glow of the moon.

homework cake china

Welcome to the fascinating world of the Summer Solstice in China, a time when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, illuminating the country with its golden rays. In China, the Summer Solstice is celebrated with joy and enthusiasm, embracing the warmth of the season and the vibrant energy of nature. Join us as we delve into the common traditions that make this day a special and lively occasion.

The Summer Solstice holds a significant place in Chinese culture, and various traditions are observed to honor the sun’s power and embrace the abundance of the season. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this radiant festival:

  • Duanwu Festival (Dragon Boat Festival) : In China, the Summer Solstice coincides with the renowned Dragon Boat Festival, also known as Duanwu Festival. This festival is celebrated with dragon boat races, where teams of paddlers race in long, narrow boats adorned with dragon-shaped heads and tails. The rhythmic drumming and vibrant atmosphere create an exhilarating spectacle that embodies the spirit of unity, teamwork, and the triumph of good over evil.
  • Eating Zongzi : Zongzi, pyramid-shaped sticky rice dumplings, take center stage during the Summer Solstice celebrations. These tasty treats are wrapped in bamboo leaves and filled with a variety of ingredients like meats, beans, or nuts. Enjoying zongzi is a traditional way to pay homage to Qu Yuan, a renowned poet, and statesman, whose life is commemorated during the Dragon Boat Festival. These savory delights are a must-have during this time, representing unity, blessings, and the spirit of the season.
  • Making and Displaying Herbal Pouches : The Summer Solstice is believed to be a time when evil spirits and diseases are most active. To ward off negativity, people create and display herbal pouches known as “xiangbao.” These pouches are filled with medicinal herbs, such as mugwort and calamus, believed to possess cleansing and protective properties. Hanging xiangbao in homes or wearing them as accessories is thought to bring good luck, repel evil, and promote health and well-being.
  • Herbal Bathing and Medicinal Activities : The Summer Solstice is associated with the healing powers of herbs and medicinal plants. Taking herbal baths is a popular tradition during this time, as it is believed to cleanse the body, ward off illness, and invigorate the spirit. People also engage in various medicinal activities, such as collecting and drying herbs for future use or preparing herbal remedies to boost vitality and overall health.
  • Appreciating the Sun and Nature : The Summer Solstice is a moment to appreciate the sun’s energy and the beauty of nature. Many people take the opportunity to engage in outdoor activities like hiking, picnicking, or enjoying scenic landscapes. It’s a time to bask in the warmth of the sun, immerse oneself in the wonders of the natural world, and rejuvenate the spirit.

The Summer Solstice in China is a vibrant celebration that blends cultural traditions, outdoor festivities, and the harmonious connection between humans and nature. Whether you’re cheering at a dragon boat race, savoring the flavors of zongzi, or immersing yourself in the healing power of herbs, the Summer Solstice offers a moment to embrace the vitality of the season and rejoice in the vibrant energy of life.

homework cake china

Step into the realm of tranquility and warmth as we delve into the Winter Solstice Festival in China, a cherished occasion that marks the shortest day and longest night of the year. The Winter Solstice Festival, also known as Dongzhi Festival, is a time when families gather, nourish their bodies, and celebrate the return of light amidst the cold winter months. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival so captivating and meaningful.

The Winter Solstice Festival holds a special place in Chinese culture, symbolizing the rebirth of the sun and the importance of family unity. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this heartwarming celebration:

  • Eating Tangyuan : Tangyuan, sweet glutinous rice balls, take center stage during the Winter Solstice Festival. These delightful treats are typically made from rice flour and filled with various sweet fillings like sesame, red bean, or peanut paste. The round shape of tangyuan represents unity and family togetherness. Eating tangyuan during the festival signifies the sharing of blessings, warmth, and love among family members.
  • Family Reunions : The Winter Solstice Festival holds deep cultural significance as a time for family reunions. It is customary for family members to come together, regardless of distance, to share a special meal and exchange warm wishes. The festival provides an opportunity for generations to gather, strengthen familial bonds, and express gratitude for the blessings of the year.
  • Making Dumplings : Alongside tangyuan, making dumplings during the Winter Solstice Festival is a beloved tradition. Dumplings, often shaped like the crescent moon, symbolize unity and the arrival of better days. Families gather to wrap dumplings together, fostering a sense of cooperation and camaraderie. It is believed that the more dumplings one eats during the festival, the more good fortune will come their way in the coming year.
  • Worshiping Ancestors : The Winter Solstice Festival is also a time to honor and remember ancestors. Families pay tribute to their ancestors by lighting incense and offering food and drinks at ancestral altars. This act of reverence expresses gratitude for their contributions, seeks blessings for the family’s well-being, and ensures the connection between past and present generations.
  • Lighting Decorative Lanterns : The Winter Solstice Festival is often accompanied by the illumination of decorative lanterns. Families hang colorful lanterns both indoors and outdoors to symbolize the dispelling of darkness and the welcoming of light. It creates a warm and cozy atmosphere, bringing joy and cheer to the festivities.
  • Seeking Inner Peace : The Winter Solstice Festival is also a time for introspection and finding inner peace. Some individuals engage in meditation or quiet reflection to align themselves with the stillness of the season. It’s a moment to recharge, set intentions for the coming year, and nurture the soul amidst the tranquil ambiance.

The Winter Solstice Festival in China is a celebration of family unity, nourishment, and the return of light during the darkest days of the year. Whether you’re savoring the sweetness of tangyuan, sharing laughter while making dumplings, or basking in the glow of decorative lanterns, this festival invites us to cherish the warmth of loved ones and find solace in the embrace of tradition. It’s a time to appreciate the enduring bonds of family, reflect on the passage of time, and find comfort in the shared rituals that connect us to our roots.

homework cake china

Double Ninth Festival in China is a day filled with reverence for the elderly, outdoor activities, and the vibrant beauty of autumn. The Double Ninth Festival, also known as Chongyang Festival, is observed on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, signifying a harmonious union of yang energy (represented by the number nine) and the essence of autumn. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival a meaningful and lively occasion.

The Double Ninth Festival holds deep cultural significance in China, emphasizing respect for the elderly, enjoying the outdoors, and seeking protection from negative forces. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this spirited celebration:

  • Climbing Mountains : As the festival coincides with the picturesque autumn season, climbing mountains is a popular tradition during the Double Ninth Festival. Families and friends embark on outdoor excursions, ascending hills and peaks to immerse themselves in the natural beauty of the surroundings. Climbing mountains is believed to bring good fortune, promote good health, and provide protection against negative energies.
  • Wearing Dogwood : Dogwood is considered a protective plant during the Double Ninth Festival. People often wear dogwood sprigs or carry dogwood branches as a means to ward off evil spirits and ensure good luck. The vibrant red color of the dogwood leaves also adds a touch of autumnal beauty to the festivities.
  • Drinking Chrysanthemum Tea : Chrysanthemum tea holds a special place during the Double Ninth Festival. Chrysanthemums are symbolic of longevity, purity, and endurance. Drinking chrysanthemum tea on this day is believed to cleanse the body, improve one’s well-being, and bring longevity and good fortune.
  • Making and Eating Chongyang Cake : Chongyang cake, a special festive treat, is a staple during the Double Ninth Festival. These cakes are made from glutinous rice flour, often mixed with nuts, dried fruits, and sugar, and steamed to perfection. The cake’s rounded shape symbolizes unity and completeness. Sharing and enjoying Chongyang cake with family and friends is a way to express blessings, foster togetherness, and celebrate the joys of the season.
  • Paying Respects to Ancestors : The Double Ninth Festival is also a time to pay respects to ancestors. Families visit ancestral gravesites, clean the tombstones, and offer prayers and offerings to honor their departed loved ones. This act of remembrance shows reverence for family heritage and acknowledges the importance of ancestral connections.
  • Appreciating Chrysanthemums : The Double Ninth Festival coincides with the blooming of chrysanthemums, and these vibrant flowers hold a special significance during this time. People visit parks, gardens, or chrysanthemum exhibitions to appreciate the beauty of these autumnal blooms. The chrysanthemum is admired for its resilience and enduring spirit, embodying the qualities of strength and longevity.

The Double Ninth Festival in China is a time of reverence, outdoor activities, and gratitude for the beauty of autumn. Whether you’re climbing mountains, enjoying chrysanthemum tea, or savoring the flavors of Chongyang cake, this festival invites us to honor our elders, connect with nature, and cherish the blessings of the season. It’s a time to express gratitude for the guidance of our ancestors, enjoy the splendor of autumnal landscapes, and foster meaningful connections with loved ones.

homework cake china

Hungry Ghost Festival in China is a time when the veil between the spirit world and the human realm is believed to thin, allowing the restless spirits of the deceased to roam freely. The Hungry Ghost Festival, also known as Yu Lan Festival, is a captivating blend of reverence, offerings, and theatrical performances, as people pay homage to their ancestors and seek to appease wandering spirits. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival both fascinating and poignant.

The Hungry Ghost Festival holds deep cultural significance in China, focusing on the remembrance of ancestors, appeasing wandering spirits, and fostering communal unity. Here are some common customs you’ll find during this captivating and solemn celebration:

  • Burning Joss Paper and Incense : Burning joss paper and incense is a central ritual during the Hungry Ghost Festival. People offer joss paper items, often in the form of fake money, clothes, and other material goods, to their deceased loved ones. It is believed that these offerings will provide comfort and fulfill the needs of the wandering spirits. Incense is also burned to guide and attract the spirits, as its aromatic smoke is believed to serve as a bridge between the physical and spiritual realms.
  • Setting Up Ancestral Altars : Families create elaborately decorated ancestral altars during the Hungry Ghost Festival. These altars are adorned with photographs and memorial tablets of deceased family members. Offerings such as food, fruits, and drinks are placed on the altar to provide nourishment and sustenance for the spirits. It is a gesture of reverence and a way to honor and remember the ancestors.
  • Theatrical Performances : The Hungry Ghost Festival is renowned for its captivating theatrical performances, such as Chinese opera, puppet shows, and other forms of traditional entertainment. These performances are held outdoors and are believed to attract and entertain both the living and the spirits. The colorful costumes, lively music, and dramatic storytelling create an enchanting atmosphere during the festival.
  • Floating Lanterns and Water Lanterns : Floating lanterns and water lanterns are a common sight during the Hungry Ghost Festival. People release lanterns on bodies of water, such as rivers or lakes, as a symbolic gesture of sending off the wandering spirits. The lanterns are believed to guide the spirits back to the spirit realm and bring them solace and peace. The beautiful sight of lanterns glowing in the night sky or floating on the water adds a touch of serenity to the festival.
  • Street Processions : Vibrant street processions are held during the Hungry Ghost Festival, featuring colorful floats, lion dances, and parades. These processions are believed to drive away evil spirits and bring good luck to the community. They also serve as a communal gathering, fostering a sense of unity and celebration among participants.
  • Avoiding Outdoor Activities at Night : As the festival is associated with wandering spirits, some people avoid outdoor activities at night, especially in areas believed to be haunted. It is believed that during this time, the spirits are most active, and encountering them may bring misfortune. To ensure safety and respect for the spirits, people may choose to stay indoors or participate in indoor activities during the evening hours.

The Hungry Ghost Festival in China is a poignant and captivating occasion that intertwines remembrance, reverence, and communal spirit. Whether you’re burning joss paper, observing theatrical performances, or participating in street processions, this festival offers a moment to connect with ancestral heritage, honor the departed, and seek harmony between the human and spirit worlds. It serves as a reminder of the cyclical nature of life, the importance of family ties, and the enduring presence of those who came before us.

homework cake china

Labor Day in China is a day dedicated to honoring the contributions and achievements of the nation’s workforce. Labor Day, also known as International Workers’ Day, is a significant public holiday that recognizes the hard work, dedication, and sacrifices made by workers across various industries. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this day a vibrant celebration of labor and a time for leisure and appreciation.

Labor Day in China is a time for rest, leisure activities, and expressing gratitude towards workers. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this festive and relaxing holiday:

  • Taking a Break : Labor Day is an opportunity for workers to take a well-deserved break from their daily routines. Many people take advantage of the public holiday to enjoy a short vacation, spend time with family and friends, or engage in recreational activities. It is a time to recharge, unwind, and appreciate the value of leisure.
  • Cultural Events and Festivities : Labor Day often coincides with various cultural events, exhibitions, and festivities held across the country. These events showcase art, music, dance performances, and other cultural activities, providing opportunities for people to immerse themselves in the rich cultural heritage of China. It is a time to celebrate creativity, talent, and the collective achievements of the nation.
  • Giving Appreciation : Labor Day is an occasion to show appreciation and gratitude to workers. Employers, organizations, and individuals may express their recognition and gratitude by organizing appreciation events, giving gifts, or providing special treats to their employees. This gesture acknowledges the hard work and dedication of individuals who contribute to the growth and development of the nation.
  • Outdoor Activities : Many people take advantage of the pleasant weather during Labor Day to engage in outdoor activities. Parks, recreational areas, and tourist attractions are often bustling with people enjoying picnics, sports, sightseeing, and other leisurely pursuits. It is a time to embrace nature, engage in physical activities, and create cherished memories with loved ones.
  • Shopping and Sales : Labor Day is also known for its shopping promotions and sales. Many retailers and businesses offer discounts and special deals, attracting shoppers who take advantage of the holiday to purchase goods at more affordable prices. Shopping malls and commercial areas are often bustling with activity as people seek out bargains and enjoy the thrill of finding great deals.
  • Workers’ Rights Advocacy : Alongside the festive atmosphere, Labor Day also serves as a platform for advocating workers’ rights and highlighting labor-related issues. Labor unions and organizations may hold rallies, marches, and public forums to address concerns and raise awareness about the rights and welfare of workers. It is a time to reflect on the achievements made in labor rights and to address ongoing challenges.

Labor Day in China is a spirited celebration that honors the contributions and achievements of workers while providing an opportunity for rest, leisure, and appreciation. Whether it’s enjoying cultural events, embracing outdoor activities, or expressing gratitude to workers, this holiday signifies the importance of labor in the nation’s progress and fosters a sense of unity and appreciation. It is a day to celebrate the hard work, talents, and dedication of individuals who drive the wheels of the nation’s development.

homework cake china

National Day of China is a momentous occasion that commemorates the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The National Day, also known as China’s Independence Day, is a day filled with patriotic fervor, elaborate ceremonies, and a sense of national pride. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this day a symbol of unity, progress, and the remarkable history of the nation.

The National Day of China holds great significance as a time for celebration, reflection, and national unity. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this momentous and patriotic occasion:

  • Flag-Raising Ceremony : A highlight of the National Day is the flag-raising ceremony held in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The national flag of China is raised at dawn, accompanied by the national anthem. This solemn ceremony signifies the unity and strength of the nation and instills a sense of pride and patriotism among the spectators.
  • Parade and Marching Performances : A grand military parade is often held on the National Day, showcasing the strength, discipline, and technological advancements of China’s armed forces. Soldiers, military vehicles, and aircraft take part in synchronized marching performances, captivating the audience with their precision and skill. The parade reflects the nation’s commitment to defense and serves as a reminder of its achievements in safeguarding sovereignty.
  • Fireworks and Light Shows : In the evening, vibrant fireworks displays and light shows illuminate the night sky across the country. These dazzling spectacles create a festive and joyous atmosphere, symbolizing the brilliance and unity of the nation. People gather in public spaces to witness the breathtaking displays and celebrate the achievements of China.
  • Cultural Performances : The National Day is also a time for cultural performances, including traditional dances, music concerts, and theatrical shows. These performances showcase China’s rich cultural heritage and artistic achievements, promoting a sense of national pride and unity. It is an opportunity to appreciate the diverse traditions and talents that contribute to the nation’s cultural mosaic.
  • National Celebrations and Exhibitions : Throughout the country, national celebrations and exhibitions are organized to mark the National Day. These events feature displays of historical artifacts, technological advancements, and achievements in various fields. They provide opportunities for people to learn about China’s remarkable history, progress, and contributions to the world.
  • Public Celebrations and Festivities : The National Day is a time for public celebrations and festivities, with people engaging in various activities to express their patriotic spirit. Citizens may decorate their homes and streets with flags and festive decorations, participate in community parades, and gather with family and friends for special meals and activities. It is a day to unite as a nation, strengthen bonds, and celebrate the achievements of China.

The National Day of China is an extraordinary occasion that commemorates the nation’s founding, celebrates its progress, and fosters a sense of unity and pride among its citizens. Whether witnessing the flag-raising ceremony, enjoying cultural performances, or reveling in fireworks displays, this day symbolizes the strength, resilience, and remarkable journey of the People’s Republic of China. It is a time to reflect on the nation’s achievements, embrace national identity, and look towards a future of continued progress and prosperity.

homework cake china

La Ba Festival is a traditional celebration rooted in Chinese culture that honors the harvest season and pays tribute to the Earth and its abundance. La Ba Festival, also known as the Laba Rice Porridge Festival, is a time of gratitude, community, and culinary delights. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival a feast for the senses and a celebration of the bountiful gifts of nature.

La Ba Festival is celebrated with a mix of religious and culinary customs that showcase the rich cultural heritage and culinary traditions of China. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this delightful and auspicious occasion:

  • Laba Rice Porridge : The centerpiece of the festival is Laba Rice Porridge, a special dish made from a mix of grains, beans, nuts, and fruits. This porridge is traditionally prepared by simmering the ingredients for hours, infusing them with flavors and nutrients. It is believed that eating Laba Rice Porridge brings good luck and blessings for the coming year. The porridge is shared among family members, neighbors, and communities, fostering a sense of unity and abundance.
  • Temple Visits and Prayers : Many people visit temples and monasteries during La Ba Festival to offer prayers and pay respects to the deities. Devotees light incense, make offerings of food, and seek blessings for health, prosperity, and a bountiful harvest. It is a time to connect with the spiritual aspect of the festival and seek guidance and protection from the divine.
  • Cultural Performances and Parades : La Ba Festival is often celebrated with cultural performances and parades, showcasing traditional music, dances, and dragon or lion dances. These vibrant displays of artistry and acrobatics captivate the audience and add to the festive atmosphere. It is a time to revel in the rich cultural heritage of China and celebrate the joy of community gatherings.
  • Charitable Acts : Giving to the less fortunate is an important aspect of La Ba Festival. Many individuals and organizations engage in charitable acts such as distributing food, clothing, and other essentials to those in need. This act of compassion and generosity aligns with the spirit of gratitude and abundance during the festival, promoting kindness and solidarity within the community.
  • Hanging Red Lanterns : Red lanterns, symbolizing good luck and prosperity, are often hung during La Ba Festival. These lanterns adorn homes, streets, and public spaces, adding a warm and festive ambiance to the surroundings. The glowing red lanterns signify the celebratory spirit of the festival and invite blessings and good fortune.
  • Eating Laba Noodles and Snacks : In addition to Laba Rice Porridge, people also enjoy Laba noodles and various festive snacks during the festival. Laba noodles are made from a special dough and cooked with an assortment of vegetables and meats. These noodles are believed to bring longevity and good health. Additionally, a variety of snacks such as candied fruits, nuts, and seeds are savored, adding to the culinary delights of the festival.

La Ba Festival is a delightful celebration that combines culinary delights, cultural traditions, and spiritual reverence. Whether enjoying the hearty Laba Rice Porridge, witnessing cultural performances, or engaging in acts of charity, this festival embodies the gratitude and joy of a bountiful harvest. It is a time to come together as a community, express gratitude for nature’s generosity, and celebrate the abundance in our lives.

homework cake china

Guanyin’s Birthday Festival is a sacred and revered celebration that honors the birth of Guanyin, the compassionate bodhisattva of mercy and compassion. This festival holds deep spiritual significance for followers of Buddhism in China and offers an opportunity to express devotion, seek blessings, and engage in acts of kindness. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival a time of reverence, contemplation, and acts of compassion.

Guanyin’s Birthday Festival is characterized by various customs and practices that highlight the compassionate nature of Guanyin and promote acts of kindness and mercy. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this serene and spiritual occasion:

  • Temple Visits and Prayers : Devotees visit temples dedicated to Guanyin on this auspicious day to pay homage, offer incense, and seek blessings. They may recite sutras, engage in chanting sessions, and participate in rituals that invoke the compassion and guidance of Guanyin. Temple visits provide an opportunity for reflection, meditation, and deepening one’s spiritual connection with the bodhisattva.
  • Offering Flowers and Incense : Flowers and incense hold symbolic significance during Guanyin’s Birthday Festival. Devotees offer fresh flowers, usually lotus blossoms, as a symbol of purity, beauty, and enlightenment. Burning incense is believed to purify the surroundings and create a serene atmosphere conducive to spiritual contemplation. These offerings are made with reverence and gratitude, expressing devotion to Guanyin.
  • Acts of Compassion : The festival encourages followers to engage in acts of compassion and kindness towards all living beings. This may involve participating in charitable activities, such as providing meals to the needy, offering donations to charitable organizations, or practicing environmental conservation. By embodying Guanyin’s compassionate nature, individuals strive to alleviate suffering and bring about positive change in the world.
  • Reciting the Great Compassion Mantra : The recitation of the Great Compassion Mantra, known as the “Dabeizhou,” is a common practice during Guanyin’s Birthday Festival. This mantra is believed to invoke the compassion and protection of Guanyin. Devotees chant the mantra repetitively, both individually and in groups, as a means of cultivating inner peace, seeking blessings, and connecting with the bodhisattva’s benevolence.
  • Vegan Meals and Fasting : Many followers observe vegetarian or vegan diets during Guanyin’s Birthday Festival as an act of compassion towards animals. Consuming plant-based meals is considered a way to align with Guanyin’s teachings on non-violence and respect for all sentient beings. Some devotees may also practice fasting or abstain from certain foods as a form of spiritual purification and discipline.
  • Water and Lamp Offerings : Water and lamp offerings are significant rituals during Guanyin’s Birthday Festival. Water symbolizes purity and the cleansing of negative karma, while lamps represent the illumination of wisdom. Devotees may pour water into bowls or fountains, symbolizing the offering of cool, refreshing energy to all beings. They also light oil lamps or candles as a metaphor for dispelling ignorance and cultivating inner light.

Guanyin’s Birthday Festival is a serene and spiritually enriching occasion that encourages followers to embrace the compassionate nature of Guanyin and cultivate kindness and mercy in their lives. Through temple visits, acts of compassion, and contemplation, devotees seek to deepen their connection with Guanyin and embody the virtues of compassion, empathy, and altruism. It is a time to reflect on the power of compassion and engage in actions that contribute to the well-being of all beings.

homework cake china

Youth Day in China is a day dedicated to honoring the spirit, talents, and aspirations of the younger generation. Youth Day, also known as May 4th Youth Day, is a significant occasion that commemorates the student-led protests and patriotic movements that took place in China during the early 20th century. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this day a reflection of youth’s vibrancy, activism, and dreams for a better future.

Youth Day is celebrated with various customs and activities that highlight the enthusiasm and potential of the younger generation. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this spirited occasion:

  • Commemorative Ceremonies : Youth Day often begins with formal commemorations, including flag-raising ceremonies, speeches, and gatherings in schools, universities, and public spaces. These ceremonies serve as a reminder of the historical significance of the May Fourth Movement and its impact on China’s cultural, intellectual, and political landscapes.
  • Cultural Performances and Competitions : Youth Day is a platform for showcasing the artistic talents and creative endeavors of young people. Cultural performances, such as music concerts, dance recitals, and theatrical productions, take place across the country. Additionally, various competitions, including singing contests, poetry recitals, and sports events, provide opportunities for young individuals to display their skills and express themselves.
  • Youth Forums and Discussions : In the spirit of intellectual engagement and social activism, Youth Day often features forums and discussions that address contemporary issues and challenges faced by the youth. These platforms allow young people to voice their opinions, share ideas, and participate in meaningful dialogues on topics such as education, employment, social justice, and environmental sustainability.
  • Volunteer and Charity Activities : Youth Day encourages young people to actively participate in volunteer and charity activities. Many organizations and community groups organize events such as blood drives, donation campaigns, and community service projects. These activities promote social responsibility, empathy, and a sense of collective action among the youth, inspiring them to contribute positively to society.
  • Cultural and Historical Exhibitions : Exhibitions and displays related to the May Fourth Movement, Chinese history, and youth culture are organized on Youth Day. These exhibitions provide insights into the accomplishments, struggles, and aspirations of past generations of youth. They serve as a source of inspiration and education, fostering a deeper understanding of the significance of youth activism and the power of collective action.
  • Self-Expression and Celebrating Youth Culture : Youth Day encourages young people to embrace their individuality, express their creativity, and celebrate their unique perspectives. It is a time for self-reflection, personal growth, and exploring various art forms, such as writing, painting, photography, and filmmaking. Social media platforms often buzz with youth-led campaigns, hashtags, and initiatives that amplify their voices and highlight their achievements.

Youth Day in China is a dynamic and vibrant celebration that acknowledges the aspirations, energy, and potential of the younger generation. Through commemorative ceremonies, cultural performances, volunteer activities, and intellectual discussions, this day emphasizes the importance of youth engagement, social responsibility, and the pursuit of a brighter future. It is a time to celebrate the achievements of the past, inspire meaningful change in the present, and empower young individuals to shape the destiny of their nation.

homework cake china

Cold Food Festival is a unique Chinese tradition that dates back centuries and carries with it a rich cultural heritage. The Cold Food Festival, also known as Hanshi Festival, is a time of remembrance and reflection, where people pay tribute to ancestors and practice customs that honor the past. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make this festival a fascinating blend of history, culinary customs, and familial connections.

The Cold Food Festival is marked by various customs and practices that emphasize ancestral veneration and culinary traditions. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this intriguing and reflective occasion:

  • Cold Food : As the name suggests, eating cold food is a central tradition of the festival. On this day, people refrain from lighting fires or cooking hot meals. Instead, they consume only cold food or food that has been precooked and eaten without reheating. This tradition pays homage to Jie Zitui, a loyal minister from ancient China, who sacrificed his life by refusing to let his lord eat the last remaining food during a time of famine.
  • Tomb Sweeping : Similar to the Qingming Festival, the Cold Food Festival also involves visiting ancestral gravesites to pay respects and clean the tombstones. Families bring offerings of food, burn incense, and light candles to honor their ancestors. It is a solemn yet significant act of remembrance and gratitude, fostering a connection between past and present generations.
  • Kite Flying : Kite flying is a popular activity during the Cold Food Festival, particularly in some regions of China. Colorful kites take to the sky, symbolizing a wish for good fortune and a prosperous year ahead. People of all ages gather in open spaces to fly kites, showcasing their creativity and enjoying the uplifting energy of this timeless tradition.
  • Spring Outings : Just like other festivals during this time of year, the Cold Food Festival often coincides with the arrival of spring. Families and friends take advantage of the pleasant weather by going on spring outings to parks, gardens, or countryside areas. It is a time to appreciate nature’s beauty, indulge in outdoor activities, and savor the rejuvenating atmosphere of the season.
  • Willow Branches : Willow branches hold symbolic significance during the Cold Food Festival. People often decorate their homes with willow branches, which are believed to ward off evil spirits and bring good luck. These branches may also be worn as accessories or used to create artistic displays, adding an enchanting touch to the festival ambiance.
  • Spring Cleaning : In preparation for the Cold Food Festival, families engage in thorough spring cleaning of their homes. This tradition serves as a way to welcome the new season, remove stagnant energy, and create a fresh and vibrant environment. Cleaning rituals involve sweeping, dusting, and decluttering, ensuring a renewed start for the year ahead.

The Cold Food Festival is a captivating fusion of culinary customs, ancestral remembrance, and the celebration of spring. Through the observance of cold food, tomb sweeping, kite flying, and other traditions, participants honor the sacrifice of Jie Zitui, pay homage to ancestors, and embrace the spirit of renewal. It is a time to reflect on the past, celebrate the present, and look forward to a prosperous future.

homework cake china

Third Month Fair is a lively and colorful festival celebrated in various regions of China during the third lunar month. Also known as the Third Month Temple Fair or San Yue Jie, this festive occasion brings together locals and visitors alike to immerse themselves in a vibrant marketplace filled with cultural performances, traditional crafts, and mouthwatering delicacies. Join us as we delve into the common traditions that make the Third Month Fair a joyful celebration of community, heritage, and the arrival of spring.

The Third Month Fair is marked by a wide array of traditions and activities that showcase the diversity and richness of Chinese culture. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this bustling and festive occasion:

  • Temple Fair Celebrations : The Third Month Fair often takes place in and around temples or historical sites, transforming them into bustling marketplaces and entertainment hubs. People visit these fairs to seek blessings, pray for good fortune, and pay respects to deities. The fairgrounds are adorned with colorful decorations, lanterns, and festive banners, creating a festive atmosphere that is both captivating and auspicious.
  • Cultural Performances : The fairgrounds come alive with a myriad of cultural performances, including traditional music, dance, opera, and acrobatics. Spectators are treated to captivating shows featuring skilled performers who showcase the country’s artistic heritage. Lion dances, dragon dances, and folk dances are popular attractions that add a touch of excitement and charm to the festival.
  • Craft Exhibitions and Market Stalls : The Third Month Fair is renowned for its lively market stalls and exhibitions, offering visitors a chance to explore and purchase a wide range of traditional crafts, artwork, and local specialties. Handicrafts, calligraphy, paintings, embroidered goods, ceramics, and other traditional items are on display, providing a glimpse into China’s rich artistic traditions and offering unique souvenirs to take home.
  • Culinary Delights : One of the highlights of the Third Month Fair is the mouthwatering array of local and regional delicacies available at food stalls and street vendors. Visitors can indulge in a variety of traditional snacks, street food, and regional specialties, tantalizing their taste buds with flavors that reflect the diverse culinary traditions of China. From savory dumplings and buns to sweet pastries and desserts, the fair offers a gastronomic feast for all.
  • Traditional Games and Activities : The fairgrounds are bustling with traditional games and activities that entertain both young and old. Visitors can participate in folk games, such as shuttlecock kicking, hoop rolling, or participate in interactive performances. It’s a time for laughter, friendly competitions, and a sense of nostalgia as traditional games are passed down through generations.
  • Spring Celebrations : As the Third Month Fair coincides with the arrival of spring, the festival is also a celebration of nature’s awakening. It is a time for families and friends to gather in outdoor spaces, such as parks or scenic areas, to enjoy the blooming flowers, fresh air, and pleasant weather. It’s an opportunity to embrace the beauty of nature, take leisurely walks, and appreciate the rejuvenating energy of the season.

The Third Month Fair is a delightful celebration of community, culture, and the arrival of spring. With its vibrant marketplace, cultural performances, delectable food, and interactive activities, the fair captures the essence of Chinese traditions and offers a delightful experience for visitors of all ages. It’s a time to immerse oneself in the sights, sounds, and flavors of China’s rich heritage, fostering a sense of unity, joy, and appreciation for the traditions that have been passed down through generations.

homework cake china

Buddha’s Birthday is a significant and joyous occasion observed by Buddhists in China and around the world. Also known as Vesak or the Birth of Shakyamuni Buddha, this auspicious day commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and passing away of Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make Buddha’s Birthday a time of reverence, spiritual reflection, and acts of kindness.

Buddha’s Birthday is marked by various traditions and customs that highlight the teachings and compassion of the Buddha. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this serene and meaningful occasion:

  • Temple Visits : Buddhists and visitors flock to temples and monasteries on Buddha’s Birthday to pay homage to the Buddha and seek blessings. The temples are adorned with colorful decorations, flowers, and lanterns, creating a tranquil and festive atmosphere. Devotees light incense, offer flowers, and make offerings to Buddha statues as a sign of respect and gratitude.
  • Bathing the Buddha : Bathing ceremonies are an important ritual during Buddha’s Birthday. Devotees pour fragrant water or scented tea over the shoulders of a small Buddha statue, symbolizing the purification of the body, mind, and spirit. This act represents the aspiration to cleanse oneself of negative qualities and cultivate virtues.
  • Lotus Lantern Displays : Lotus lanterns play a prominent role in celebrating Buddha’s Birthday. These intricately crafted lanterns, often shaped like lotus flowers, are illuminated and displayed in temples, streets, and public spaces. The soft glow of the lanterns symbolizes enlightenment, purity, and the illumination of wisdom in the world.
  • Parades and Processions : Colorful parades and processions take place on Buddha’s Birthday, with participants dressed in traditional attire and carrying Buddha statues or religious artifacts. These processions move through the streets, accompanied by music, chanting, and joyful celebrations. It is a way to share the teachings of Buddhism, foster a sense of community, and spread joy and goodwill.
  • Dharma Talks and Sutra Recitations : Dharma talks and recitations of Buddhist scriptures, known as sutras, are organized in temples and monasteries during Buddha’s Birthday. These sessions provide opportunities for devotees to deepen their understanding of Buddhist teachings, gain spiritual insights, and reflect on the path to enlightenment.
  • Acts of Kindness and Charity : Buddha’s Birthday is also a time to practice compassion and generosity. Many Buddhists engage in acts of kindness and charity, such as donating food, clothes, or money to those in need. This practice reflects the Buddha’s teachings of loving-kindness, compassion, and the importance of helping others.
  • Vegetarianism : Some Buddhists choose to observe vegetarianism or veganism during Buddha’s Birthday as a way to practice compassion and non-violence towards all living beings. Vegetarian food stalls and restaurants often flourish during this time, offering a wide range of delicious plant-based dishes.

Buddha’s Birthday is a sacred and reflective time for Buddhists to honor the life and teachings of the Buddha. Through temple visits, bathing ceremonies, lantern displays, acts of kindness, and spiritual practices, devotees seek to deepen their understanding of Buddhism and cultivate virtues that bring peace and harmony to themselves and the world. It is a time for introspection, gratitude, and the aspiration to walk the noble path of compassion, wisdom, and enlightenment.

Double Sixth Festival is a traditional celebration observed in China that combines elements of both folk customs and Taoist beliefs. Also known as the Double Sixth Day or the Height Ascension Festival, this occasion falls on the sixth day of the sixth lunar month, bringing with it a unique blend of cultural traditions and joyful activities. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make the Double Sixth Festival a time of merriment, outdoor excursions, and a harmonious connection with nature.

The Double Sixth Festival is celebrated with a variety of traditions and customs that reflect the values of harmony, balance, and the appreciation of nature. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this lively and invigorating occasion:

  • Mountain Hiking and Outdoor Activities : The Double Sixth Festival is closely associated with nature and the outdoors. Many people take advantage of the pleasant weather and embark on hiking trips to mountains, hills, or scenic spots. It is a time to connect with the beauty of nature, breathe in fresh air, and appreciate the lush greenery surrounding them.
  • Dragon Boat Races : In some regions, particularly in southern China, Dragon Boat Races are held as part of the Double Sixth Festival celebrations. Teams of paddlers compete in long, narrow boats adorned with colorful dragon heads and tails. The rhythmic drumming and synchronized paddling create a festive atmosphere that attracts participants and spectators alike.
  • Adorning Colorful Threads : On the Double Sixth Festival, it is customary for people, especially children, to wear colorful threads around their wrists or ankles. These threads are believed to ward off evil spirits and bring good luck and protection. It is a vibrant symbol of the festival’s joyous spirit and serves as a form of spiritual and physical protection.
  • Herbal Medicine and Bathing Rituals : The Double Sixth Festival is also associated with health and well-being. Some traditions involve the use of herbal medicine and herbal bathing rituals to cleanse and invigorate the body. People gather and prepare special herbal concoctions or take herbal baths to promote good health and ward off illnesses.
  • Eating Special Foods : Like many Chinese festivals, the Double Sixth Festival is also an occasion for enjoying delicious food. People indulge in various traditional dishes and snacks associated with the festival, such as rice dumplings, wheat noodles, steamed buns, and seasonal fruits. These culinary delights reflect the bountiful harvest of the season and add to the festive atmosphere.
  • Tying Multi-Colored Silken Threads : Another charming tradition of the Double Sixth Festival is the practice of tying multi-colored silken threads onto trees or branches. This act is believed to bring good fortune and blessings to those who participate. It is a joyful expression of unity, hope, and the interconnection between people and nature.

The Double Sixth Festival is a time of celebration, nature appreciation, and cultural traditions in China. Whether it’s hiking in the mountains, participating in Dragon Boat Races, adorning colorful threads, enjoying festive foods, or engaging in herbal rituals, this festival invites people to embrace the beauty of nature, foster a sense of community, and celebrate the harmonious balance between humanity and the natural world. It is an occasion to create cherished memories, experience the wonders of the outdoors, and rejuvenate the spirit for the months ahead.

Army Day is a significant occasion celebrated in China to honor and recognize the contributions and sacrifices of the country’s armed forces. Observed on August 1st each year, Army Day serves as a reminder of the bravery, dedication, and professionalism of the Chinese military. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make Army Day a time of national pride, remembrance, and appreciation for the armed forces.

Army Day is marked by various traditions and activities that showcase the country’s deep respect and admiration for its military personnel. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this solemn and patriotic occasion:

  • Ceremonies and Parades : Army Day is often marked by grand ceremonies and military parades held in different cities across China. These events showcase the precision, discipline, and strength of the armed forces. Soldiers, marching bands, and military vehicles participate in processions, demonstrating the country’s defense capabilities and paying homage to the military’s role in safeguarding national security.
  • Wreath-Laying and Memorial Services : Wreath-laying ceremonies and memorial services are held at military monuments, cemeteries, and war memorials to honor fallen soldiers and pay respects to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice in service to their country. These solemn occasions serve as a reminder of the bravery and dedication exhibited by military personnel throughout history.
  • Military Exhibitions and Demonstrations : Army Day often features military exhibitions and demonstrations that provide the public with an opportunity to learn about the equipment, technology, and strategies employed by the Chinese armed forces. These exhibitions showcase a wide range of military hardware, including aircraft, tanks, artillery, and advanced weaponry. It is a chance for citizens to gain a better understanding of the military’s capabilities and the efforts put forth to ensure national security.
  • Public Lectures and Educational Programs : In conjunction with Army Day, public lectures and educational programs are organized to promote awareness and understanding of the military’s role in safeguarding the country. These events may include presentations on defense strategies, military history, and the importance of national security. They aim to foster a sense of unity, appreciation, and respect for the armed forces among the general public.
  • Recognition and Awards : Army Day is a time to recognize and honor outstanding military personnel for their exceptional service and contributions. Commendations and awards are presented to individuals who have demonstrated bravery, leadership, and exceptional performance in their respective roles. This recognition serves as a source of pride and motivation for the armed forces and acknowledges their dedication to the country’s defense.
  • Public Display of Appreciation : On Army Day, the Chinese people express their gratitude and support for the armed forces through various means. Public displays of appreciation, such as hanging banners, displaying flags, or distributing tokens of gratitude, serve as a visible demonstration of the nation’s unity and support for its military.

Army Day in China is a time to honor, remember, and appreciate the dedication and sacrifices of the armed forces. Through ceremonies, parades, exhibitions, and public displays of gratitude, the nation comes together to recognize the bravery, professionalism, and commitment of its military personnel. It is a day that instills national pride, fosters a sense of unity, and reaffirms the importance of the armed forces in safeguarding the country’s peace, security, and prosperity

The Anniversary of the Founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC) is a significant occasion that celebrates the establishment and the enduring legacy of the CPC. Observed on July 1st each year, this day holds great importance in Chinese history and marks the beginning of a transformative era. Join us as we explore the common traditions that make the Anniversary of the Founding of the CPC a time of reflection, patriotism, and the reaffirmation of the party’s principles.

The Anniversary of the Founding of the CPC is marked by various traditions and activities that highlight the party’s achievements, ideals, and its profound impact on Chinese society. Here are some common traditions you’ll find during this important and patriotic occasion:

  • Flag-Raising Ceremonies : The day typically begins with flag-raising ceremonies held at various government buildings, party offices, and public squares across China. These ceremonies symbolize the unity, strength, and determination of the party and the nation. Party members, officials, and citizens gather to witness the solemn moment and pay homage to the party’s founding principles.
  • Red Decorations : Red is the iconic color associated with the CPC, symbolizing revolution, vitality, and resilience. On the anniversary, streets, buildings, and public spaces are adorned with red decorations, including banners, flags, and lanterns bearing slogans and symbols of the party. The vibrant red hues create an atmosphere of celebration and remind people of the party’s commitment to serving the people and promoting social progress.
  • Commemorative Meetings and Speeches : On this day, commemorative meetings and speeches are organized at various levels, including national, provincial, and local gatherings. Party leaders, government officials, and representatives deliver speeches that reflect on the party’s history, achievements, and future goals. These speeches often emphasize the party’s commitment to socialism with Chinese characteristics, the pursuit of the Chinese Dream, and the upliftment of the Chinese people.
  • Educational Activities : Educational activities are an integral part of the anniversary celebrations, particularly in schools and universities. Students engage in discussions, seminars, and lectures that focus on the party’s history, ideology, and contributions to China’s development. It is a time for young people to deepen their understanding of the party’s principles and the importance of its leadership in shaping the nation.
  • Cultural Performances : The anniversary is also marked by various cultural performances, including theatrical shows, musical concerts, and dance performances. These artistic presentations pay tribute to the party’s revolutionary spirit, its role in social transformation, and the cultural heritage it has cultivated. They serve as a means to inspire and unite the audience through the power of art and storytelling.
  • Community Engagement : The anniversary provides an opportunity for community engagement and volunteer activities. Party members and citizens participate in initiatives such as blood donation drives, environmental clean-ups, and charitable endeavors. These activities exemplify the party’s dedication to social welfare, people-centered governance, and the promotion of harmony and solidarity within communities.

The Anniversary of the Founding of the CPC is a time to reflect on the party’s historic journey, reaffirm its principles, and celebrate its accomplishments. Through flag-raising ceremonies, red decorations, commemorative meetings, educational activities, cultural performances, and community engagement, the occasion showcases the party’s enduring spirit, leadership, and commitment to building a prosperous and harmonious society. It serves as a reminder of the party’s pivotal role in shaping modern China and its ongoing mission to achieve the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

' src=

Related Posts

Best chinese alternatives to netflix in 2024, how to access claude ai in china in 2024, best chinese alternatives to whatsapp in 2024, best chinese alternative to linkedin in 2024.

Comments are closed.

Type above and press Enter to search. Press Esc to cancel.

What is a Chinese Tea Cake?-Explained by a Tea Expert

  • February 14, 2024


Tea cakes are often misunderstood to be sweet cakes that are served with tea.

However, tea cakes are actually compressed tea leaves that have been formed into the shape of a cake. They often have distinct aromas and flavors.

If you got a tea cake as a gift from friends or business patners from China, but do not know how to consume it. This is your article to read.

Why are tea cakes made?

What are the shapes you can find, how did ancient chinese use it, how do they use it today, step 1 prying tea:, step 2 put amount of dosage into the teapot:, step 3 awakening tea:, step 4 brewing:, xin yihao (新益号), ba ma (八马茶叶), frequesntly asked questions:.

The most common reason for developing tea cakes then was to aid in easy transport.

Compressed tea cakes, be it in any form or shape, are more convenient and much easier to transport.

Chinese tea brike

They can then be molded in multiple forms like round, bowl-shaped, mushroom-shaped, rectangular shape, or bricks.

This also depends on whether the tea is intended to be consumed as a beverage or as food.

  • Tea cakes were used as a form of currency.
  • Prior to the Ming Dynasty, the ancient Chinese usually resorted to tea cakes to store their tea.

The most common type of tea cake available in modern times is Pu-erh which is still found in bricks, discs, and cake forms.

There are plenty of ways by which you can consume a tea cake, the most common of them all being in the form of liquid tea and beverages.

Pu-erh Tea Cake: How to Brew it?

Pu’er tea cake is divided into raw tea cake and ripe tea cake.

Many people don’t know how to drink Pu’er raw tea cake.

Today, I would like to share with you some brewing methods of Pu’er Tea Cake. Let’s dive into it.

Tea prying tools such as needles or knives need to be well prepared.

First, open the packaged tea cake and insert the knife along the edge from the side of the cake.

With a little strength, push the knife into the cake, so that the cake won’t be broken up in the form of pieces.

Prying up and peeling off the tea cake. In the same way, along the gap between the tea leaves, the tea cakes are prized layer by layer.

The amount of tea that should be used in a pot varies depending on the size of the pot, but it is generally agreed that using an amount of tea that fills one-third to one-half of the pot is appropriate.

Some people may need to adjust the amount of tea they use based on personal preference.

If your Pu’er tea cakes have been stored for a long time, the first brewing soup needs to be poured out.(This is called tea washing.)

Then, spread out the prized tea and put it in a clean place and make it under the wind blows in the shade for several days.

We should pay attention to the environment and not be exposed to the sun or long-term light.

Covering tea with a sheet of white paper can effectively avoid these effects.

Boiling water should be used to brew ripe cakes which have been stored for a long time.

Pu’er tea should not be immersed for too long. It can be drunk directly after 30 seconds to one minute of boiling water, or stored in another large cup.

When you want to drink, you can add it into small cups to taste.

Top 3 Brands to buy:

These three are carefully selected brands and also backed up by the locals.

They are not too expensive, good quality and decent packaging.

If you are looking for a perfect gift to bring home for friends and family. Start of one of these.

Da Yi tea cake

DaYi Group (Yun Nan) was founded in the early 1930s.

It is a large-scale tea enterprise group integrating tea culture, tea industry and tea science.

Its production scale, sales volume and brand influence are among the top of the industry.

Chinese tea cake

The Xinyihao brand belongs to Kunming Qin’ai Tea Co., Ltd., which began in 2009.

After 10 years of development, Xinyihao has become a well-known pu’er tea brand and its products are deeply loved by consumers.

chinese compressed tea cake

Ba Ma is a leading brand in the high-end tea market. It is the leading seller of high-end Chinese tea in the country.

Chairman Wang Wenli is the representative inheritor of Oolong Tea Production Skills (Tieguanyin Production Skills), a national-level intangible cultural heritage project.

As of March 31, 2022, there are more than 2,700 stores nationwide.

If you want to read more about the province ’ YunNan ’ which produces the nicest pu er tea cakes in China.

I recommend the article about  Top 10 romantic destinations in China . The article is very informative – and it will make you want to come visit Yunnan for the view, the romance and the tea cake!

If you find what I write here interesting and want more, please share on social below and show your support. Xie Xie 谢谢 🙂

The tea soup produced by raw pu’er tea cake is apricot yellow-green in color. The more it is aged, the deeper the color of the tea soup will be. However, if you use tea leaves, the color of the tea soup will be lighter in general. 5-10 years later, the tea cakes can be better transformed, and the taste will become more mellow, but the tea leaves should be drunk within the shelf life, and the taste will be the best. Therefore,  the collection value of tea cakes is higher than that of tea leaves .

Compressed tea, called tea bricks, tea cakes or tea lumps, and tea nuggets according to the shape and size, are blocks of whole or finely ground black tea, green tea, or post-fermented  tea leaves that have been packed in molds and pressed into block form.

It is thought that, depending on storage conditions, a Pu-erh tea achieves its peak taste in about  60 years  and then begins to degrade over the next  40 years , after which there is little taste remaining.

Pu-erh tea should be stored well above ground level and be given good ventilation. If you have a large amount of tea, it should be  rotated once every six months  to even out the tea’s exposure to fresh air. Extreme variations in temperature should be avoided. Pu-erh tea has a tendency to absorb odors in the environment.


  1. Торт китайка пошаговый рецепт

    homework cake china

  2. Торт китайка пошаговый рецепт

    homework cake china

  3. Teacher cake

    homework cake china

  4. Year 7 castle homework.

    homework cake china

  5. My 11 yo son requested a burning homework cake. Now I know how he

    homework cake china

  6. 50 Fantastic Chinese Cake Decorating Ideas

    homework cake china


  1. Study shows Chinese students spend three hours on homework per day

    The report shows that Chinese children's sleeping hours begin to decrease when they are three years old and drop below eight hours at 12 years old. A total of 87.6 percent of high school students ...

  2. China passes law to cut homework and tutoring 'pressures' on children

    China limits amount of time minors can play online video games (August 2021) 02:11 - Source: CNNBusiness. China has passed an education law that seeks to cut the "twin pressures" of homework ...

  3. China passes law to cut homework pressure on students

    China has passed an education law that seeks to cut the "twin pressures" of homework and off-site tutoring in core subjects, the official Xinhua news agency said on Saturday.

  4. 'Homework outsourcing' booms in China as handicrafts take over

    This phenomenon, fueled by limited time and resources, has given rise to a burgeoning industry of "homework outsourcing" on various e-commerce platforms, as reported by Tide News, a news portal based in Zhejiang province, on Tuesday. A simple search on secondhand trading platforms using the keyword "handicraft homework" reveals numerous ...

  5. China passes law to reduce 'twin pressures' of homework and tutoring on

    China has passed a law to reduce the "twin pressures" of homework and off-site tutoring on children. The official Xinhua news agency said on Saturday the new law, which has not been published ...

  6. Homework burden eases for Chinese students

    The amount of time primary and middle school students in China spent on homework fell from 3.03 hours a day in 2016 to 2.87 hours in 2017, but it is still far higher than in other countries ...

  7. Homework in China: An In-Depth Exploration of Practices ...

    China's education system is renowned for its rigor, and homework stands at the heart of shaping students' academic journey. With multifaceted roles, including reinforcing learning, fostering…

  8. China passes law to cut homework pressure on students

    October 23, 2021 13:32 JST. SHANGHAI (Reuters) -- China has passed an education law that seeks to cut the "twin pressures" of homework and off-site tutoring in core subjects, the official Xinhua ...

  9. China passes law to ease homework pressure on children

    China passes law to ease homework pressure on children 10/23/2021 October 23, 2021. The legislation also seeks to tackle internet addiction and limit the pressure of out-of-school tutoring for ...

  10. 'No homework here': China café bans in-store parent-child tutoring amid

    A coffee shop in China has banned parents from bringing their children into the outlet for tutoring sessions amid fears that educational stress may cause in-store "emotional turbulence".

  11. Video of 11-year-old Pikachu fan heartbroken by mom's math homework

    January 11, 2022. SHARE. An 11-year-old boy from China burst into tears after receiving a textbook-themed cake on his birthday. The boy's mother, Ms. Zhang from Jiangsu Province, China, had ...

  12. Video of 11-year-old Pikachu fan heartbroken by mom's math homework

    An 11-year-old boy from China burst into tears after receiving a textbook-themed cake on his birthday. The boy's mother, Ms. Zhang from Jiangsu Province, China, had reportedly promised her son a Pikachu birthday cake; however, she decided to change its design at the last minute as a surprise on Jan. 8. The birthday cake featured small print-outs of a set of textbooks in Mathematics, Science ...

  13. Where's Pikachu? Chinese woman's last-minute birthday cake ...

    A message that read: "As long as the world does not end, you have to do your homework". Talk about spoiling the fun. The boy, who lives in Jiangsu, China, got so upset that he broke down and cried.

  14. China issues guidelines to ease burden of young students

    Jointly issued by the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council, the document specifies guiding principles and targets of the initiative. It details requirements in areas including reducing homework and improving quality of education and after-class services provided by schools.

  15. Top 10 Traditional Chinese Cakes You Must Eat

    9. Chinese Yam Cake 山药糕. Chinese Yam Cake is made of Chinese Yam and tastes sweet. It is a kind of medicated diet that can strengthen spleen and nourish the kidney. 10. Wan Dou Huang (Pea Flour Cake) (豌豆黄) Wan Dou Huang is a traditional Beijing snack and is often eaten during spring and summer.

  16. How parents help children with homework in China: Narratives ...

    This study examines how ten young adults in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, perceived how their parents helped them with homework during their childhood and adolescence. Between 2011 and 2012, we interviewed five men and five women from Dalian who had first been recruited in 1999 from a college prep high school, a vocational high school, and a junior high school as part of a ...

  17. The End of Homework in China!

    lifeinlifts Chinese education June 14, 2019 3 Minutes. And there she was, a nine year old in southern China, doing homework at midnight. Ten of her classmates were also awake trying to complete the same task. It's the bane of many parents - homework. It gets written into a little, specially designed notebook.

  18. Extending a model of homework: a multilevel analysis with Chinese

    When students complete work assigned by teachers during non-school hours, they are doing homework (Cooper, 1989).Homework is a widespread practice in education globally (Cooper et al., 2006; Dettmers et al., 2011; Xu & Corno, 1998).The latest Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey (OECD, 2013) reported that homework was assigned in every participating country.

  19. Paper Wrapped Chinese Sponge Cake Recipe 纸包蛋糕

    See FULL STEP BY STEP RECIPE with INGREDIENT LIST in link below*CORRECTION* 2:16 - 80g Cast...

  20. 22 Most Important Festivals In China You Must Know

    22 Most Important Festivals In China You Must Know. By Vic-Liu May 27, 2023 Updated: December 30, 2023 No Comments 60 Mins Read. Table of Contents. 1. Chinese New Year's Eve. 2. Chinese New Year. 3. China's Lantern Festival.

  21. What is a Chinese Tea Cake?-Explained by a Tea Expert

    Step 1 Prying Tea: Tea prying tools such as needles or knives need to be well prepared. First, open the packaged tea cake and insert the knife along the edge from the side of the cake. With a little strength, push the knife into the cake, so that the cake won't be broken up in the form of pieces. Prying up and peeling off the tea cake.

  22. Top 10 China Bakery Packaging Manufacturers and Suppliers

    Anteng Packaging is one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of bakery packaging, paper packaging, and other related products in China. As a result, the company supplies a wide range of packaging customer needs worldwide. Moreover. the company was established in 2011 with a registered capital of RMB 50 million Yuan.